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Sept, 17, 1946„
H_ Q_ H||_1_ `
i
2,407,699
HYDRAULIC BRAKE
Filed sept. 2o, 194s
2 sheets-Sheet 1
,60
66
l.
INVENTOR
>
HENRY C’. HILL
I
A TTORNEY
sept. 17, 194e. „
H. c. HILL
2,407,699
HYDRAULIC BRAKE
Filed Sept. 20, 1945
„
2 sheets-sheet' 2
en Q ,
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-MVENTOR
HENRY C. HILL.
. ATTORNEY
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,699v
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,699
HYDRAULIC BRAKE
Henry C. Hin, Montclair, N. J., assigner to Wright`
Aeronautical Corporation, a corporation of
New York
Application September 20, 1943, Serial No. 503,144
1
11 Claims. (Cl. 18S-152)
This invention relates to a hydraulic clutch or
brake and is particularly directed to a ñuid‘oper
ated plate clutch or brake in which the engaging
surfaces are lubricated by the actuating ñuid.
The invention is illustrated and described in con
nection with and as forming a part of the var
2
scription in connection with the drawings in
which:
Fig. l is an axial section through the invention,
Fig. 2 is a view along line 2-2 of Fig. l, and
Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken along
line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
i
iable speed transmission and associated brake dis
Referring to the drawings, an engine-driven
closed in the copending application of Hill et al.,
shaft I Il is drivably connected to a gear I 2 by
Serial No. 461,026, ñled October 6, 1942, now Pat
means not shown and a driven shaft I4 jour
ent No. 2,368,835, Feb. 6, 1945. However, as will 10 naled about the drive shaft is adapted to be driven
appear from the following description, the inven
by the gear I6. An annular cage I8 is concen
tion is not limited to this specific use, but is of
trically disposed about the shafts I0 and I4 and
general application and may be used either with
is provided with a plurality of double planet pin
a frictionally engaging clutch or brake.
ions 20 journaled about shafts 22 carried by the
The aforementioned copending application'of 15 cage. Each of the double pinions 20 is meshed
Hill et al. discloses a brake which, when engaged,
with one ofthe gears I2 and I6 whereby, when
locks up a cage carrying a plurality of double
planet pinions to provide a gear drive through
the cage or pinion carrier I8 is held stationary,
the double pinions provide a step-up drive be
the pinions and which, when disengaged, per
tween the gears I2 and I6.
mits rotation of the pinion carrier. The design 20 In order to hold the pinion carrier stationary
of the transmission is such that upon rotation of
a multi-plate brake 24 is provided about the ex
the pinion carrier, the centrifugal force acting
ternal periphery of the pinion carrier. As more
on the pinions is of sumcient magnitude to lock
fully described in the aforementioned copending
the pinions about their journals, thereby pro
application, when the pinion carrier is released
viding a direct drive connection. In order to 25. the design is such that the rotation of the pinion
effect a return to the gear drive through the pin
carrier with its pinions subjects the pinions to
ions, the brake is again engaged to prevent rota
a centrifugal force sufficient to lock these pinions
tion of the pinion carrier. In practice it has
against rotation about their journals 22. There
been found that‘the frictional forces locking the
fore, upon release of the brake 24 'a direct drive
pinions about their journals are of such magni 30 is provided between the gears I2 and I6. In
tude that the brake must exert excessive friction
order to return to the step-up drive ratio the
torque to break the pinions loose from their jour
brake 24 is engaged to stop rotation of the pinion
nals in order to secure the pinion carrier against
carrier. This requires a braking torque suiilcient
rotation. This excessive friction torque has
to-overcome the friction locking torque of the
caused considerable scuiiing of the brake plates 35 pinions about their journals. `In practice :it has
and it is an object of this invention to provide
been found that the pinions lock up so tightly
means to lubricate the friction engaging surfaces
that the torque required of the brake 24 in its
of the brake in order to eliminate or minimize
slipping `condition in order to break the pinions
this scufûng.
loose is of such magnitude as to cause consid
4It is a further object of the invention to pro 40 erab'le scuiiîng of the friction engaging surfaces
vide a fluid actuable brake in which the friction
of the brake. This scuiiing has been eliminated
surfaces are lubricated by the actuating ñuid. '
by lubricating the brake surfaces inthe manner
A still further object of the invention Vis to pro
hereinafter described. The construction is such
vide a lubricated brake or clutch in which there
*that upon initial engagement of the braking sur
is a continual now of lubricant over the friction
faces there is a considerable ñow of lubricant be
surfaces while slippage occurs and in which the
tween the surfaces and as the slippage gradually
iiow of lubricant automatically ceases when the
decreases the lubricating ñow also decreases un
friction surfaces become clamped together. An
til, when the brake is positively engaged, the ñow
other object of the invention is to provide a self
of lubricant automatically‘ceases.
sealing lubricated clutch or brake in which the 50
The brake 24 comprises a series of ‘annular
clutch or brake is constructed to insure uniform
plates 2-6 which are splined at 28 to the outer
lubrication over the entirefriction engaging sur
periphery of 'the cage or pinion carrier I B and
face.
'
Other objects of the invention will become ap
an interposed series of annular plates 30 are
splined at 32 to an annularV drum 34. The an
parent upon reading the annexed 'detailed de 55 nular drum 34 is resilientlysupported from. a
2,407,699
4
ment of these plates, In either construction the'
oil ñows through the holes 12 and 14 in the vari
housing structure 36 by an interposed supporting
structure 38. A p-air of opposed annular mem
bers @il and 42 are secured to each side of the
ous brake plates and escapes radially over the
adjacent surfaces of these plates to eiîectively
supporting structure 38 by bolts 44 to provide
lubricate and _cool these surfaces This flow of
oil over the adjacent surfaces of the plates
escapes axially over the .inner and vouter diam
. an annular cylindrical space surrounding the se
ries of brake plates 26 and 30. A pair of annular
pistons e6 and 48 are sealingly disposed atthe
e'tersfofj these plates and thence through appro
priate passages to the engine sump.
ends Vof 'said annular oylindernforselîecting en#
gagernent of the brake plates 26 and 30.
The pistons 46 and 48 are provided with a
plurality of facing bosses 50 and a plurality of
‘springs 52 are disposed between the pistons 'about
As the pressure builds up behind the pistons
the plates 2S and 3€! are Vsqueezed closer and
these bosses to urge each piston* away‘frorn thel
closer together. The friction torque developed
by the brake gradually increases and the escap
brake plates and toward their respective ends oî_ `
the cylinder. The annular drum 34 is provided
with an outwardly extending flange or tongue 54
torqueto ‘unlock the pinions 2B from their jour
ing ’flow-¿ef oil .between the plates is gradually
restricted until the plates develop sufficient
hals 22.- When this point is reached the plates
26 andeä are locked or clamped together and
having a plurality of openings SSf-tl'irough which '
the springs 52 extend.
. Y. u
' this clamping engagement of the plates shuts
off the Vflow of lubricating oil out between the
Oil pressure is supplied to the control valve 5l
preferably from the engine oil pressure system.
annular
A conduitgroove
E3 interconnects
60 formed aboutr
>this valve
therperîph’e'ry'
with
of the Supporting structure 38. Froin the annu
plates.; Passages le formed' inthe ~vannular inem
be‘r‘s- 49
‘d2’ perr'nit'return’of oil `escaping radi
ally outward .from'ítheplates >:26"ano'l 30.
lar 'groove Ell oil pressurel is fed to a plurality of
transverse bores'62 thröugh'tl?ìé substantially ra
dial passages B4.
The ends of the transverse
passages s2 respectively communicate with sub
stantially radial passages Gif and B8 in the annu
la`?_cylinder forming“ rn'einbersllZ and 46. At
tneirinn'ejr ends-tile passages 66 and 68 eommu- -
nícäitë with the ÉÍl'Illîl’ä? öylind?ícál ySpace behind
the pistons'
and 48 respectively. ' Therefore,
when the' valve 5'! is in its Öp'eh Aposition aS illus
friction isv considerably reduced ~-eiid vtnt-metete
rn'uch fhigher yfluid ‘pressures are necessary -to
effeet~lockiiigengagelnent ofthe brake. >There-Y
foreja booster 'puinp'rrraii 'be lnecessary irl order
tol augment tlie pressure/‘supplied 'by thev engine
et and Ga'tpvtnewaiiiiiilai space behind the leise>
erpijnien tangier .against _rotation relative to the
housing' 36. The brake 24 In'âly >be released by
Ifn'oving the valve "51 to its dotted _line position as’
illustiateziiii the drawing. In ‘this letter4 pesi
derivedffroin 'the engine 'oil ‘pressure Ysyster'n as
was Yalsc'i'the 'casei in theaior'eiirlerltionedl copend;
ing'application of'liill et al. ‘Howevergyvhenthe
brake plates ‘are lubricated their `‘coei‘licie'ent “of
trated, fluid pressureis'supplied to the annular
groove iiß,‘transve"r"se passages 52,_radial passages
tons 46 and 4'8-~ ‘This ‘ñui'd pressure urges the pis-`
tens 4t and 'da toward each stiletto clamp tlie
brake plates together thereby locking the cage
_
jï‘he Aia'b‘ove described' construction Ypro'vidl'es >a
lubricating 'oilii'ow over‘the entire friction 'eng_a°-_
ing ‘surface of `the 'brake plates; 'which oil now
will carry away the-"frictional'heat ydevelopedjoy
the iterative slippage @fthe-*brake plates. 'The
oil pressure' operating, tnejjbrake is preferably
óiljpre'ssure system.
40
'
The'bi'al‘te 24'has beenjtiescribed in connection
with ‘ti-particular transmission; however, it seems .
obvious `that this_brakeiis‘of vgeneral application
ai‘ldmay be use'dï‘wherever affliction-clamping
tgiioiiegis- desired. 'lv-’ne new of nitricatingV eil- over
tien> tiie conduit "sa is 'connected to e vent te, 45 the Vjfriction'Í engaging "surfaces lubricates ’these
whereby the springs v’.52 are operative toV release
surfaces and,r in addition, Y carries away f the 4heat
In orde'rto lubricate the’br'ak'e' plates `each pis
developed-during slippage ofthese surfaces. VÍIt
ten is V'provided >withz e. plurality of 'eiieiiin'fereii-~
tially disposed restrictive openings 10 and each
ing engagementof the‘fri'ction Yengaging' surfaces
openings?? and "lil are provided with .so-called
“Michel1ed" 'edges 1‘5' t‘o _help or otherwise ’aid the
r'ja'dîal’fl'ow of lubricant 'frein the openings 72 and
1,4 over the V’surfaces "of> the plates 2B and 30.
uniform torque v'distribution between the various
platee and >the»prei/‘istitu»of vineens 'te-feed lubri
thebralàe.
n
.
_
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`
is 'also' a feature ofY this-invention that the'locke
ofîth‘e' brake plates' '26 and 3‘0 are 'providedi'with 50 auteiiietieall'y » operates >to seal or shut - en» this
Í’lòvv‘ûf VOil'v'v‘hen‘ît"’is no‘lònigïe? needed. ¿In ät?ìltiì‘-t
a >correslcäor‘iding number V4of similarly located
tion, 'the 15Í‘(".l"vìsi0n`> 0f a piston- at bötl'l'e?lës ltlie
openings
'and ç_'ljß respectively. Each of the
Th‘at‘is, the edges of the holes 'l2y and 74 in effect
are proyided'with a 'flat bevel. The openingsor
series ef breite plates fil-t and et »provides-'foie'
eating eil throught-ne series et plates-nem beth
endsof the series insuresuiiiîorr‘n lubiieatien -e-f
al1-the plates.
Y
`
\
n
rI_‘he outer brake drum 34 preferably is resili
tive tothe oil inlet‘pas‘sages B6 and 6B whereby, 60 ently connected 'to >the SuDpèì‘tingï'structure-SB -in
holes 19V/in the piston are restricted in size rela
when the valve i‘.iFi is opehed'the oil pressure will
immediately bund up beliiiidtne pistonsv te attu-y
ate the pistons toward engagement of the brake
orner te provide ev radially vtti-iii e teisieiially
yieldable ïsuppcli’rt.l The supperti‘ng structure 38
is provided »with radially disposed parallel .lianges
1'8 «beto/en which the `lflange lportieri ¿54 of 'the
d'rurn '3e «adapted to be inter'ñtted. ’I‘lf'le-innerV
diameters di tneflenges is alternately increase
frequently so that tlierelwill be oil flow through
and decrease i?nlagfniïtude andthe outerdiam
these _holes and out over the plates from the holes
etel- of the flange "portion 254 is similarly 'tone
i2 and le to intricate vthe plates.v After the breite
st'riiete‘d, whereby these ineiiiber’s maybe axially
plates are ~lockedtogeth`e`rnolubrication is nec
and then rotated to their-ìnteríitted
essary so that it is l«imn'l'aterial Whether the holes 70 as'sernl'aled>
position:
î»The
overlapping portions of the ii'anges
are thenalined. If desired‘ailnulai- grooves inay
ell-and
‘Hl
are
each 'provided with similar cutout
be p`l^ol`1idedoifik each surface ofthe plates 26 and
portions 3B. Each of these cutout portions is
30 across the holes 12ìan’d "14tò insure a 'con
adapted to receive a pair of v.opposed bearing
tinuous flow oflubric‘ating oil through and across
the lplates 2S and Sllíprior to clamping `engage- 75 members $32 having'. a spring v84interposed, there;
plates. Because ’of the relative slip of the brake
pletestlie holes 1o, i2, 'energie ‘will line up quite
È
:Mondeo
6
between. With this construction thefspring 84
of said discs, and means for supplying oil -intd
said passages at each end of said plurality of
discs simultaneously with the application of oil
permits slight relative rotative and radial move
ment betweenthe supporting structure 38 and
the drum 34,` The purpose of this resilient con.;
to said piston means.
" Q
nection .is to prevent uneven loading of one or 5
>5. In combination with a pair of ,relatively
more of the pinions 28, It should be noted that
rotatable members, means to frictionally inhibit
the previously described brake can be usedWith
relative rotation of said members comprising a
or without this resilient supporting structure.
multiple disc-type clutch having aplurality- of
While I have described my invention in detail
annular friction discs disposed in side-by-side
in its present preferred embodiment, it will be 10 relation and each connected to one or the other
obvious to those skilled.V in the art, after under
of said members such that adjacent discs are l
standing my invention, that various changes and
connected to different members, piston means
modificationsY may be made therein without de-‘
engageable with each end of said plurality of
parting from the spirit or scope thereof.` I aim
discs, and means to apply oil pressure simultane
in the appended claims to cover all such modi- 15 ously >to each piston for effecting clamping en
flcations and changes.
gagement of said discs, each of said piston means
I claim as my invention: ‘ i
having one or more restricted oil passages there
1. In combination, relatively rotatable mem
bers having frictionally engageable surfaces, a
through to the adjacent disc intermediate the
inner
outer diameters of said discs and each
piston-cylinder assembly for effecting clamping 20 of saidand
discshaving'one or more cooperating "oi1
engagement ofsaid surfaces upon the-applicaF
passages 'i extending therethrough intermediateV
tion of oil V pressure thereto, and oil passage
their inner and outer diameters.
» i .
means from said assembly communicating with
6. In combination ‘with a pair‘ of relatively
the space between said surfaces to provide for ñow
rotatable members, means to frictionally inhibit
of said oil over said surfaces upon the application 25 relative rotation of said members comprising a
of oil pressure to said assembly such that clamp
multiple disc-type clutch having a plurality of
ing engagement of said surfaces is operative to
annular friction discs disposed in side-:by-side
shut off said iiow of oil.
Y
relation and each connected to one or the other
2. In combination, a pair of annular relatively
of said members such that adjacent discs are
rotatable friction discs, a piston-cylinder as- 30 connected to different members, piston means,
sembly for effecting clamping engagement of said
means to apply oil pressure to said piston means
discs upon the application of oil pressure to said
for eiîecting clamping engagement of said discs,
assembly, one or more restricted oil passages
and oil passage means extending through said
extending from said assembly to the adjacent
piston and through said plurality of discs inter
friction disc intermediate the inner and outer
mediate the inner and outer diameters of said
diameters of said disc, and cooperating oil pas
discs, whereby, upon application of said oil pres
sages extending through said adjacent disc
sure, oil ñows from said passage means over the
whereby, upon application of oil pressure to said
engageable surfaces of said discs prior to their
piston-cylinder` assembly, oil flows through said
complete clamping engagement and upon com
passages and out between the engageable surfaces 40 plete engagement of said discs said oil flow is
of said discs, the clamping engagement of saidr
automatically interrupted thereby.
surfaces being operative to shut off said flow of
7. In combination with a pair of relatively
oil.
rotatable
members, means to frictionally inhibit
:3. In combination with a pair of relatively ro- `
relative rotation of said members comprising a
tatable members, means to frictionally inhibit 45 multiple disc-type clutch having a plurality of
relative rotation of said members comprising a
annular friction discs disposed in side-by-side
multiple disc-type clutch having a plurality of
relation and each connected to one or the other
annular friction discs disposed in side-by-side
of said members such that adjacent discs are
relation and each connected to one or the other
connected
to different members, piston means,
of said members such that adjacent discs are 50 means to apply
oil pressure to said piston means
connected to different members, piston means
engageable with said plurality of discs, means to
apply oil pressure to said piston means for effect
ing clamping engagement of said discs, each of
said annular discs having one or more oil pas
sages extending therethrough intermediate their
inner and outer diameters, and means for sup
plying oil into said passages at each end of said
plurality of discs simultaneously with the appli
for effecting clamping engagement of said discs,
and oil passage means spaced from the periphery
of said piston means and discs and extending
therethrough whereby, upon application of said
55 oil pressure, oil flows from said passage means
over the engageable surfaces of said discs prior
to their complete clamping engagement and upon
complete engagement of'said discssaid oil flow
is automatically interrupted thereby.
cation of oil to said piston means.
60
8. In combination with a pair of relatively
4. In combination with a pair of relatively
rotatable members, means to l'rictionally inhibit
rotatable members, means to frictionally inhibit
relative rotation of said members comprising a
relative rotation of said members comprising a
multiple disc-type clutch having a plurality of
multiple disc-type clutch having a plurality of
annular friction discs disposed in side-by-side 65 annular friction discs disposed in side-„by-side
relation and each connected to one or the other
relation and each connected to one or the other
of said members such that adjacent discs are
of said membersI such that adjacent discs are
connected
to different members, piston means
connected to different members, piston. means
engageable with each end of said plurality of
engagea-ble with said plurality of discs, means to
discs, means to apply oi1 pressure simultaneously
apply oil pressure to said piston means for effect
ing clamping engagement of said discs, each of 70 to each piston for effecting clamping engagement
of said discs, and oil passage means spaced from
said annular discs having one or more oil pas
the periphery of said piston means and discs and
sages extending therethrough intermediate their
extending therethrough, whereby, upon applica
inner and outer diameters, the ends of each of
tion of said oil pressure, oil ñows from said pas
said passages being .beveled at the faces of each 75 sage means over the engageable surfaces of said
8
discs lpriorto .compietefclamping engagement of
said discs “and upon `complete"engagement of said
discs said oil iiow .is automatically interrupted
thereby.
v
I 9. In combinationfa pair of. relatively-rotatable
pressure »in vcommunication with .said nrst«rneii-7
tioned ‘means and withsaid surfaces, and means
operable «topontrol--said .passage means suchtnat
liquid under pressure :fromvsaid source -is trans
mitted to said first-mentioned means and -sub
a source of liquid under pressure, means oper#
stantially >sirrlultaneouslv is transmitted ' to . said
surfaces for ñoW-thereov'en
j
_
ative upon the application ‘of said liquid pressure
thereto for effecting >clamping engagement of said
abl’e members having `frictionalliz engageable
members having.frictionally-engageable surfaces,
surfaces, liquid passage means fromv said source
to said first-mentioned means andA to one or more
points on said surfaces and spaced from the edges
of said surfaces, 'and valve means operablewr to
control saidy passage means to effect application
of said liquid pressure from said source to said
ñrst-mentioned means and to simultaneously
supply liquid from Asaid source to said one or
more points on said surfaces.'
10. In combination, a pair of relatively rotat»`
i able members having frictionallyengageable sur 20
, faces, means operative upon .the application of
liquid pressure thereto for effecting clamping
frictional engagement 'of said'surfaces, passage
means arranged ‘to place a source yof liquid under
11A. In combination; a pair 'of relatively rotat
surfaces, means'operative upon the application
of liquidpressure .thereto for [effect-ing clamping
frictionalengagement of said surfaces, 1vpassage
means arranged „to` place a source of liquid under
pressurev in 'communication with said lirst-f
mentioned means and with `said surfaces, and
means operable to control :said passage means
such that liquid under pressure l¿from `said source
is transmitted to said mst-mentioned means and
substantially 'simultaneously Vis transmitted to
saî'd surfaces for Aiiow therebetween suchthat
clamping engagement of saidfsurfaceszshuts‘off
said ñow. Y
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