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Sept. 17, 1946.
F. c. Ml-:LcHloR
Filed Feb. 1. 1944
3 Sheets-Smet 1
. .mw
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Frederick Cßßlelcîez'or
Sept. 17, `1946.
F.l c.fMELcHloR
3 `Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Feb. ' 1, 1944
` ",________f’
Sept. 17, 1946.
F. c. MELcl-noR
Filed Feb. 1, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
_ „2,407,719
l `
Fi‘ederickiflfMelchior, New York, N. Y.r
Application-rennen 1, 1944, seriali-No. 520,629'
:e claims.
(cl. 12s-_171) >
vide'means for proper 'cooling of the exhaustcol
This invention relates `to improvements `>in air- »
lector ring `and ventilation of the 'collector well,
'craft power plant 'installations and moreì particu
whether or not ‘the carburetor 'heat is used, and
to eliminate the `undesirablev effects Aci’ the cowl
larly to the use and -disposal `’of engine exhaust
-`heat and of 'the `air heated in the _process 'o'f
cooling the engine and its cylinders.
YMore `specifically myA ‘invention provides an
flaps now in current use.
The subject invention embodies -a vsliding Ven
turi cowl to replace the conventional ‘cow'l‘flaps
said Venturi cowl incorporating rigidlylatt'ached
improved carburetor‘air prehheatsystem combin
ing the coolingof thefexhaust collector-ring with
thereto a shroud or muiî partly enclosing Vthe
the ventilation of the engine -compartment and
10 exhaust collector ring in ‘the‘well and extending
substantially along itheperiphe'ry. »As the :nuff
In the 'conventional air-cooled engine instal
moves With‘the sliding Venturi ‘_cowl `this lwhole
lation `the `nose cowl‘is equipped with a series of
unit forms with the rear ~cowl and’the diaphragm
cowl naps attached to its trailing edge >and Aex
a variable Venturi opening as ‘an `exit `aperture
tending substantially A"along the periphery thereof
except vfor the areas occupied by the air intake 15 'for the hot air-flowing through the exhaust col
scoops for the carburetor and for >oi-l cooling. ~
lector well, such now being augmented by venturi
When the cowl flaps are opened at an ‘angle the
the engine compartment thereby augmenting
However, cowl 'flaps
'ventilation of the same.
when `opened have the undesirable :effect of caus
ing turbulence disturbing the air flow around‘the
nacelle and part of the wing and -sometimes ad
versely alîecting the control surfaces Vtol the ex
tent that in some current'aircraft cowlf'flaps-can
not be opened appreciably during night,
To provide adequate pre-heating of’the 'car
In the Aaccompanying drawings
Figure 1 is a'vertical's'ectional view of'a nacelle
embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional-view;
4deflection of the air flow 'cause's‘su‘cti'on out of
Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view taken on Vthe
line v3--3 of Figure’l.
As'in the conventional installation the motor
25 |0=is mounted inthe nacelle fl I in the usuall man
ner on-the `conventional mount ring ‘12. An air
'intake scoop I5 for the >oil cooler -maybe pro
vided as is the -airin‘take or ram scoop T|16 'for
buretor air as an anti-icing measure, the `con
ventional installation Yalso embodies a Í‘shroud or
the carburetor. These are usually mounted'with
the scoop 'I5 at 'the ‘bottom and the >scoop f6 ‘at
Vthe top ofthe `nose cowl l1. 'My invention con
templates an engine'having »et-conventional ex
haust collector ring 20 andan exhaust collector
muff, comprising in effect a continuation ofït'he
rear cowl, rigidly attached to the latter and"~
partially enclosing the collector well ìhou-sing the
exhaust collector` ring or manifold. The shroud
well 2| *formed by a diaphragm T22 and -a lmov
or muiî is interrupted at the >top »and `bottom
ofthe nacelle to accommodate air «scoops ‘to v‘the 35 able v'shroud member 23 attached to a sliding
Venturi cowl `24. The -shroud 23 'is so shaped
carburetor-and oil cooler.
as to `form with the diaphragm «'2'2 `a vcollector
It is usual to-locate over the collector well 1an
well Asubstantially elliptical in cross section. A
alternate air valve which may be adjusted at
fixed-shield ¿451separates the upper part of the
will to vadmit the l‘desired amount »of hot vair'fro'm
the collector well where it has been heated 40 collector well l'from'the -engine‘- compartment, said
through Acontact with the lexhaust fcollector iin'g.~- »
This arrangement provides adequate carburetor
shield extending over a sector 'sufñ'cientl‘y large to
compel the cooling Uair 'to ii'ow ' substantially along
the Iexhaust Acollector well before entering the
carburetor, when heated air is used inthe same.
stallations lacking Vsuch arrangement. However, 45 The Venturi `cowl member '24 >and vthe/shroud
23 are preferably made in one piece vextending
it does not render optimum ventilationfo'f‘the>
yfrom the edge’25 of‘the'shie‘ld 145 around tothe
engine compartment under all conditions, `nor
lopposite fedge 21. However, if desired, ‘themov
does it `provide `for the proper cooling of thejex
able cowl Vmember "24 may extend `Vfrom theedge
haust collector ring and ventilation of 'the 'col
lector well, especially when lcin'bur'etor heat is 50 "2110i the- plate 445 lto theedge ‘28 of the oil cooling
"scoop t5 and a ‘similar -cowlV member "35iïhaving
not used, thus causing heat to `be trapped »which
l Va shroud m29 maybe‘fmounted on `Vthe other `side
in turn results ïin undue 'heating o‘f the acces
air heat to cope with normal iicing conditions,
which has `been found not tobe the caseiinän
sories compartment as ‘well `as thermal punish- ~
ment of various pertinent-parts.
An object-of the present invention fis fto pro
ofthel nacelle, it'being understood that thellength
of the movable cowl '24 and'its `shroud. 23 ‘need
55 not be limited in area.
The movement of fthe
cowl 24 and the shroud 23 may be controlled
effect of cowl flaps when opened disturbance oi'.
manually or thermostatically by any suitable
the air ñow causes a drag which represents a
means such as the thread bar 30 engaging the
definite loss in terms of horse power. In the sub
bracket 3| so that as the bar 30 is turned theV
ject invention the method of disposing of heat
cowl will move accordingly.
5 through Venturi action causes no such disturb
Mounted under the ram scoop I6 adjacent to
ance with consequent losses. Not only will my
where it enters the engine 33 is an alternate air
construction further control the heat to the car
Valve 34 separating the collector well 2l from .the
buretor by virtue of increased heat transfer ef
ram scoop I5.' The -valve 34 -'may be operated in
ficiency due to improved air flow through the
any suitable manner and it may .or vmay not be 10 collector well and around the exhaust collector
coordinated with the movement of the Venturi Y _ring but as a direct consequence is obtained
cowl 24 or, where two cowls are used, 24 and 35. *» greatly improved cooling of the exhaust collector
In full cold operation air will fbe" directed Y ring and ventilation of the collector well together
with improved ventilation of the engine compart
through the ram scoop I6 into the ,carburetor'at
ment and cooling of the engine under all condi
3-3 as in the conventional installation.- Additional
air will pass through the nose cowl H absorbingy
tions of iiight. .
, . .
heat from the motor l0 and cooling Ithe motor
I claim
vand will then pass into the collector well through
1. In combination with an engine installation
the opening 38 and 39 formed between the mount
including a nacelle having a nose cowl and an
ring and the movable shroud 33 thus absorbing 20 air. intake scoop leading to the carburetor of said
heat from and cooling the exhaust collector ring.
engine and an exhaust collector ring, of a car
In operation .the action of the air past the
buretor pre-heat system includinga slidable cowl
nacelle will create `a Venturifsuction in the Ven
turi slot between the slidingv cowl 24 -and the ,
rear cowl 40 to suck the air over the motor and
member extending from either side of said air
through the collector well around the exhaust
collector ring. With the valve 34 closed the air
going to the carburetor will be direct from the
shroud on said slidable cowl forming with said
diaphragm a collector well around said exhaust
collector ring, a valve leading from said collector
well to said air intake scoop, means for selec
tively operating said valve and said slidable‘cowl
scoop, a diaphragm extending from said engine
mounting to the outer edge of said nacelle, a
outside. The valve may be operated either man- .
ually or thermostatically so as to allow a, required 30
portion of the heated air from- the collector well
to determine the amount of air` passing through
-to mix with- the air coming through the scoop
I6. YNaturally the -greater the opening of the
`valve34v the moreheated air
will pass to the ,
said collector well and the amount of air passing
from said collector well into said air scoop.
2. In combination with an engine'installation
including a nacelle having a nose cowl and an air
By operation of the Venturi cowl 24 the mass
flow of air over the cylinders-can be effectively
controlled. This mass flow being constant for a
given set of conditions it is‘fevident that the.
amount of heated air transmitted to the carbu 40
intake scoop leading to the carburetor of said
engi-ne, said installation including aconventional
mount ring and an exhaust collector ring, adja
cent thereto, of a Ventilating and carburetor pre
heating system including a diaphragm extending
from said mount ring to the outer edge of said
retor will depend upon the ratio of the opening
of the Venturi cowl 24 to that of the ,alternatev
nacelle, a slidable cowl member extending from
air valve 34 as heated air can only ñow tothe
either side of said air scoop, a shroud on said
carburetor by way of the collector well. It is also
slidable cowl forming with said diaphragm a col
evident that the carburetorîmust ñrst obtain its 45 lector well about said exhaust collectory ring,
share of the mass ilow of cooling air passing
means for moving said slidable cowl and shroud
through the engine compartment, the sliding
within said nacelle to vary the opening from the
Venturi cowl 24 being open just enough'to-»drain
- interior of said nacelle to the outer air, a valve
out the remainder, said opening to ‘be-governed? leading from said collector well to said air intake
primarily by >desired cylinder head temperatures. 50 scoop, and means for operating said valve to con
trolthe amount of air passing from said collector
It follows that when no hot air is admitted to the
carburetor the opening of cowl 24 must-~ be cor
respondingly greater' and, likewise when maxi
mum carburetor heat is needed, the opening of,`
cowl 24 should be barely large enough to main
tain cylinder temperatures within permissible
limits. By thus properly manipulating the Valve
wellinto said air scoop.
3. In combination with an engine installation
including a nacelle having a nose cowl and an air
intake scoop leading to the carburetor of said en
‘ gine, said engine installation including» a conven
tional mount ring and an-exhaust collector ring,
adjacent thereto, of a Ventilating and carburetor
Vpre-heating system including a diaphragm ex
60 tending from said mount ring to the outer edge
'To further improve the cooling of the -exhaust
of saidnacelle, a slidable cowl member extending
collector the inner edge ofthe mufr- or-shroud
from either side of said air scoop, a shroud` on
is rounded or shapedin a manner sc_as to form
said-slidable cowl forming with said diaphragm
with the mounting ring andthe diaphragm ang~
a collector well around said exhaust collector ring,
entrance aperture for the cooling 'airinto the
means for moving said Vslidable cowl and shroud
collector well', saidV aperture beingalso in the
within said nacelle to vary the opening from the
nature of a Venturi slot or opening for the pur
interior of> said nacelle -to the outer air, a valve
pose of providing a more uniform and effective
leading from said collector well to said air intake
air flow about the exhaust collector ring which„~-~ scoop,y and vmeans for operating said valve to con
it will be noted, is elliptical in cross section Vfor 70 trol-the amount jof `air passing from saidcollector
still further’improvement or flow around it. Such
well-into said air- scoop, said'means being op
improved ñowirenders better heat transfer-'and
erated to prevent any- air- from said collector well
consequently _a greater degree »of pre-heat avail
from passing into'said air scoop or to mix the
34 and cowl 24”-the air. going into the carburetor
as well as~the cylinder VAtemperatures can beef-f
fectively controlled-l
In addition to the aforementioned undesirable
heated air with air from said air scoop. ¿ v
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