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Патент USA US2407708

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Sept. 17, 1946.
G, R, vKlLGQRE `
`
2,407,707
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
Filed April 24, 1942
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Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,707
iJNiTED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,707
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE
George Ross Kilgore, Verona, N. J., assignor to
Radio Corporation of America, a corporation of
Delaware
Application April 24, 1942, Serial No. 440,299
19 Claims.
(Cl. Z50-27.5)
1
My invention relates to electron discharge de
vices, more particularly to such devices utilizing
beam deflection and suitable for use at ultra high
2
my invention and its associated circuit, Figure 2
„ is a section taken along the line 2-2 of Figure 1
and Figure 3 is a longitudinal schematic section
of the device shown in Figure 1.
In tubes of the type under consideration a beam
Referring' to Figure 1, an electron discharge de
of electrons is directed between a pair of deñect
vice made according to my invention comprises
ing electrodes toward an apertured electrode be
an evacuated envelope l0 containing at one end
hind which is usually placed a collector. Alternat
a cathode II and at the other end a collector I2
ing voltages are applied to the deiiecting elec
for receiving electrons generated by cathode Il.
trodes to cause the electron beam to be deilected 10 Next adjacent to the cathode is a beam form
across the aperture to thus control the amount of
ing and shielding cup-shaped member I3 pro
current flowing to the collector which may be
vided with an aperture I3’ through which the
used as an output electrode. In such types of
beam of electrons is directed between a pair of
frequencies.
tubes the deflection sensitivity drops oiî as the
rod electrodes I E and I5 for determining the di
frequency at which the tube is operated is in
rection of the beam through the various elec
creased. E?forts have been made to increase the
trodes, the proper biasing voltages being supplied
defiection sensitivity or the transconductance of
by means of voltage source I6 in the form of a
the tube, but such efforts have not met with a
voltage source and potentiometer arrangement.
great deal of success.
Positioned between the collector and the beam
Conventional tubes are also subject to the lim 20 forming member I3 is a resonant cavity tank
itation that, when operated at ultra high fre
circuit or cavity resonator comprising a tubular
quencies, the input circuit tends to be of low
memberV I1 closed at one end by means of the
resonant impedance resulting in an excessive
member I8 and provided with aperture I 8’ reg
amount oi power being required to drive the tube.
istering with the beam directed from the cathode
This decreases the effective power gain of the tube 25 II. A cone-shaped partition I 9 provided with
when operated as an amplifier. Fundamental
aperture I9' is positioned intermediate the ends
causes of low resonant impedance include, among
of the member I'I to provide between the closing
other things, radiation and resistance losses due
member I8 and partition I9 a resonantl cavity.
to high circulating current in electrodes and leads.
The other end of the tubular member I 'l is closed
Electron loading also results from the inter-ac 30 by means of the member 20 provided with tubular
tion of the electron stream and the circuits con
inwardly extending member 2| in which the co1
nected to the tube and includes degenerative and
lector I2 is positioned and by which it is shielded
regenerative eiïects caused by common lead im
and screened from the field within the resonant'
pedances.
cavity. The chamber formed between the parti
It is an object of my invention to provide an 35 tion I9 and closure member 20 provides an. output
electron discharge device of the beam deflection
resonant cavity which is set and maintained in
type which is particularly suitable for use at high
oscillation, in a manner now well understood,
frequencies and which has a comparatively high
when groups of electrons pass across the gap 2|'.
transconductance.
`
It is obvious that this second resonant cavity or
It is another object of my invention to provide 40 output resonant cavity tank circuit could be
such a device utilizing an input circuit having
eliminated and the collector utilized as an `output
high resonant impedance, thus making more ef
electrode, the output circuit being connected to
fective use of the driving power.
this electrode.
A further object of my invention is to provide
In accordance with my invention I provide be
such a device in which undesired coupling, due 45 tween the apertured disc member I8 and parti
to common leads and ineliective shielding, is re
tion I9 a pair of deflecting electrodes 22 and 23
duced to a minimum.
supported by means of the strip supporting mem
The novel features which I believe to be char
bers 22’ and 23', these electrodes deflecting the
acteristic of my invention are set forth with
beam `of electrons across aperture I9’ during
particularity in the appended claims, but the in 50 operation of the electron discharge device.
vention itself will best be understood by reference
The surface of member I'I is provided with an
to the following description taken in connection
aperture I'I’ into which the reentrant portion I0’
with the accompanying drawing in which Figure 1
of envelope I0 extends and into which an input
is a longitudinal schematic section of one form of
coupling loop 24 extends to excite the resonator
an electron discharge device made according to "
during operation of the device; Another aper
2,407,707
3
ture Il" is provided in the output resonant cavity
tank circuit into which a second reentrant por
tion EQ” of the envelope I5 extends to permit a
coupling loop 25 to be extended within the cavity
to lbe coupled withthe radio frequency field gen
erated within the cavity. A source of voltage 26
4
closure member 45’ and between the deflecting'
electrodes 38 and 39 between which appears a
deiiecting radio frequency voltage, it being un
d'erstod in the usual mode of operation that the
radio frequency currents circulate from electrode
(is around 'the inside of the tank to the other
is provided from which the various biasing volt
electrode 3B, the magnetic field lying perpendic
ages may be obtained.
In operation a beam of electrons is formed by
in a manner now well known.
means of cathode II and beam forming andy 10,
shielding electrode I3, the direction of the beam
being easily controlled by means of the directing
electrodes I4 and l5.
The beam is directed
through aperture I3', between deilecting elec
trodes 22 and 23 which in one mode of operation
of the resonant cavity tank circuit between the
end member I8 and partition I9, produces a
deflecting voltage across the electrodes 22v and 23.
As a result the electron beam is deflected across
ular to the radio frequency voltage and currents
'
Thus in both arrangements a high transcon~
ductance results since the length of the deilecting
electrodes bears a definite relationship to the op
erating input frequency. Because of the en
closed circuit utilized the losses are reduced sub
stantially, thus making more power available for
dri-ving the input circuit and the tube. Because
of the enclosed circuits and because of `the large
shielding mass between the input and output cir
cuits, undesired coupling is reduced to a mini
the aperture IS’ inducing a radio frequency volt 20 mum so that the device lends itself particularly
to use as an amplifier, although it is Suitable for
age in the output cavity between partitions I9
and closure member 2E! when :the groups of elec
trons pass across gap 2l” and are collected by
collector I2, which is thoroughly shielded by
use as an oscillator with smalll changes provid'
íng feedback.
While I have indicated the preferred embodi-
means of the reentrant tubular member 2 I .' The 25 ments of my» invention of which I am now aware
deflecting electrodes 22 and 23 have, preferably, a
and have also indicated only one specific applica
length equal to approximately the distance trav
elled by an electron` during a half period of the
tion for which my invention may be employed, it
will be apparent that my invention is by no
natural frequency of oscillation of the input res
cnant cavity tank circuit formed between closure
member I8 and the partition I9. I have found
this produces a maximum deflection sensitivity
purpose- for which it is employed without depart
for this kind of operation.
l
Figure 3 shows a schematic longitudinal sec
tion of a lmodification of my invention. In this
embodiment a cathodey 3l)y is provided with a
means. limited to the exact forms illustrated or
the use> indicated, but that many variations may
be made in the‘particular structure used and the
ing from the scope of my invention as set forth
in the appended'claims.
What I claim as new is:
l. An electron discharge device having 'a cath
ode> for supplying a beam of electrons, a collector
-for said electrons, a cavity resonator for contain
ing an electromagnetic field having a resonant
heater 3l positioned at one end ofthe device and
collector 32 is positioned at the other end of the
device, this collector also serving- as an output
electrode. Next adjacent the cathode is a cylin 40 frequency and positioned between said cathode
drical beam forming» and directing member 33,
preferably in the form of a tubular member
closed at both ends by means of apertured disc
membersl33’ and 33". Within the tubular mem
ber 33` but insulated therefrom are beam direct
ing electrodes 34 and 35, which derive their po
tential from the voltage source 35. Positioned
between the beam forming member 33 and col-V
lector 32 is a resonant cavity tank circuit or cav
and said collector, said cavity resonator havingV
an opening in the wall thereof through which
said beam of electrons is to be directed, oppo-`
sitely disposed deñecting electrodes positioned
within said cavity resonator toY lie within said
electromagnetic field and between which said
beam of electrons passes during operation of said
electron discharge device, each of said deñecting
electrodes being separate from and supported by
ity resonator 31 in the form of an annularY hol 50 and electrically connected to a different portion
oi the inside wall of said resonator, said reso
lowv member of conducting material. Mounted
nator having a second opening in. another part
on opposite. walls are de?lecting electrodes 3S
of its wall aligned with said first opening and
and 39 between whichv thek beam is directed to be
across which said beam of electrons is deflected
deflected across the closure member» 40’ pro
by said deflecting electrodes during operation of
vided with an aperture bisected by member 45,
said electron discharge device.
thus giving a double aperture and providing cer
2. An electron discharge device having cathode
tain desirable characteristics. Tubular exten
means for supplying a beam of electrons, a cavity
sions 4@ and 4I extending outwardly from the
resonator for containing an electromagnetic ñeld
cavity are provided with cup-shaped elements 42
and 43, which are sealedv to the insulating cup 60 and positioned adjacent said cathode means> and
having oppositely disposed apertures in opposite
shaped members 44 and 45 for supporting the in-walls thereof through which the beam of elec
puty and collector electrodes and providing with _
trons is to be directed, and'. a pair ofi defiecting
the resonant cavity an evacuated envelope. An
elements separatevfrom the wall of said cavity
aperture 41 is provided in the resonant cavity 3l.
The aperture is surrounded by collar 48 to which 65 resonator within the cavity resonator positioned
next adjacent said apertures and connected to the
is sealed a reentrant insulating cup-shaped mem
inside walls of said cavity resonator to lie within
ber ‘is into which the input coupling loop 5i) ex
said
electromagnetic field and between which said
tends for exciting the resonant cavity. The out-.
beam of electrons is to be directed to be deflected
put voltage is impressed on the output trans
former 5I and the various biasing voltages are 70 thereby, and an output electrode system includ
ing a member having a pair of apertures through
taken from the source 52.
which the beamA of electrons is alternately di
In operation the beam of electrons from cath
rected during operation of said electron discharge
ode 39 is properly directed through various aper
device.
tures by means of electrodes 34 and- 35 and the`
3. An electron discharge device including a
electrons are accelerated through the apertured 75
5
amavo?
cathode means for providing a beam of electrons
and receiving means for said electrons, and other
means positioned between said cathodemeans
and said-receiving means for deñecting said elec
tron beam and including a closed hollow con
ducting member for containing an electromag
netic iield having apertures in diiîerent portions
of the wall thereof through which the electron
beam is to be directed, and oppositely disposed de
iiecting electrodes separate from the wall of said
closed hollow conducting member within said
enclosed hollow conducting member between
which said beam passes, each of said deflecting
electrodes being supported from and electrically
coupled to a diiierent Vpart of the inside wall of
said enclosed conducting member to lie within
said electromagnetic ñeld, and means positioned
6
means and receiving means and having regis-i
tering apertures in opposite walls thereof through
which said beam is to be directed, and deflect
ing electrodes separate from the walls of said
cavity resonator positioned within said cavity
resonator to lie within said electromagnetic field,
said deñecting electrodes being oppositely dis
posed, one of the deflecting electrodes being elec
trically connected to the inside wall of the cavity
resonator next adjacent one aperture, and an
other deñecting electrode being connected to the
inside wall of the cavity resonator next adja
cent the other aperture, and means positioned
between the receiving means and said deflecting
electrodes and having a pair of adjacent aper
tures across which said beam is to be deiiected.
'7. An electron discharge device having cathode
between said receiving means and said deñect
means for supplying a beam of electrons and a
ing electrodes and having a pair of adjacent
collector for receiving said electrons, and means
apertures across which said beam is to be de 20 positioned between the cathode means and col
flected.
lector and including a cavity resonator for` con
4; An electron discharge device including
taining an electromagnetic iield having register
cathode means for providing a beam of electrons,
ing apertures disposed in opposite walls thereof
and receiving means for receiving said electrons, - through which said beam is to be directed, and
and other means positioned between said cathode
a pair of de?lecting electrodes separate from the
means and said receiving means for deiiecting
wall of said cavity resonator and positioned in
said electron beam, and including a hollow con
termediate said apertures within said resonator
ducting member for containing an electromag
to lie within said electromagnetic field and on
netic field and having registering apertures in
opposite sides of the beam path directed there
opposite walls thereof through which said beam 30 through, and supporting and conducting means
of electrons is to be directed, and a deflecting
connected between said deflecting electrodes and
electrode positioned within said hollow conduct
the inside wall of the hollow conducting member
ing member and electrically connected to the in
intermediate the apertures.
side wall of said hollow conducting member next
8. An electron discharge device having cathode
adjacent one aperture, and another deñecting 35 means for supplying a beam of electrons and
electrode positioned within said hollow conduct
a collector for receiving said electrons, and means
ing member and electrically connected to the
positioned between the cathode means and col
inside wall of the conducting member next adja
lector and including a first cavity resonator for
cent the registering aperture, said deflecting elec
containing an electromagnetic field and having
trodes being separate from the walls of said hol 40 registering apertures disposed in opposite walls
low conducting member and oppositely disposed
thereof through which said beam is to be directed,
within fsaid hollow conducting member to lie
and a pair of deflecting electrodes separate from
within said electromagnetic field the path of said
the walls of said cavity resonator positioned in
beam lying between said deiiecting electrodes,
termediate said apertures within said resonator
and a member positioned between the deñecting 45 to lie within said field and on opposite sides of
’electrodes and the receiving means and having
the path of the beam directed therethrough, and
an aperture across which said beam is to be
supportingand conducting means connected be
deñected.
tween said deñecting electrodes and to the inside
5. An electron discharge device including cath
wall of the first cavity resonator intermediate the
ode means for providing a beam of electrons, 50 apertures, and a second cavity resonator posi
and receiving means for said beam of electrons, a
tioned between said ñrst cavity resonator and
cavity resonator for containing an electromag
said collecting means and through which said
netic field and positioned between said cathode
beam is to be directed.
means and receiving means and having regis
9. An electron discharge device having cath
tering apertures in opposite walls thereof through 55 ode means for providing a beam of electrons, a
which said beam is to be directed, and deflecting
collector for receiving said beam of electrons,
electrodes independent of the wall of the cavity
and a pair of adjacent cavity resonators each for
resonator positioned within said cavity resonator,
said deiiecting electrodes being oppositely dis
conñning‘an electromagnetic field and .positioned
between .the cathode means and collector and
posed, one of the deflecting electrodes being elec- '
having a plurality of aligned apertures through
trically connected to the inside wall of the cavity 60 which the electron beam is directed, deñecting
resonator next adjacent one aperture, and an
electrodes separate from and positioned within
other deiiecting electrode being connected to the
the ñrst cavity resonator to lie within the electro
inside wall of the cavity resonator next adja
magnetic field and through which the beam path
cent the other aperture, said deñecting electrodes 65 passes and between which therbeam is to be di
being within said resonator to lie within said
reoted for deiiecting .the electron beam across an
electromagnetic field, and means provided with
aperture between the cavity resonators, said de
an aperture across which said beam is to be
fiecting electrodes being supported by means of
conducting strips connected to the inside wall of
means andthe defiecting electrodes.
70 the first of said cavity resonators intermedi-ate
6. An electron discharge device including cath
the apertures of the ñrst cavity resonator.
ode means for providing a beam of electrons,
10. An electron discharge device having cath
and receiving means for said beam of electrons,
ode means for providing a beam of electrons, a
a cavity resonator for containing an electromag
collector for receiving said beam of electrons, and
netic ñeld and positioned between said cathode 75 a pair `of adjacent cavity resonators positioned
deiiected‘and positioned between the receiving
2,407,707
7
between the cathode means and collector andl
having a plurality of aligned apertures through
which the electron beam issto be directed, deflect--l
ing electrodes positioned within the ñrst cavity
resonator through which the beam path passes
and between which the beam is .to be directedfor.
comprising. a pair of oppositelyL disposed elements
parallel to the,A beam'path and strap-like elements
supporting and electrically connecting said de
flecting electrodeswith the inner wall of the` tubu
lar member intermediate said last closure mem
ber and said partition,_ a reentrant .tubular mem
between the -cavity lresonators, said de?lecting
ber extending fromy the closure member adjacent
said collector and; providing with said partition
portion having an opening registeringA with the
apertures, said collector being positioned within
tures in the partition and closure members dur
ing, operation. of' said electron discharge device.
deñecting the electron .beam across »anA aperture
a gap across` which the beam path of electrons
electrodes being supported by means of conduct
ing strips connected to the innerV wall of the. ñrst 10 passes, Said, collectorl being positioned Within said
reentrant .tubular member, and beam directing
of said cavity resonators intermediate the aper
electrodes positioned within the beam forming
tures of .the first cavity resonator, said second
means for directing the beam through the aper
cavity resonator being provided with a> reentrant
ifi. An'electron discharge devicev having a cath
0de for Supplying. electrons and a collector for
11. An electron discharge device having a cath
said electrons, means including a cavity' resonator
ode for supplying electrons, a collector for said
positioned- between the cathode, and collector and
electrons, a tubular member positioned between
said cathode and said collector and having aclo 20 having aperturas in opposite Walls thereof, a de
iiecting electrode extending inwardly of said Cav
sure- member at each end thereof, and a partition
ity
resonator and positioned adjacent one aper
intermediate said closure members, said closure
ture and an oppositely disposed deiiectingV elec
members and said partition being provided with
said reentrant portion.
aligned apertures, a pair of> deflecting electrodes
positioned between a closure member adjacent
said cathode and said partition and comprising a
pair of oppositely disposed elements parallel to
trode positioned adjacent the other aperture, out
wardly extending tubular extensions around said
lthe beam path and strap-like elements support
trons
tobe directed.
'i
15. An electron. discharge> device having. a
ing and electrically connecting said deñecting
apertures and each; provided with an apertured
closure member through which the: beam of, elec
cathode for supplying electrons and a collector
electrodes from the inner wall of the tubular
for said electrons„ means including a cavity res'
member intermediate said last closure member
onator> positionedv between the cathode andv co1
and said partition, a` reentrant tubular member
lector and having apertures in oppositeV walls
extending from the closure member adjacent said
thereof,` a denecting electrode extending inward
collector and providing with said partition a gap
across which the beam path of electrons passes. 35 ly of said cavity resonator and positionedv adja
cent` one aperture and an oppositely disposed de
l2. An electron discharge- device having a cath
ode for supplying electrons, and means adjacent
said cathode for forming said electrons into a
beam, a collector for said electrons, a tubular
flecting electrode positioned, adjacent the other
aperture, outwardly extending tubular extensions
around said apertures and each provided with
member positioned between the beam forming 40 an aperturedy closure member 'through which the
members and said partition being provided with
aligned apertures, a pair of deñecting electrodes
positioned between the closure member adjacent
beam of electrons is to be directed', and a beam
forming and directing meansv positioned between
the cathode and one of the apertured closure
members, and including a hollow conducting
member and a pair of beamV directing electrodes.
16.> An electron discharge device having a. cath
ode for supplying electrons and a collector for
.the beam forming means and said partition and
said electrons, means including a cavity resona
means and said collector and having a closure
ymember at‘each end thereof', and a partition in
termediate said closure members thereby form
ing two successive cavity resonators, said closure
tor positioned between` the cathode andfcollector
andY having apertures in opposite walls thereof,
a deilecting electrode extending inwardlyV of said
cavity` resonator and positioned adjacent one ap
erture and an oppositely disposed de?lecting elec
lar member intermediate said last closure mem
trode positioned adjacent the other aperture, out
ber and said partition, a reentrant tubular mem
wardly extending tubular extensions around said
ber extending from the closure member adjacent
apertures and each provided with an apertured
said collector and providing with said partition a
closure member through which the beam of elec
gap across which the beam path of electrons
trons is to be directed, and cup-shaped members
passes, the ñrst cavity resonator having an aper
sealed to said tubular extensions on said cavity
ture into which an input coupling loop may be
extended, and the second cavity resonator hav 6,0 resonator and forming with said cavity resonator
an envelope for the cathode and collector elec
ing another aperture into which an outputïcou'
comprising a pair of oppositely disposed elements
parallel to the beam path and strap-like elements
supporting and electrically connecting said de
?lecting electrodes with the inner wall of the tubu
pling loop may be extended.
;
trode.
~
1'7'. An electron discharge device having a cath
13. An electron discharge device havingrazcath
ode -for supplying electrons. and a collector for
ode for supplying electrons, and means adjacent
said cathode for forming said electrons into a 65 said electrons, means including a cavity resona
tor positioned between the cathode and collector
beam, and a collector for saidelectrons, a tubular
and; having apertures in opposite walls thereof, a
member positioned between 1the beam vfor-ming
deflecting electrode extending inwardly of said
means and said collector and having a closure
cavityresonator‘and positioned adjacent one ap
member at each end thereof, and a partition in
erture and an> oppositely disposed deflecting electermediate said closure members thereby-forming
trode positioned;adjacentthe; other aperture, out
two successive cavity resonators, said closure
wardly-extending tubular exten-sions around said
members and said partition» being provided `with
apertures, each extension having an apertured
.aligned apertures, a pair of deflectingI electrodes
closure member'throughWhichthe beam oit elec.
positioned between the closure member» adjacent
the beam forming means andsaid partition and
trons is tot be directed,_ and cup-shaped members
2,407,707
sealed to said tubular extensions on said cavity
resonator and forming with said cavity resonator
an envelope for the cathode and collector elec
trode, and a third aperture in said cavity resona
tor and a reentrant cup-shaped member sealing
said aperture, said last cup-shaped member be
ing adapted to receive a coupling loop within said
aperture.
10
positioned between said cathode and one of the
tubular extensions of said cavity resonator.
19. An electron discharge device having a
cathode for supplying a stream of electrons and
a collector for said electrons, a cavity resonator
positioned between the cathode and collector and `
having apertures in opposite walls thereof, a de
ñecting electrode extending inwardly of said cav
ity resonator from the wall thereof and adjacent
18. An electron discharge device having a
cathode for supplying a stream of electrons and 10 one of said apertures, and a second deflecting
a collector for said electrons, a cavity resonator
electrode positioned opposite the iìrst and sup
positioned between the cathode and collector and
ported by and from the wall of the cavity res
having apertures in opposite walls thereof, a de
onator adjacent the other aperture, outwardly
iiecting electrode extending inwardly of said cav
extending tubular extensions surrounding said
ity resonator from the wall thereof and adjacent 15 apertures and having apertured closure members
one of said apertures, and a second deflecting
at the ends thereof, cup-shaped flange members
electrode positioned opposite the first and sup
secured to said tubular extensions and closure
ported by and from the wall of the cavity res
members sealed to said flange members and pro
onator adjacent the other aperture, outwardly
viding with said cavity resonator an envelope,
extending tubular extensions surrounding said 20 and beam forming and directing means posi
apertures each having an apertured closure mem
tioned between said cathode and one of the tu
ber at the free end thereof, cup-shaped flange ex
bular extensions of said cavity resonator, the clo
tensions secured to said tubular members and
sure member adjacent said collector having a
closure members sealed to said flange members
double aperture.
and providing with said cavity resonator an en 25
GEORGE ROSS KJLGORE.
velope, and beam forming and directing means
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