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Патент USA US2407705

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Sept. 17, 1946.
Filed June 26, 1944
ë‘íäaßaw» I
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
Lyman C. Huff, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Universal
Oil Products Company, Chicago, Ill., a corpora
‘ tion of Delaware
Application June 26, 1944, Serial No. 542,210
5 Claims. (Cl. 1536-52)
dusty nature should be avoided so that -they will
not excessively iill the voids between the larger
particles and give an excessive pressure drop `for
This is a continuation-in-part of my co-pend
ing application Serial Number 530,645, filed April
12, 1944.
`the reactants and regenerating gases passing
through the beds. For this reason, the particles
The invention is directed to an improved meth
od and means for effecting the conversion of
fluid reactants in the presence of a mass of sub
divided solid contact material which becomes
contaminated with deleterious products of the
‘ conversion reaction and `is regenerated by remov
ing the 4deleterious contaminants. The process
is of the type in which the conversion step and
charged to the system are preferably of substan
tially uniform or well graded size and any ex
cessive quantity of ñnes produced by attrition
of the larger particles within the system is'pref
erably removed from the system and replaced >by
larger particles. To avoid excessive attrition, the
particles should have good structural strength.
the regenerating step are conducted continuous
ly and‘simultaneously in separate confined reac»
tion and regenerating -zones Íbetween and through
which the subdivided solid contact material is
The use of substantially spherical particles will
also greatly assist in avoiding excessive attrition.
One suitable method of preparing synthetic cata
lysts which may be advantageously usedin the
continuously circulated.
The process and apparatus are particularly acl-_ 1 present process is disclosed lin application Serial
Number 516,392 of Glenn M. Webb and Reno W.
vantageous as applied to hydrocarbon conversion
Moehl, ñled December 3l, 1943.
reactions, such as catalytic cracking, reforming,
dehydrogenation, dehydrocyclization or aromati 20 A special feature of the invention resides in
the manner andrmeans whereby continuous cir
zation `and the -like,> in which `the `Contact mate
culation of the solid particles of catalyst or con
rial .comprisescatalyst which promotesthe de-`
tact material is »effected through »the system.
sired -ihydrocarbon'conversion reaction. The in
Their circulation is effected, in part, by gravita
vention is further more particularly directed to`
an improved operation of the type in which the 25 tional descent from a separating zone and hopper
mounted above the reaction and regenerating
mass-of subdivided solid catalyst or Contact ma
vessels serially through these vessels, and, in part,
by Vdischarging the solid particles from the lower
4vessel of .the series into a gas-lift transfer line
bedcf downwardly moving solid particles.
Preferably, the catalyst or -contact material 30 Wherein they are commingled »with transporting
fiuid and carried-upwardly by the latter into thel
employed is in .the form `of small substantially
aforesaid separating zone andhopper to comspherical particles. Their size, Whether-spheri
cal or-of other regular Aor irregular shape, is fsuf- ’ plete the circuit.l The solid particles pass down
wardly from the hopper through the contacting
ficient-ithat the particles will `not` compact ‘eX-«f
vessels in the form of a continuous and uninter
, cessively
of substantial
the reacf,r
rupted . relatively compact column. vBy elimi
terial in the reaction and regenerating zones is
maintained in the form of 1a relatively comp-act
nating intermediate feeding Vdevices and the like i
tion` and regenerating zones. YIt >is a further re-~`
quirement that the `solid- particles be suiiiciently
which wouldinterrupt the -continuity of 'the col
small to facilitate their transportation bygas
liftiin a part of Ythe circuit through which they
, umn, the height ofr the latter imposes a substan
.tial pressure on the solid particles `at the bottom
oi'ithe «column ‘which is materially greater than
flow between the reaction `and rregenerating ves-`
the Ygas or vapor pressure prevailing above the
The `ability of ythe solid particles to be trans
column in the separating Zone Yand hopper. In’
the gas-lift transfer line through which the vsolid
ported by gas-lift can be -calcula‘tecbby Vknown
formulae, .taking vinto Íaccount their average den
sity andthe >density and velocity of the trans
particles are'tran'sported from the lower contact.- '
ing vessel Vof the series back to the separating
Zone and hopper, the particles are suspended in
the transporting fluid so that there is little vor no
porting ñuid. , To be readily'transported by gas
lift and to avoid excessive compaction in the beds,
I have found that spherical particles of cracking
accumulative » `weight ofVV solid particles in the
catalyst, for example, `consisting `predominantly 60 height of the gas-lift .transfer line and they flow
upwardly with the transporting fluid .to the -rela-‘
of silica and `one or more metal oxides, such .as
tively low pressure -zone prevailing in the sepa
alumina, `zirconia, magnesia `and »the like, are
preferably from 2 yto »4 Ymm.„averag<_ediameter.
The presence the beds .of substantial quantif
` ties of excessivelyñne vparticles of a powdery >or
rating vessel and hopper.
As another special feature of the invention I .
prefer to employ vaporous and/or gaseous prod
3 .
ucts discharged from the reaction Zone as the
transporting fluid for the solid particles in the
gas-lift transfer line. As applied to the con
version of „normally liquid products, such as, for
example, the catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon
oil, this use of outgoing Vaporous conversion
products as transporting fluid is advantageous
in that. suiîicient pressure can be developed in the
Vaporous stream of out-going conversion prod
ucts to permit> its use as transporting fluid by
pumping the charging oil being supplied to the
reactor in liquid state, which is materially less
stripping gas, such as steam, for example, which
is supplied to the lower portion of the stripper
through line 6 and valve 'I and is distributed
substantially uniformly over the cross-sectional
area of bed 5 by a suitable distributing member
8 provided within the lower portion of the strip
per. The Stripped-out volatiles and stripping gas»
are discharged'from the. upper extremity of bed
5 into the space 9 provided thereabove within
vessel 5 and are thence discharged through line
>IE) and valve I I to suitable separating and recov
ery equipment, not illustrated. This separating
expensive than employing a gas compressor or `. ¿and recovery equipment may conveniently com
the like to develop suiñcient pressure in the
stream of transporting fluid, as would be neces-sary when employing incoming or outgoing re
generating gas or gas from an external source
as the transporting fluid.
-~ .
~ »
Although the features of the invention are
advantageously applicable to the conversion or
treatment of fluid reactants generally in the
presence of a mass Vof subdivided solid contact
material, catalyst or`reagent, they are, as previ
prise the same fractionating equipment to which
Vaporous and gaseous hydrocarbon conversion
products of the process are supplied, as will be
later described.4
The stripped catalyst particles pass downward
ly about member 8 into the conical lower section
of stripper 3 and are thence directed through
conduit l2 into regenerator I3 wherein they move
downward through the relatively compactY bed I4
maintained in this zone.
Air or other suitable
ously mentioned, particularly advantageous as
oxygen-containing gas is supplied to the Áregen
applied to the catalytic conversion of fluid hydro 25 erator through line I5 and valve I6 and is dis
carbons and, for the sake of being more explicit
in illustrating therfeatures and advantages of
the invention, the succeeding description will b-e
directed principally to an operation in which hy
drocarbon oil is catalytically cracked.
The accompanying diagrammatic drawing is
an elevational View,` shown principally in sec
tion; of one speciñc _form of apparatus embody
ing the features of the invention and in which
the improved process provided by the invention
may be successfully conducted.`
Y Referring now to the drawing and to the flow
through the system illustrated, the catalyst par
suitable distributing member‘l'l from which it
passesupwardly into bed I4.
catalyst particles collected in bed 2 will have
accumulated deleterious heavy combustible Yprod
taminants are burned from the solid catalyst par
ticles by their contact- vwith Vthe oxidizing gas
passing countercurrent -thereto through bed I4.
Resulting gaseous'productsof combustionl are
discharged from the upper 'extremity of bed I4
into a-space provided thereabove within the re
‘ generator, from which they are directed through
line 51 and valve 58, preferably to suitable h‘eat`
' recovery equipment of any
ticles‘are collected, as will be later described,
within the separating vessel and hopper I in
the form Vof a relatively compact bed 2.
tributed substantially uniformly over the hori
zontal cross-section of bed Ill by means of a
desired form not 'illus
A substantial portion of the heat developed by
burningv the combustible contaminants inthe' re
generating step is stored in the solid catalyst par
ticles dischargedY from the lower portionfof this '
ucts of the cracking or hydrocarbonv conversion
zone. The stream'or column of catalyst particles
reaction being conducted within the system.A All 45 passing from the regenerator will also containy
or a major portion of these combustible deposits
entrained and adsorbed gasesl comprising a part
are to be burned from the catalyst particles in
of the regenerating gas employed and resulting»
the regenerating step, as will be later described.
combustion gases. To prevent these entrained
In addition, the bed 2 contains occluded and
andV adsorbed gases from enteringthe’reaction
adsorbed transporting gas in which the solid par 50 zone the stream of catalyst being supplied >from
ticles »were transported to vessel I. When, as in
the regenerator to the reactor preferably is sub
the? case illustrated, outgoing vaporous and gas- ’
stantially stripped of such material and, in they
ecus products ofv the hydrocarbon conversion're
case illustrated, a stripper IS similar ,in form to`
action are employed as the transporting Huid,V
stripper 3 above mentioned'is interposed between
the occluded and adsorbed vapors and gasesare 55 the regenerator and the reactor. The hot regen
o_f alpvaluble nature and if not removed and
recovered would be lost by burning- inthe suc
ceeding regenerating step. Furthermore,` their
»erat'ed vcatalyst p_asses about ' the -‘(,ìistrilc'lutingV
member I 'l in the lower portion of the ‘regeneratorf
into the substantially’conical bottom sectionv of'
combustion in the regenerator would develop'ad
ditional heat in this step, which is ordinarily 60 this vessel and isthence` directed through conduit
I9 _into and throughY the relatively compactV bedz
undesirable. Excessive heating of the'ca'talystw
20 vof catalyst particlesmaintained.within, strip-Í
will destroy or permanently impair its activity»
per I8. Steam or other suitable stripping gas isl
>»In view'of the inclusion of Valuble light hydro
supplied to the lower portion of stripper~l8
carbons in the bed 2 of solid particles accumu-Ã1
lated in vessel I, >’a stripping vessel 3 is interposed 65 through line 2| and-„valve 22 to be distributed:to`
bed I4 by member 23 disposed within the lower
between this hopper and the regenerator wherein
occluded and adsorbed volatile hydrocarbons are
substantially-removed from -the solid particles
before they enter the regenerator. .The solid:
particles pass downwardly from the lower, hop
per-like portion >of Vvessel I vthrough-conduit VIl
_ 70
into the upper portion of stripper 3. ï 'Here they'
pass down'wardlythrough another’relatively com
pact bed 5 of the solid particles maintained in
portion of the stripping vessel and to pass up-f
wardly from member 23 through bed 20 counter- .
current to the descendingÍsolid particles.Re-’~
Vsultin‘g stripping gas and stripped-out gases areV '
discharged from the upper portion of bed `20 into
the space 23 provided thereabove within the strip- '
per and are-thence discharged through line ‘25
and va1ve'26, preferablyito‘ the same «heat re-jj'.
thiszone countercurrent -to a stream of suitable 75 covery equipment to whichcombustion gases, are, n '
discharged,- as previously-'f mentioned, from re»`
generator I3.
The` Velocity off the'L transportingI gas-«isV mate
rialllyî reducedfiim space 45‘ofthelseparatingvesseh
The substantial-ly» striïpped catalyst particles
lí-` as compared ‘with its: velocity in line `412 ssoithat'.
all or.' a substantialfportion ofithescatalyst1~pamti’
pa-ss- downward‘lyL about distributing member 23T`
into thi,y cone-like- l‘ower-i section of stripper' I8l`
and ‘are thence- discharged? through conduit 2-11
into reactor 28 to pass downwardly through the
relativelyf compactl bed“ ¿9l ot catalyst.. particles
cles _separate by gravity from-the; transporti'ng`
gas-Hin; vessel-L I and: collect. in:` the‘lower` portion
oi“j thiszone toitormthefbed 2„ The; transporting
gas, which, as` previously mentioned. comprises;
vaporous: andi gaseous hydrocarbon conversion
maintained within this zone.
Fluid’ reactants' to be converted, which, in» the.~ 10. products, ircthe case! illustrated, is-directed from
the upper: portionzof; vessel l" through. line y 4&landi
case-illustrated, comprise» hydrocarbon oil to be
valvesA t1. to suitable fractionating and recovery
crackedì; are supplied in' liquid state through line
equipment of- any desired conventional? form:
59"' and“ valve» 30i to pump âl-l'-f wherefronr ‘they are.
which is not"~ pertinent; totr the presentÁ inyentiom
fed underl theI pressure imposed’ by pumpÁ~ 3|
, and isl therefore not. illustrated;` When.` d‘esireci‘v
through line 32 i toheating coili 33-` disposed within
and as: previously indicated, that:- quantity' of: they
furnace- 34». Here the oi'll iïsß- substantially vapor’-Y
vaporous: and'l gaseous> conyîersion:products:»diseV
izedE and» heated-to ornear tha reaction: temperachargedïfrom-k reactor' 2B which may notl'b'@ reí-V
ture~desiredl` andthe heated vapors areL` directed"
quired as; transporting' huid; in; transiter.1 :line: 425:
from coil-` 3?.-`> through> line| 35Í into> a- suitable dis
tributing' memberl 35- disposedA within the-lower 20A may beV directed. throughl valve 3a> in linel 3.8l to;
the; sameV fractionatingî. and:` recovery r equipmentl
portions‘of reactor'28; wherefrornA theypass up
to which the vapors and gases.utilizedyas':transf`
wardly into bedf 29-= andi are converted‘lbyf counter.-Y
porting fluid are directed from vessel Il.
current contact- with» thev catalyst particles» pass'-A
Adjustment. of theoriiice or opening through
ing- through the bed: Resulting vaporous@ and.
gaseous con-version4 products* are discharged-from „ the flow-regulating; Valvea 4 IÁ in` conduit', 40 regu:`
lates the: rate. aty which catalyst particles arefcirs
theA upper extremity ofi bedi 2l);i into the ‘space 31.
culated through the. system. andxthis rate; mayI
provided" thereabove within the reactor, from
be adjusted. to suit requirementsrso asjtogivefthe
which-` they' are discharged; through l line'A 38V and.
desired residence time` for the catalyst; inv therA
may pass, in part, through valve t9E in this-lineÍ
to suitable fractionating and recovers7J equipment. 30 reaction and regeneratingi'izonesiand; give the ; cle--`
sired catalysteoil ratio- in. the, reactor-A and»` the.
of` any desired conventional form-5 not- illustrated'.
desired ratio of catalyst toi the; regenerating,` gas».
The» temperature of' the catalyst is reduced.
actor"` by giving up heat to the endothermic- hy
d-rocarbon conversion reaction-»which it promotes..
andì the catalyst particlesi accumulate deleteriousy
contaminants » comprising
in theregenerator.v The-term “catalyst-oilratiof’ '
as here used refers to the-,poundsiof . catalyst-...ven_--`
. tering theV reaction», zone. per,` hour,` per pound> ot.
oil; supplied to this zona. The= term “catalyst
regenerating gas ratio” as here. used refersto the..
pounds` of4 catalyst. enteringV the regenerator per
products or the hydrocarbon'conversion reaction;
hour, per pound, of. regenerating. gas, supplied. to.
To-restore‘ its activityrand heatl content the-:catas
lysteis1L returned from thereactor to4 the regen-` 40. this zone.
By regulating. the rate4 at which catalyst is»
crater;A thusd4 settingV up a cyclicV now' of‘catalystv
circulated through the system4 it, is. possible to
through the system.
obtain a close approach between the average
Thepartially cooled' and-‘contaminated catalyst
temperature of4 the> catalyst'. passing through the
passes downwardly about distributingj member
36v in> the lower portion off theL reactor' into: the. y regenerator and the average 'temperature ofthe
catalyst passing through the, reactor. When this
cone-like-'lower sectionof thisf‘vessel and is -thenca
results in a regenerator temperature, which is
directed through conduit 4c* and through an . adi@
relatively close` to the reaction temperaturev de’
j‘usta-ble orifice or flow-regulating valve 4ìl. pro
videdï in> conduit tu adjacent its lowerI end‘ into'.`
si'red it is unnecessary to supply additional'heat
a substantially straight upwardly extending: gasl-y 510iA to or abstract additional heat from the catalyst~
lift'transieriline)42.> In line 42 the catalyst par:-A
as it circulates through the, system'. However,
ticlesf are commingl'ed? with i and suspended` inH a'
as applied to reactions such as catalytic crackL
ing in an operation producing commercially
stream- oi? transportingl- ii’uid.'v which., in the. caserV
practical yields’of the desired‘products; the quarr
illustrated, comprises all or a portion of thezvae>
porous` and gaseous conversion products» dis»
tity of"combustible‘ depositsV accumulated by the
charged' from reactor‘ 281- Thef» conversion prodi
catalyst in the reaction step“ andV` burn-edi there'
ucts` to beI used'astransportin'g fluid' arel directed
fromï in, the> regenerating step is usually" more<
from line-38Av under the vaporior gas pressure pre-than that required tostore in the4 catalyst- all
vailing‘ within theA reactor above bed 29 throughÁ
of' the heat necessary for conductingl the-hydro-~
line 4A3ïand‘4 valve Mintotransfer'line 42..
carbon conversion reaction. I thereforeV provid(am
The vapor‘or gasfpressure maintained invessel’
for abstracting excess-‘heat from the catalyst,
If abovei'ìhelbedî 2 is materially less than .thestaticr
when desired. This maybe done; as'intvhel case:
pressure developed inthe relatively compact col
illustrated, either after the` catalyst leaves the
umn of catalyst particles above the adjustable:
reactor and before it' enters'the regenerator or4
orifice or flow-regulating valve. 4I in line 4E!" and GSL after the catalyst leaves the regenerator‘and‘be»
thevapor or gas' pressure maintained' in space 31
fore it enters thev reactor or, in part, by'both..
»In the caseillustrated, a. cooling coil 48` isfpro-L
within‘the reactor-is suiiiciently greater than that
vided in theY lower portionf of vessel I` througlr
prevailing‘in‘the space above bed 2 in Vessel' I> to
which a suitable cooling iiuid, Such as steam,
overcome the pressure dropA in the stream of
transporting gas as vit passes through line 38, line 70A water,v oil` or the likel is: passed via lines-:.491 and
5i] in an amount- controlled by valve. '5l ïto: abs.1
43> and- gas-liit transfer line 42 so that the- trans
stract the desired quantity ot> heat from the; catF
porting gas“ and the catalyst particles suspended
al'yst passing through. bed 2. Alternatively, a.
therein fi‘ow upwardly throughA the- gas-liftv trans
fer'line42- into'the disengagi-ng space 45~ provided>
conduit ` `lll),
line` l 42maybe.`
or in„_conduits>,
4‘.` or'`
within vesselï‘l above bedZ‘.
i '
' 75.
|2vor1n stripper 3, for the purpose of controllably
reducing the temperature of the catalyst being
suppliedlto the regenerator from the reactor and
thus reducing the average temperature obtained
inthe regenerator.
The drawing also illustrates the provision of a
suitable cooler 52 in conduit 21 and provision for
zone and utilizedv at least in part as said trans
porting fluid.
3. A process such as deñned in claim 1„wherein
said conversion reaction comprises the catalytic
crackìng'of normally yliquid hydrocarbons and
the subdivided solid contact material comprises
cracking catalyst.
passing suitable cooling fluid . such as steam,
- 4. The process of >endothermically converting
water, oil or the like through this cooler in indi
rect contact and heat transfer relation with the
catalyst passing from the regenerator to the re
porous state and in the presence of subdivided
solid catalyst which promotes the conversionvre-4
Cooling fluid is supplied to cooler ' ‘52
action comprising imposing a‘superatmospheric
through line 53 and is discharged therefrom
through line 54 in‘amounts regulated by valve
pressure on the hydrocarbons in liquid state and
substantially heating the same to _eiïect their
55.` Alternatively; a suitable cooler may be lo
cated in conduit I9 or in the stripping vessel I8
vapors to a conñned reaction zone'and into con'
for-“controllably reducing the temperature of the
normally liquid hydrocarbons in essentially va
substantial vaporization, supplying the -heated,
tact with a relatively compact bed of downwardly
catalyst supplied to therreactor from the regen
movingi catalyst particles maintained therein,
erator, in case the temperature prevailing in the
therein eiïecting their conversion and discharg
latter zone is considerably higher Athan the tem,-` 20 ing resulting vaporous conversion products‘while
still under superatmospheric pressure from the
perature at which it is desired to conduct the’
conversion reaction.'
upper portion of the reaction zone, separately
discharging catalyst particles from the lower
1.'.The process of converting Vfluid reactants
portion of said reaction zone andsuspending
in'the presence of a mass of subdivided solid 25 the same in transporting vapors comprising a
contact material which comprises directing the
solid contact material downwardly in series from
an uppermost separating zone through separate
portion of said vaporous conversion products,
directing the resulting suspension solely by the
gas-lift action of said portion of vaporous con-> '
version products into a separatingr zone of sub
confined 4reaction and regenerating zones, main
taining' a relatively compact bed of the solid 30 stantially reduced pressure disposed at a sub
particles' in each of said zones and maintaining
thel downwardly moving solid particles in the
`form of a continuous relatively compact column
stantíal elevation above the reaction zone, said>
superatmospheric pressure of said vaporous _con
version products being sufficiently greater than
said reduced pressure in said separating -zone to
extending uninterruptedly through and between
said'zones‘the static pressure at the bottom of 35 overcome'the pressure drop of the transporting
vapors during their flow'from said reaction zone
said column being substantially greater than the`
to said separating zone, separating catalyst par
pressure in said uppermost separating zone, con
ticles from the transporting «vapors and collectf
tacting the bed of solid particles in the regener
ing the catalyst particles in the form' of a rela
ating zone with regenerating gas to remove there
from deleterious contaminants accumulated in 40 tively compact bed, directing catalyst particles
fromjthe last named bed downwardly into a
the reaction zone, contacting the bed of solid
separate confined regenerating zone, therein
particles in the reaction zone vwith the iiuid re
actants to be converted and effecting their `conn
maintaining another relatively compact bed of
commingling thereof, discharging the subdivided
recting the same downwardly into` said reaction
catalyst particles and burningtherefrom com-.
version therein, maintaining the pressure of the
4contaminants accumulated in Ythe re->
vaporous conversion products in said reaction
action zone by passing oxidizing gas upwardlyv
zone greater than the pressure in said separating
through the bed, discharging resultant gaseous
zone, separately removing ñuid products of re
of combustion fromvthe upper portion
generation and fluid products of the conversion
of the regenerating zone, separately discharging
reaction from the respective regenerating and
the resultant regenerated catalyst particles from
reaction zones and preventing any substantial 50 the lower portion of the regenerating zone, di
solid- particles at said static `pressure from the
zone- for further use ‘therein in promoting the
bottom of said continuous column into and sus
hydrocarbon Vconversion reaction, maintaining
pending the same in a stream of transporting
the catalyst particles in the form Qf a relatively
fluid comprising a portion of said vaporous con
compact continuously column extending uninter
version products, directing the suspended par
ruptedly from a pointin saidseparating zone to
ticles solely by the gas-lift action of said trans
a point below the reaction zone, the static pres
porting fluid upwardly into said separating zone,
sure at the bottom of said column being substan
thevpressure of said vaporous conversion prod
tially greater than the pressure in said separat-f
ucts in said reaction zone being> sufñciently 60 ing zone, and effecting the discharge of catalyst
greater than the pressure ,in said separating zone
particles from the lower portion of the reaction
to overcome the pressure drop of said transport
zone into said transporting vapors under the
ing ñuid during its flow from said reaction zone
weight of said continuous column.
tosaid separating zone, separating` said trans` 65 "5. A conversion processwhich comprises pass
porting ñuid from at least a major portion‘of
ing subdivided solid contact material vertically
the subdivided solid particles and ldirecting the
downward» in the form of a relatively compact
latter downwardly as aforesaid through the con-Y
continuousV column extending uninterruptedly
from anuppermost separating zone through and
2. A process such as defined in claim 1, wherein
70 between a plurality of superimposed contacting
said fluid reactants to be converted are supplied
zones, the lstatic pressure at the bottom' of said
to the reaction zone by pumping them while in
column being substantially greater than the> pres
liquid statey and wherein iiuid conversion products
sure in said uppermost separating zone, contact
are discharged in essentially vaporous state and
ing a hydrocarbon reactant under Yconversion
at .-superatmospheric pressure; from _the 'reaction 754 conditions with the solid material in one of the
tacting zones.-
last-named zones while maintaining the pressure
of the vaporous conversion products therein sul@v
stantially greater than the pressure in said sepa
rating zone, regenerating the solid material in
another of the contacting zones ‘oy passing an 5
oxygen-containing gas therethrough, discharging
the transporting iiuid, the pressure of said va
porous conversion products in the contacting
Zone being suñiciently greater than the pressure
in said separating Zone to overcome the pressure
drop of said transporting fluid during its fìow
from the contacting zone to said separating zone,
separating solid particles from transporting fluid
in the separating zone, and depositing the sepa
solid particles from the bottom of said contin
uous column into a stream of transporting fluid
comprising Vaporous conversion products of said
rated particles onto the top of said column in the
hydrocarbon reactant under the weight of the 10 separating zone to pass downwardly through the
column and directing the same upwardly into said
contacting zones as aforesaid.
separating zone solely -by the gas-lift action of
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