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Патент USA US2407734

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Sept- 17, 1946»
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c. T. AsHBY
TWO TEMPERATURE EVAPORATOR FOR INERT
GAS TYPE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATORS
Filed may 15, 1941
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2,407,733
2 sheets-sheet 2
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/á'è ATTORNEY.
Patented S'ept. 17, 1946
2,407,733
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.~`
TWO TEMPERATURE EVAPORATOR FORl
IN ERT GAS TYPE ABSORPTION REFRIG
ERATORS
Carl T. Ashby, Evansville, Ind., assigner to Servei,
Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of Dela
Ware
Application May 15, 1941, Serial N0. 393,558`
1
(Cl. 62-119.5)
18 Claims.
1
-
My invention relates to refrigeration and more
particularly to refrigeration produced by evap
gas.
-
`
A
‘Y
It is an object of the invention to produce re
frigeration simultaneously at different temper
atures and maintain a distinct differential be
tween such temperatures.
,
A coil type] evaporator 25 is located in a re
frigerator storage compartment 26. Evaporator
oration of liquid in the presence of auxiliary in
ert
2
s
,
It is another object to providea coil-type evap
25 comprises a coil section 21 forming one part
and a coil section 28 forming other parts.` A con
duit 29 'is connected from the condenser trap 22
to the upper part of coil section 28. Conduit 30
is connected from condenser trap 23 to an inter
mediate part of coil section 28. A conduit 3l is
connected from condenser trap 24l to a bottom
orator for pressure equalized refrigeration appa 10 part of coil section 28. A downward looped con
ratus having distinct temperature zones.
duit >»32 is connected from the lower'end of said
It is another object to provide an evaporator
upper part of coil section 28v to the upper end
for pressure equalized absorption refrigeration
of coil section 21. A similar conduit 33 is con
apparatus having high and low temperature
nected from saidintermediate part of coil sec
zones with increased cooling capacity of ~the
tion 28 to an intermediate turn in coil section 21.
higher temperature zone.
’ `
Another similar conduit 34 is connected from
The above, together with other objects and
advantages, are more f_ully set forth and ex
plained in the following description in `connec
the lower end of Vsaid bottom part of coil section
28 to a lower turn of coil section 21.` A drain
conduit‘35is connected from the lower en‘clY of
tion with the accompanying drawings forming 20 coil section »21`to the inner passage of a. gas heat
part of this specification and of which:
The upper end of coil section 21 is connected to
Fig. lshows _more or less diagrammatically a '
refrigeration apparatus embodying the inven
the upper end of coil section 28 and the .latter is
exchanger
tion;
.
,
Figffshows schematically a refrigerator pro
vided with a cooling element embodying the in
36.
'
"
`
' ’
located‘as a whole at al slightly higher elevation
The lower end of
evaporator coil section 21 is connected by a con
25 than that of coil section 21.
duit 31, outer passage of gas vheat-exchanger 3B,
and a conduit 38 to the upper part of absorber
Fig. 3 is an enlarged View, partly broken away,
of the coolingv element shown in Fig. 2;
I2. The lower end of evaporator section 28 is
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4--4 30 connected by a conduit 39, inner passage of gas
vention;
in Fig. 3; and
, heat exchanger 36, and a conduit 40 to the lower
'
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5-5
in Fig. 4.
Referring to Fig. 1, the refrigeration system
part of evaporator I2.
The top of condenser trap 24 is connected by a
conduit 4I .to one end of a vessel 42.
The other
includes a generator I0 heated by suitable means 35 end of vessel 42 is connected by a conduit 43 to
such as a gas burner II. The generator I 0 is
conduit’39 in the evaporatoréabsorber gas cir
cuit.
'
connected with an absorber I2 by conduits in
The above described system is evacuated and
cluding a liquid heat exchanger I3 for circula--I »
charged with refrigerant ñuid, an absorbent
tion of absorption liquid through and between
the generator and absorber. The generator I0 40 therefor, and an inert auxiliary iiuid. Ammonia,
is provided with a vapor liquid lift I4 to‘carry out i water, and hydrogen `may be used.` The> am
monia and water are flowed into the system as
this liquid circulation in known manner. The
a solution, and the hydrogen'r is flowed into the
absorber I2 is shown provided with a coil I2a for
system under a pressure such that the total pres
circulation of a cooling fluid. ' Fins could be used
for direct air cooling of the absorber, as known.` 45 sure in the-system will be the condensing tem
perature of ammonia at a fairly high room tem
The generator I0 is connected by a conduit I5',
a rectifier I6, and a conduit I1 to the upper end
In operation, burner I I is lighted to heat gen
of an air-cooled condenser I8. The condenser I8
erator Ill. Ammonia vapor is expelled from so
comprises an upper section I9, an intermediate
section 20, and a lower section 2|. A liquid trap 50 lution'` by heating in the generator. Vapor
formed in the generator and which rises through
22 is connected between the two upper condenser
conduit I4 causes upward flow of liquid through
sections I9 and 20, a liquid trap 23 is connected
this- conduit by‘known vapor lift action so that
between the two lower condenser sections 2U and
perature.
2l. A liquid trap 24 is connected to the bottom
condenser section 2|.
>
.
A
l
"
‘
»
Y
liquid flows by gravity through the rest of the
.generator-absorber liquid circuit. All the gen
3
4
erator vapor flows from the upper end thereof
through conduit I5, rectiñer I6, and conduit I1
evaporator coil section 28 is located outside of
and around the coil section 21. The coil section
23 is arranged in thermal conductive relation
to condenser I8.
Liquid formed by condensation of vapor in con
denser section I9 flows through trap 22 and con
with an outer sheet metal casing 41 provided with
heat transfer fins 48. The coil section 28 and
duit 29` into the upper part of evaporator coil
section 28. Liquid formed by condensation of
itscasingßî shields the inner .casing 4G and the
low temperature coil section 21 from contact with.
vapor in condenser section 2e flows through trap l »» „ air in the refrigerator.
Between the inner evap
orator casing 46 and outer casing 41 is a dead
air space 'which thermally insulates the low tem
perature or freezing section.
Since Asubstantially none of the air cooling load
23 and conduit 39 into the intermediate part Vof
coil 28. Liquid formed by condensation 'of vapor
in lower condenser section 2`I flows throughltrap’ `
2d and conduit 3I into the bottom part of coil
section 28. In operating thesystem so ,that a_
is imposed Aupon' the low temperature evaporator
l coil section 21, only a small amount of ammonia
in refrigerator 26, either by manual adjustment 15 evaporates in this coil section when the freezing
of burner I I or by thermostatic control of burner - load-thereon is small. Under such conditions
the gas ‘entering the higher temperature coil sec
l I responsive to a temperature condition affected"
tion'28jwill contain a relatively small quantity of
by the evaporator as known, vapor will 'be~con--.
ammonia vapor so that, under such conditions,
densed only in the upper sections of the con
substantially constant temperature is maintained »
theI te_na-perature4 of the` part of this coil section
which isi connected to the ,low >temperature sec
denser under low vloadconditions» so that Íliquid
»will-dow .from the condenser onlyinto the upper
part or parts4 of evaporator coil section 28, yand,
liquid willbe supplied from the condenser to all
par-ts of evaporatorl coil section A28 onlyV under
increased load conditions. Dams 44 ¿are located
in'evaporator coil section 28 so that, for instance,
liquid 'supplied to the upper part of coil section
.-28 flows only through this section` and thence
through conduit 32 to the coil section 21. How
ever, any liquid which enters `evaporator' coil see
tionv 21 would be cold, thus lowering the' humid'-y
ity of air in the refrigerator`V compartment.
However, by introducing hot ammonia liquid
25
fromïthecòndenser through conduits 29, 3l), and
3I Yatpoints distributed along the length of coil
section 28, the temperature of this coil is main- y
30
tained higher so that better ¿humidity of air in
the refrigerator compartment’is obtained even
with smallfload on the freezing -coil 21. 'j
tion >¿1j Will ñow downward in this coil section
Referring again to lFìg. 1, -when uncondensed
from its point of entrance to such point as it
may be used up by evaporation.
ammonia vapor `issues from the lower Vend of
condenser I3, as upon increase in temperature of
the ,cooling ainthe vapor flows through conduit
Wherever liquid is present in the evaporator
coil, it evaporatesand diffuses into the hydrogen,
In 'starting operation, `liquid Yfirst enters coil `sec
ltion-2B sov that the addition .of heavy ammonia
,s 4l into Vessel 42 andl displaces'r‘hydrogen >from
this reserve vessel -through >conduit 43 vinto the
evaporator-absorber gas circuitso that the `total
pressure in the system rises to the necessary con
.vapor to gasinthis coil causes ,_gas çirculationt'o
start downward in coil section 2&3 and gas `circu-`
densing pressureV of vammonia at the increased
latio-n continues in the direction ofthe arrows in
temperature and l.refrigeration continues at this
Fig. l». The flow is fromvrthe lowerv endv ofrcoil
increased pressure. Ammonia vapor which' Ycon
section 28 to the absorber I2.
Y t l
_.Í ¿ « f
denses in Yvessel 4¿I2 drains Ythrough conduit _4I,
l
trap `2ll,’and conduit 3l into the lower part lof
_ 4»Ammonia vapor- is absorbed into absorption
evaporator coil 28.
»
' `
liquid in absorber I2'. " rl'he hydrogen ¿fromwhich
ammonia has been absorbed, that is _weakv gas, 45 , 'Various'. changes andrmodîñcations may >be
made within the scope of the invention asset
returns from theY absorber through the `gas heat
exchanger 36 to the lower -end of evaporator coil
_forth in the following claims.
-What is claimed is:
section
Gas flow
21. is upward ,throughv
v ¿
coil section
»
. 21 and
evaporates at a temperature dependent upon -the
partial pressure of ammonia vapor in theîv‘p‘res
ence of the evaporating liquid.
' '
’ y
occurs to produce refrigeration, means .for flowing
inert gas through said parts in series, meanspro
Since weak gas
of ammonia vapor in this coil section is less than
the partial pressure of ammonia vapor in coil
I '
- l. A refrigeration system having a plurality of
parts in which evaporation of refrigerantliquid -
downward through coil section r,28. Ammonia
_ñows iirst in coil section 21, the partial pressure
-
Y
viding thermal insulation between a lfirst of said
55
section 28. Therefore, the temperature of coil
section 21 is lower than the ‘temperature of coil
par-ts on one `hand and others »of Said parts on
the other, and mean-s for simultaneously .intro
ducing liquid refrigerant .individually into said
otherparts, said ñrst partbeing 'connected Vand
arranged to receive liquid from saidother parts.
2.l »A refrigeration system having-a pluralityof
_ The evaporator coils shown diagrammatically 60 parts in which evaporation of refrigerantyliquid
in Fig. l are formed into a usable cooling element
occursto produce refrigeration, means ïfor'flow»
which is shown located in a _household_refrigering inert `gas through said parts in seriespmeans
ator in Fig. 2 and illustrated in detail sections
proyiding'thermal insulation between a'?lrstof
section 28.
Figs; 3, 4 and-5.
t
.
_
Referring to Fig.y 2, andvprin- . . said'parts on one "handI and othersof saidj parts
cipally to, Figs. 3, fl, and 5., the evaporator ß25
located in the storage compartment -2Iì`o'f are
kf_rigeratorßì'ä is formed to provide a low temper
65
aturezonefor freezing wateror the like, and a
higher temperature Zone for Vcooling of air in „ .
the refrigerator. The evaporator coil section 21
on thegother, means for simultaneously conduct
ing liquid refrigerant individually to said ¿other
parts, and means for simultaneously v»conducting
liquid refrigerant individually from said> other
partsrto fsa-id first part'.
.~
.
l
‘ '3, A> refrigeration vsystem vhaving a plurality of
is arranged in good thermal conductive'relation
parts’in vwhich evaporation of refrigerant 'liquid
with an Vinner casing 46, ,Casing 46 forms a plu-`
occurs to produce refrigeration, means for flow;
rality of compartments- to receive ice freezing
ing inert’gasA through‘said parts`,`.means.for sìmulè
trays or the like. Asshown, coil section`2'1`isA -¿ taneou-sly conducting liquid-refrigerant individ
embedded in an aluminum casting 45.' The
ually to some of said parts, and means for simul
‘2,407,733
taneously conducting- -` liquid individually from
-said some parts toanother'of said parts.v
4. A refrigeration system having a plurality of
parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid
occurs to produce refrigeration, means providing
thermal insulation between a first of said parts on
one hand and others of said parts on the other,
a refrigerant fluid liqueiier, means for conducting
‘6
freezing chamber, a pipe coil arranged for cool
ing said chamber, a second pipe coil encompass
ing said first coil'and cooling chamber in spaced
relation thereto, a casing thermally associated
with said second coil providing exteriorly an `air
_cooling’surface and interiorly a dead airspace,
means for conducting liquid refrigerant individu
ally to different partsmof said second coilg'm'eans
>for conducting `liquid from ’said-.second coil >to
said first coil, and-'means'for flowing inertv gas
liquefied refrigerant fluid from said liqueñer in
dividually and> simultaneously to said other parts,
i through said first coil and then through said sec
means for conducting liquid from said other parts
to said first part, and means for flowing inert gas
ond coil.
11. A refrigerator cooling element including a
through said first part and then through said
other parts.
freezing chamber, a first pipe coil thermally asso
5. A refrigeration system having a plurality of 15 ciated with said chamber, a second pipe coil lo
parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid
cated about said first coil and freezing chamber
occurs to produce refrigeration, a refrigerant fluid
and insulated therefrom, said second coil being
liqueñer, means for simultaneously conducting
provided with heat transfer surface for cooling
liquefied. refrigerant fluid from said liqueñer in
air, means for conducting liquid refrigerant indi
dividually to some of said parts, means for simul 20 vidually to different parts of said second coil,
taneously conducting liquid individually from
means for conducting liquid from said second
said some parts to another of said parts, and
coil to said ñrst coil, and means for flowing inert
means for flowing inert gas through said parts.
gas through said first coil and then through said
second coil.
partment, a refrigeration system having a plural
12. A refrigeration system having two sections
ity of parts in- which evaporation of refrigerant
in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid occurs
liquid occurs to produce refrigeration, a freezing
to produce refrigeration, one of said sections
chamber in heat transfer relation with a ñrst of
shielding the other of said sections from ambient
said parts, means providing thermal insulation
air, means for flowing inert gas through said sec
between said first part and said chamber on one 30 tions, means for conducting liquid refrigerant in
hand and others of said parts on the other, said
dividually to different parts of said one section,
other parts being arranged to cool air in said re
and means for conducting liquid refrigerant; indi- „
frigerator storage compartment, means for simul
vidually from said parts to said other section.
6. In a refrigerator having a food storage com
taneously conducting liquid refrigerant individu
_
ally to said other parts, means to conduct liquid
from said other parts to said ñrst part, and means
to flow inert gas through said first part and then
through said other parts.
7. A refrigeration system having a plurality of
thermally separated sections in which evapora
tion of refrigerant liquid occurs to produce re
frigeration, means for flowing inert gas through
said sections, means to simultaneously conduct
liquid refrigerant individually to different parts
parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid .
occurs to produce refrigeration, a first of said
of one of said sections, and means to simultane
13. A refrigeration system having a plurality of
ously conduct liquid individually from said >parts
parts being en_folded by and insulated from others
of said parts, means for conducting liquid refrig
erant individually to said other parts, means to
to another of said sections.
14. A refrigeration system having a plurality of
parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid
. conduct liquid from said other parts to said first 45 occurs to produce refrigeration at distinctly dif
part, and means to flow inert gas through said
ferent temperatures, structure providing thermal
first part countercurrent to flow of liquid therein
insulation between a first of said parts on one
and then through said other parts concurrent to
hand and others of said parts on the other, struc
ñow of liquid therein.
,
ture for introducing warm liquid refrigerant into
8. A refrigeration system having a plurality of 50 said other parts, said first part being connected
parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid
and arranged to receive liquid from said other
occurs to produce refrigeration, some of said
parts, and means for flowing inert gas through
parts encompassing another of said parts in
said first part countercurrent to flow of liquid
spaced relation thereto, means providing a dead
therein and then through said other parts con
air space enveloping said other part, means for 55 current to flow of liquid therein.
conducting liquid refrigerant individually to said
` 15. A refrigeration system having a plurality
some parts, means for conducting liquid from said
'some parts to said other part, and means for iioW
of parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liq
uid occurs to produce refrigeration at distinctly
different temperatures, structure for conducting
ing inert gas through said other part and then
through said some parts.
warm liquid refrigerant individually to some of
9. A refrigerator including a cabinet having a 60 said parts, structure for conducting liquid indi
storage compartment, a cooling element in said
vidually from said some parts to another of said
compartment having a plurality of parts in which
parts, and means for flowing inert gas ñrst
evaporation of refrigerant liquid occurs to pro
through said another part and then concurrent
duce refrigeration, one of said parts being encom 65 to flow of liquid in said some parts.
passed by others of lsaid parts and insulated
16. A refrigeration system having a plurality
therefrom, a freezing chamber associated with
of thermally separated sections in which evapora
said one part, said other parts being provided
tion of refrigerant liquid occurs to produce re
with means for cooling of air in said compart
frigeration at distinctly different temperatures,
ment, means to conduct liquid refrigerant indi 70 structure to conduct warm liquid refrigerant in
vidually to said other parts, means to conduct liq
dividually to different parts of one of said sec
uid from said other parts to said one part, and
tions, structure to conduct liquid individually
means to iloW inert gas through said one part and
from said parts to -another of said sections, and
then through said other parts.
means for flowing inert gas ñrst through said
10. A refrigerator cooling element including a 75 another section and then concurrent to flow of
Y2,407,739.
8
7
liquid in said different parts >of said onesection.
17'. A refrigeration system having a plurality 0f
thermally separated sections in whichevapora
tion'of refrigerant liquid occurs to produce refrig
eration at distinctly different temperatures, struc 5
1 18. A refrigeration system having a. cooling ele
ment including a ñrst pipe coil and a second pipe
coil, a refrigerant ñuid liqueñer, means .for simul
taneously conducting liquid refrigerant from said
liqueñer individually to diiîerent parts of said
ture to conduct warm liquid refrigerant to one
>of said sections and thence to another of Vsaid
second coil, and means for simultaneously con
sections, and means for ñowing inert ¿gas ñrst
through saidanother section and then concur
10
rent’to flow of liquid in said one section.
Yñrst; coil.
ducting liquid individually from said parts to said
,
CARL T. ASHBY.
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