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Патент USA US2407690

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Sept. 17, 1946.
‘M. SCHWARTZ ET AL
'
RANGE
2,407,687
FINDER
'
Filed Dec. 28, 1943
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INVENTOR.
f/O/l/l/J‘ 12/15/5472 and
BY Mum/v (PIJTEDELLO
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,687
RANGE FINDER
Morris Schwartz and William Castédello, Stam
ford, Conn., assignors to The Kalart Company,
Inc., Stamford, Conn.
Application December 28, 1943, Serial No. 515,882
8 Claims. (01. 88-237)
1
2
7 Our invention relates to improvements in range
axis between the re?ectors of the range ?nders,
irrespective of whether a “superimposing image”
or a “split image” system or other separating
image systems are employed and whether the
movable re?ector is controlled by hand, by move
?nders in which two images of a single object
are brought into a predetermined relative posi
tion to each other in order to determine the dis
tance of the viewed object. Our invention relates
more particularly to improvements in range ?nd
ers in which the distances between an object and
‘the re?ectors of the range ?nder re?ecting said
images are unequal in an operative position of
ments of a camera lens or by adjustment of other
parts of a camera.
In the accompanying drawing forming a part
of this speci?cation:
Fig. 1 is a diagram of a conventional range
the range ?nder. Our invention relates still more
?nder of any separating image type,
particularly to range ?nders of the type described
to be used in connection with photographic cam
Fig. 2 is a diagram of a re?ector arrangement
according to the invention‘for a range ?nder of
eras.
With range ?nders of the type described, the
two images of the observed object as appearing
any separating image type, and
.
the range ?nder closer to the object in an opera
tive position of the range ?nder, thus substan- .
by means of a screw arrangement or by a cou
Fig. 3 is a detailed View of a range ?nder
equipped with a re?ector arrangement according
to the eye of an observer, are not of equal size
to the invention on an enlarged scale. ‘ ‘
particularly if the distance between object and
Like numerals are employed to designate like 7
range ?nder is relatively short. This difference
parts throughout the drawing and the speci?ca
in the sizes of the images makes an adjustment
'
of the range ?nder very di?‘lcult. It also affects 20 tion.
'The ‘diagram of the conventional range ?nder
the accuracy of the range ?nder.
shown in Figure 1, comprises a stationary semi
The principal object of our invention is to pro
transparent re?ector I, for example, a mirror
vide novel'rneans by which the error factor caused
made semi-transparent by silver coating the sur
by the different sizes of the produced images is
substantially eliminated or compensated. This 25 face of the mirror only partially or thinly and
a movable re?ector 2, for example, a mirror hav
important advantage is accomplished by includ
'ing a solidly silvered surface. The movable re
ing an optical detour in the path of the light
?ector may be manually adjusted,_for example,
travelling from the object toward the re?ector of
tially equalizing the optical lengths of the paths
between an object to be viewed and the re?ectors
of the range ?nder.
is to be measured is designated by the number 3
and the position of the eye or an observer using
‘the range ?nder by the number 4. The windows
.
Another more speci?c object of our invention
is to eliminate said error factor substantially by
‘providing a re?ector arrangement in the path of
the light travelling from the object toward the
conventionally arranged in front of the re?ec
tors and the observation window are not shown.
re?ector closer to the object in an operative po- '
sition of the range ?nder by which re?ector ar
rangement, the optical length of this path is ex
tended or increased to substantially the length
of the path of the light travelling from the ob
ject directly to the re?ector more removed from
the object in an operative position of the range
?nder and projected by this re?ector upon the
‘other re?ector.
Other and further objects of our invention will
appear hereinafter and in the appended claims
forming part of the speci?cation.
Our invention is applicable to and useful for
all types of range ?nders in which the distances
‘between an object to be viewed and the re?ectors
oi‘the range ?nders are unequal, as it is the case
with range ?nders in which the point of observa
:tion is in a position other than the center of the
pling with the lens carrier or any other suitable
part of a camera as‘ it is well known in the art.
The object whose distance from the range ?nder
One image of object 3 is projected by movable
reflector 2 upon the viewing face of stationary
re?ector I. A second image of the ‘object is view
able ‘directly ‘on this re?ector due to the semi
‘transparency of this re?ector. By adjusting
movable re?ector 2, both images can be brought
‘in register. This can be used in a manner well
known in theart to indicate either the distance
between object 3 and the range ?nder or to £0
cus the camera lens in case of camera coupled
range ?nders.
'
As it is apparent from Figure 1, the distance
between object 3 and stationary semi-transpar
ent re?ector l is substantially shorter than the
distance between object 3 and movable re?ector
2 plus the distance between re?ectors 2 and I‘.
It should be noted in this connection that range
55 ?nders of the type, described are only operative
3
2,407,687
4
if object 3, re?ector I and position of the eye 4
of the observer are substantially in alignment.
Such position is referred to as “operative posi
tion” herein. Consequently, the size of an image
of the object viewed directly on re?ector l, is
larger than the size of the image projected upon
of re?ectors than shown which de?ect the beam
of light several times before the image is ?nally
projected upon the re?ector on which the two
images are viewed, for example one or more ad
ditional pairs of re?ectors B and 1 may be used.
It is further possible to use any suitable re?ecting
~means such as prisms instead of mirrors.
Fig. 3 shows a detail view of a range ?nder of
this re?ector from movable re?ector 2. The dif
ference in the distances and hence in the size of
the images is more pronounced for a shorter dis
the superimposing image type according to the
tance than for a greater distance between the ob 10 invention.
ject and the range‘ ?nder. As previously ex
The range ?nder shown in Figure 3 comprises a
plained, this difference in size of the two images
stationary re?ector 9, supported on a holder [0,
to be brought in register with superimposing
astationary re?ector H supported on a holder I2,
image range ?nders or to be placed in a proper
a pivotal re?ector l3 supported on a holder M,
a stationary re?ector l5 supported on a holder
i6 and a stationaiy re?ector I‘! supported on a
holder IS. The holders may be fastened by any
relative position with split-image range ?nders,
may make the correct adjustment of a range
?nder dii?cult or practically impossible, especial
ly at very short distances, and affect the accu
racy of the indication or adjustment of the range
?nder.
suitable means to the housing H3 or any other
suitable part of the range ?nder. The re?ectors
can be mounted in any suitable manner upon their
' Fig. 2_ illustrates a diagram of a range ?nder
according to our invention.
holders. The re?ectors may be mounted in guid
ing slots permitting a transversal adjustment of
the re?ectors. The re?ectors may be adjusted in
This range finder
comprises a stationary re?ector 5, for example, a
mirror having a solidly silvered surfacez an ad
their positions by set screws 23 or similar means.
justable re?ector 2, for example, a mirror having
Re?ectors 9, l3, ['5 and I? may be mirrors hav
ing a solidly silvered surface or prisms, Re?ector
! l is semi-transparent; it may consist of a mirror,
the surface of which is only partially on thinly
a solidly silvered surface, and a re?ector ar
rangement including a stationary re?ector 6 such
as a mirror having a solidly silvered surface, a
‘second stationary re?ector "i such as a mirror hav
silver coated.
ing a solidly silvered surface and a stationary
semi-transparent re?ector 8 such as a mirror hav
The angular position of re?ector
13 may be controlled by'any suitable means. In
the embodiment shown in Figure 3, the‘ angular
position of re?ector i3 is controlled by a rotation
"ing a partially or thinly silvered surface. As it
appears from Figure 2, re?ector 6 will intercept
,a. beam of light travelling from object 3 toward
re?ector 5 and project it upon re?ector ‘l which
in turn will project it upon semi-transparent re
?ector 3 which will ?nally project the image of
the object upon the viewing face of stationary
re?ector 5 in erect position. The second image
.of object 3 is projected by adjustable re?ector 2
upon re?ector 5. after passing through semi-trans
of a shaft 2i which in turn may be controlled by
the adjustment of the lens carrier of a camera.
However, it should be noted that our invention is
by no means limited to the illustrated adjustment
of re?ector I 3. Shaft 2| carries an arm or lever
22 which is fastened to shaft 2! by any suitable
means. A second lever 23, is pivoted to the free
end of lever 22, the other end of which is pivotally
connected to a pivotal lever 24, which in turn
pivotally engages a guiding bar or compensator
25. Compensator bar 25 is provided with a Wedge
or slanted surface 25, which engages a pin or pro
jection 21 of a lever or bar 28 fastened to pivotal
re?ector‘ 13. The upper edge 29 of compensator
bar 25 is guided by a projection or lug 30 fastened
parent re?ector 8,
As previously explained, the optical effect of the
re?ector arrangement comprising re?ectors 6, ‘l
and 8 is to increase the optical distance between
object 3 and re?ector 5; In other words, the re
?ector arrangement according to the invention is
forming an “optical detour.” The e?ect of this
‘to housing [9. 'A spring 3! fastened at one end
detour is to equalize approximately the optical
to compensator bar 25 and at the other end to
distances between object 3 and the re?ectors. 50 housing l9, by means of a screw 32- or similar
Consequently, the two images projected upon re
means; Spring 3i tends to hold compensator bar
?ector 5 will, have substantially the, same. sizes so
25 in engagement with lug 30, and. a second spring
that the previously outlined di?iculties of adjust
33 urges pin 2'! of bar 28 in'engagement with
.ment of the range ?nder are practically elimi
the slanted surface 25 of compensator bar.25_ If
nated.
‘
In practice, it is advisable to place re?ector 1
and. semi-transparent re?ector 8 approximately
on a line through the center of the axis between
re?ectors 2v and 5. we have found that this loca
tion of the re?ectors will effect a satisfactory com
pensation of the error factor for all practical pur
poses.
A further improvement ‘of the correction ob
55
shaft 2| is rotated, movinglleverzz into the posi
tion indicated in Figure. 3 in dotted lines,‘the vari
ous parts of the leverarrangement, will assume
the positions shown in dotted lines. The slanted
surface 26 of compensator bar 25 will force lever
or bar 28 into the. position indicated in dotted lines
and the angular position of re?ector l3 will be
correspondingly changed.
The optical detour according to our invention
tained by the optical detour can be accomplished
is formedby the three re?ectors I1, I 5 and l l..
by making re?ectors, ‘l and 8 adjustable in axial 65
A range ?nder according to our. invention may
direction. " " Such correction is desirable under
be equipped with conventional windows. and other
‘special circumstances such as in macro photog- .
' .raphy.
accessories. However, these. parts are not shown
since they are not part of ourinvention or essen
As it will appear from the previous explanation,
tial for the understanding of the‘. invention.
our invention is notlimited to the re?ector ar 70
One image of an object whose distance from
rangement shown in Figure 2. It. is only essential
the range ?nder is to be determined will be
to provide an optical detour substantially com
projected by re?ector [.3 upon re?ector ?passing
pensating the differences in distance between‘ an
:object and the, re?ectors of the range ?nder, It ,
is,'for instance, possible to use'a greater number
through semi-transparent re?ector H‘. A second
image of the object will be projected by re?ector .
ll upon re?ector 15. This re?ector will project
2,407,68?
5
6
irom an object to be viewed in ‘the range ?nder
toward said stationary re?ector, a second’ re
?ector placed laterally of the ?rst re?ector and
a third semi-transparent re?ector placed ‘in the
axis between said stationary re?ector and said
the second image upon semi-transparent re?ec
tor H, which in turn will project the second im
age uponre?ector 9. An observer whose eye is
in a proper position opposite re?ector 9 can view
both images on re?ector 9 and bring these two
adjustable re?ector, the're?ectors of said re?ec
images in register by adjustment of the angular
tor arrangement being arranged in an optical
position of re?ector I3.
relationship for projecting an image of the ob
ject upon the stationary re?ector and to equalize
Since the operation of a range ?nder accord
ing to the invention is conventional, no detailed
description of its operation is deemed necessary. 10 the lengths of the optical paths between the ad
justable re?ector and the stationary re?ector and
The optical effect of the repeated re?ection of
between the ?rst re?ector of the re?ector ar
one of the images has been described in detail in
rangement and the stationary re?ector, a piv
‘connection with Figure 2.
otal lever, means for controlling the pivotal posi
Our invention shall not be limited to the em
bodiment shown but various changes and altera 15 tion of said lever and a second lever operatively
coupled with the ?rst lever and connected ‘to the
‘tions may be made without departing from the
‘adjustable re?ector for controlling the angular
scope of our invention.
position of the adjustable re?ector without at
_ What we claim as new and desire to secure by
fecting the relative lengths of the optical paths
vLetters Patent is as follows:
'
1. Range ?nder of the type described com
20 between the re?ectors of the range ?nder.
‘
4. Range ?nder comprising a stationary re
prising a stationary re?ector, an adjustable re
?ector arranged to project ‘an image of an ob
ject exterior to the range ?nder upon said sta
tionary re?ector, means for adjusting said ad
?ector, a re?ector arranged to project an image
of an object exterior to the range ?nder to the
stationary re?ector, a re?ector arrangement for
justable re?ector, and a re?ector arrangement 25 projecting a second image of said object to the
stationary re?ector, said re?ector arrangement
for‘ projecting a second image of said object upon
including three re?ectors, the , ?rst one: being
said stationary re?ector, said re?ector arrange
placed in the direct path of light travelling from
ment including three re?ectors, the ?rst one be
the object toward the stationary re?ector, the
ing placed in the direct path of the light travel
second and third re?ectors being placed outside
ling from the object toward the stationary re?ec
of_ the direct path of light travelling from the
‘tor, the second and third re?ectors being placed
object toward the stationary re?ector, the ?rst
outside of the direct path of light travelling from
re?ector projecting the second image to the sec
the object toward the stationary re?ector, the
ond one, the second re?ector projecting the‘s‘ec
?rst re?ector projecting the second image upon
ond image to the third one and the third re?ector
the second one, the second re?ector projecting
projecting the second image‘ to the stationary
the second image upon the third one and the
re?ector, the re?ectors of said re?ector arrange
third re?ector projecting the second image upon
ment being arranged to equalize the lengths of
‘the stationary re?ector, the re?ectors of said re
the optical paths between the stationary re?ector
?ector arrangement being'arranged to equalize
and the ?rst mentioned image projecting re?ec
the lengths of the optical paths between the ad
tor and between said ?rst ‘re?ector of the re
justable re?ector and the stationary re?ector
?ector arrangement and the stationary re?ector.
and between said ?rst re?ector of the re?ector
5. Range ?nder of the type described compris
arrangement and the stationary re?ector.
ing a stationary re?ector, a re?ector arranged to
2. Range ?nder of the type described com
prising a stationary re?ector, an adjustable re 45 project an image of an object exterior ‘to the
range ?nder to’ said stationary re?ector, a re
?ector arranged to project an image of an object
exterior to the range ?nderupon said stationary
re?ector, means for adjusting said adjustable
re?ector, and a re?ector arrangement for pro
jecting a second image of said object upon said 50
stationary re?ector, said re?ector arrangement
including a re?ector placed in the path of light
travelling from an object to be viewed in the
range ?nder toward said stationary re?ector, a
second re?ector placed laterally ‘of said ?rst re
?ector and a third semi-transparent re?ector
placed in the axis between said stationary re
?ector arrangement for projecting a second ini
age of said object to said stationary re?ector, said
re?ector arrangement including a re?ector
placed in the path of light travelling from an
object to be viewed in the range ?nder toward
said stationary re?ector, a second re?ector placed
laterally of said ?rst re?ector and a third semi
transparent re?ector placed in the axis between
55 said stationary re?ector and said ?rst mentioned
image projecting re?ector, the re?ectors of said
re?ector arrangement being arranged in an opti
cal relation for projecting the second image of
?ector and said adjustable re?ector, the re?ec
the object to said stationary re?ector, and being
tors of said re?ector arrangement being arranged
in an optical relation for projecting an image 60 also arranged to equalize the lengths of the opti
cal paths between the stationary re?ector and
of the object upon said stationary re?ector, the
the ?rst mentioned image projecting re?ector
re?ectors of said re?ector arrangement being ar
and between the ?rst re?ector of the re?ector
ranged to equalize the lengths of the optical
arrangement and the stationary re?ector, a
paths between the adjustable re?ector and the
stationary re?ector and between said ?rst re
?ector of the re?ector arrangement and the sta
tionary re?ector.
3. Range ?nder of the type described compris
ing a stationary re?ector, an adjustable re?ector
65 means for pivotally supporting one of the re?ec
tors other than the stationary one, and a means
for varying the angular position of said pivotal
re?ector.
'
6. Range ?nder of the type described compris
arranged to project an image of an object ex 70 ing a stationary re?ector, an adjustable re?ector .
arranged to project an image of an object ex
terior to the range ?nder upon said stationary
terior
to the range ?nder to said stationary re
re?ector, a re?ector arrangement for projecting
?ector, a re?ector arrangement for projecting a a second image of said object upon the stationary
second image of said object to said stationary
re?ector, said re?ector arrangement including a
re?ector-placed in the path of the light travelling 75 re?ector, said re?ector arrangement including
7
Moms?
three, re?ectors, the ?rst one being placed in the
direct path of light travelling from the object
toward the stationary re?ector, the second and
third re?ectors beingrplaced outside of_ the di
rect path of light travelling from the object to
Ward the stationary re?ector, the ?rst re?ector
projecting the second image to the second one,
the second re?ector projecting the second image
to the third one and the third re?ector projecting
8
of the re?ector arrangement and the stationary
re?ector, a pivotal lever’ having a section forming ,
a wedge, a second lever fastened to the adjust
able re?ector, said wedge section being arranged
5 to slidably engage said second lever, and a means
to adjust the angular position of the pivotal lever
thereby controlling the angular position of the
adjustable re?ector without affecting the rela
tive lengths of the optical paths between .the re
the second image to the stationary re?ector, said 10 ?ectors of the range ?nder.
re?ectors of the re?ector arrangement being ar
8. Range ?nder of the type described compris
ranged in an optical relationship for projecting
ing a stationary re?ector, an adjustable re?ector
the second image of the object to the stationary
arranged to project an image of an object exte
re?ector and to equalize the lengths of the optical
rior to the range ?nder to said stationary re?ec
paths between the adjustable re?ector and the
tor, a re?ector arrangement for projecting a
stationary re?ector and between the ?rst re?ec
second image of said object to the stationary re
tor of the re?ector arrangement and the sta
?ector, said re?ector arrangement including a
tionaryvre?ector, alpivotal lever, a means for con
re?ector placed in the path of light travelling
trolling the pivotal position of said lever,_ and a
from an object to be viewed in the range ?nder
second lever operatively coupled with the ?rst
toward said stationary re?ector, a second re?ec
lever and connected to the adjustable re?ector
tor placed laterally of the ?rst re?ector and a
for controlling the angular position of the ad
third semi-transparent re?ector placed in the
justable re?ector Without affecting the relative
axis between said stationary re?ector and said
lengths of the optical paths between the re?ectors
adjustable re?ector, the re?ectors of said re?ec
of the range ?nder.
tor arrangement being arranged in an optical
7. Range ?nder of the type described compris
relationship for projecting the second'image of ~
ing a stationary re?ector, an adjustable re?ector
the object to the stationary re?ector and to
arranged to project an image of an object exte
equalize the lengths of the optical paths between
rior to the range ‘?nder to said stationary re
the adjustable re?ector and the stationary re
?ector, a re?ector arrangement for projecting a
?ector and between the ?rst re?ector of the
second image' of said object to said stationary
re?ector, said re?ector arrangement including
three re?ectors, the ?rst one being placed in the
direct path of: light travelling from the object
toward the stationary re?ector, the second and
re?ector arrangement and the stationary re?ec
tor, a pivotal lever, means for controlling the
pivotal position of said lever, a second lever fas
tened to the adjustable re?ector, a third lever
pivotally connected to the ?rst lever and having
third re?ectors being placed outsideof the direct
path of light travelling from the object toward
the stationary re?ector, the ?rst re?ector pro
jecting the second image to the second one, the
second re?ector projecting the second image to
the third, one and the third re?ector projecting
the second image to the stationary re?ector, said
a section forming a wedge, said wedge section
being arranged to slidably engage said second
lever for controlling the angular position of the
adjustable re?ector without a?ecting the rela
tive lengths of the optical paths between the
re?ectors of the reflector arrangement being ar
movement varying corresponding to a displace
ment of the point of engagement between said
wedge section and the second lever.
ranged in an optical relationship for projecting
the second image of the object, to the stationary
re?ector and to equalize the lengths of the optical
paths between the adjustable re?ector and the
stationary re?ector and between the ?rst re?ector
re?ectors ‘of the range ?nder, the angle of the 7
wedge section ‘causing a ratio of transmission of
V MORRIS SCHWARTZ.
WILLIAM CASTEDELLQ.
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