Патент USA US2407734код для вставки
Sept- 17, 1946» _ c. T. AsHBY TWO TEMPERATURE EVAPORATOR FOR INERT GAS TYPE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATORS Filed may 15, 1941 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2,407,733 2 sheets-sheet 2 _ /á'è ATTORNEY. Patented S'ept. 17, 1946 2,407,733 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.~` TWO TEMPERATURE EVAPORATOR FORl IN ERT GAS TYPE ABSORPTION REFRIG ERATORS Carl T. Ashby, Evansville, Ind., assigner to Servei, Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation of Dela Ware Application May 15, 1941, Serial N0. 393,558` 1 (Cl. 62-119.5) 18 Claims. 1 - My invention relates to refrigeration and more particularly to refrigeration produced by evap gas. - ` A ‘Y It is an object of the invention to produce re frigeration simultaneously at different temper atures and maintain a distinct differential be tween such temperatures. , A coil type] evaporator 25 is located in a re frigerator storage compartment 26. Evaporator oration of liquid in the presence of auxiliary in ert 2 s , It is another object to providea coil-type evap 25 comprises a coil section 21 forming one part and a coil section 28 forming other parts.` A con duit 29 'is connected from the condenser trap 22 to the upper part of coil section 28. Conduit 30 is connected from condenser trap 23 to an inter mediate part of coil section 28. A conduit 3l is connected from condenser trap 24l to a bottom orator for pressure equalized refrigeration appa 10 part of coil section 28. A downward looped con ratus having distinct temperature zones. duit >»32 is connected from the lower'end of said It is another object to provide an evaporator upper part of coil section 28v to the upper end for pressure equalized absorption refrigeration of coil section 21. A similar conduit 33 is con apparatus having high and low temperature nected from saidintermediate part of coil sec zones with increased cooling capacity of ~the tion 28 to an intermediate turn in coil section 21. higher temperature zone. ’ ` Another similar conduit 34 is connected from The above, together with other objects and advantages, are more f_ully set forth and ex plained in the following description in `connec the lower end of Vsaid bottom part of coil section 28 to a lower turn of coil section 21.` A drain conduit‘35is connected from the lower en‘clY of tion with the accompanying drawings forming 20 coil section »21`to the inner passage of a. gas heat part of this specification and of which: The upper end of coil section 21 is connected to Fig. lshows _more or less diagrammatically a ' refrigeration apparatus embodying the inven the upper end of coil section 28 and the .latter is exchanger tion; . , Figffshows schematically a refrigerator pro vided with a cooling element embodying the in 36. ' " ` ' ’ located‘as a whole at al slightly higher elevation The lower end of evaporator coil section 21 is connected by a con 25 than that of coil section 21. duit 31, outer passage of gas vheat-exchanger 3B, and a conduit 38 to the upper part of absorber Fig. 3 is an enlarged View, partly broken away, of the coolingv element shown in Fig. 2; I2. The lower end of evaporator section 28 is Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4--4 30 connected by a conduit 39, inner passage of gas vention; in Fig. 3; and , heat exchanger 36, and a conduit 40 to the lower ' Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5-5 in Fig. 4. Referring to Fig. 1, the refrigeration system part of evaporator I2. The top of condenser trap 24 is connected by a conduit 4I .to one end of a vessel 42. The other includes a generator I0 heated by suitable means 35 end of vessel 42 is connected by a conduit 43 to such as a gas burner II. The generator I 0 is conduit’39 in the evaporatoréabsorber gas cir cuit. ' connected with an absorber I2 by conduits in The above described system is evacuated and cluding a liquid heat exchanger I3 for circula--I » charged with refrigerant ñuid, an absorbent tion of absorption liquid through and between the generator and absorber. The generator I0 40 therefor, and an inert auxiliary iiuid. Ammonia, is provided with a vapor liquid lift I4 to‘carry out i water, and hydrogen `may be used.` The> am monia and water are flowed into the system as this liquid circulation in known manner. The a solution, and the hydrogen'r is flowed into the absorber I2 is shown provided with a coil I2a for system under a pressure such that the total pres circulation of a cooling fluid. ' Fins could be used for direct air cooling of the absorber, as known.` 45 sure in the-system will be the condensing tem perature of ammonia at a fairly high room tem The generator I0 is connected by a conduit I5', a rectifier I6, and a conduit I1 to the upper end In operation, burner I I is lighted to heat gen of an air-cooled condenser I8. The condenser I8 erator Ill. Ammonia vapor is expelled from so comprises an upper section I9, an intermediate section 20, and a lower section 2|. A liquid trap 50 lution'` by heating in the generator. Vapor formed in the generator and which rises through 22 is connected between the two upper condenser conduit I4 causes upward flow of liquid through sections I9 and 20, a liquid trap 23 is connected this- conduit by‘known vapor lift action so that between the two lower condenser sections 2U and perature. 2l. A liquid trap 24 is connected to the bottom condenser section 2|. > . A l " ‘ » Y liquid flows by gravity through the rest of the .generator-absorber liquid circuit. All the gen 3 4 erator vapor flows from the upper end thereof through conduit I5, rectiñer I6, and conduit I1 evaporator coil section 28 is located outside of and around the coil section 21. The coil section 23 is arranged in thermal conductive relation to condenser I8. Liquid formed by condensation of vapor in con denser section I9 flows through trap 22 and con with an outer sheet metal casing 41 provided with heat transfer fins 48. The coil section 28 and duit 29` into the upper part of evaporator coil section 28. Liquid formed by condensation of itscasingßî shields the inner .casing 4G and the low temperature coil section 21 from contact with. vapor in condenser section 2e flows through trap l »» „ air in the refrigerator. Between the inner evap orator casing 46 and outer casing 41 is a dead air space 'which thermally insulates the low tem perature or freezing section. Since Asubstantially none of the air cooling load 23 and conduit 39 into the intermediate part Vof coil 28. Liquid formed by condensation 'of vapor in lower condenser section 2`I flows throughltrap’ ` 2d and conduit 3I into the bottom part of coil section 28. In operating thesystem so ,that a_ is imposed Aupon' the low temperature evaporator l coil section 21, only a small amount of ammonia in refrigerator 26, either by manual adjustment 15 evaporates in this coil section when the freezing of burner I I or by thermostatic control of burner - load-thereon is small. Under such conditions the gas ‘entering the higher temperature coil sec l I responsive to a temperature condition affected" tion'28jwill contain a relatively small quantity of by the evaporator as known, vapor will 'be~con--. ammonia vapor so that, under such conditions, densed only in the upper sections of the con substantially constant temperature is maintained » theI te_na-perature4 of the` part of this coil section which isi connected to the ,low >temperature sec denser under low vloadconditions» so that Íliquid »will-dow .from the condenser onlyinto the upper part or parts4 of evaporator coil section 28, yand, liquid willbe supplied from the condenser to all par-ts of evaporatorl coil section A28 onlyV under increased load conditions. Dams 44 ¿are located in'evaporator coil section 28 so that, for instance, liquid 'supplied to the upper part of coil section .-28 flows only through this section` and thence through conduit 32 to the coil section 21. How ever, any liquid which enters `evaporator' coil see tionv 21 would be cold, thus lowering the' humid'-y ity of air in the refrigerator`V compartment. However, by introducing hot ammonia liquid 25 fromïthecòndenser through conduits 29, 3l), and 3I Yatpoints distributed along the length of coil section 28, the temperature of this coil is main- y 30 tained higher so that better ¿humidity of air in the refrigerator compartment’is obtained even with smallfload on the freezing -coil 21. 'j tion >¿1j Will ñow downward in this coil section Referring again to lFìg. 1, -when uncondensed from its point of entrance to such point as it may be used up by evaporation. ammonia vapor `issues from the lower Vend of condenser I3, as upon increase in temperature of the ,cooling ainthe vapor flows through conduit Wherever liquid is present in the evaporator coil, it evaporatesand diffuses into the hydrogen, In 'starting operation, `liquid Yfirst enters coil `sec ltion-2B sov that the addition .of heavy ammonia ,s 4l into Vessel 42 andl displaces'r‘hydrogen >from this reserve vessel -through >conduit 43 vinto the evaporator-absorber gas circuitso that the `total pressure in the system rises to the necessary con .vapor to gasinthis coil causes ,_gas çirculationt'o start downward in coil section 2&3 and gas `circu-` densing pressureV of vammonia at the increased latio-n continues in the direction ofthe arrows in temperature and l.refrigeration continues at this Fig. l». The flow is fromvrthe lowerv endv ofrcoil increased pressure. Ammonia vapor which' Ycon section 28 to the absorber I2. Y t l _.Í ¿ « f denses in Yvessel 4¿I2 drains Ythrough conduit _4I, l trap `2ll,’and conduit 3l into the lower part lof _ 4»Ammonia vapor- is absorbed into absorption evaporator coil 28. » ' ` liquid in absorber I2'. " rl'he hydrogen ¿fromwhich ammonia has been absorbed, that is _weakv gas, 45 , 'Various'. changes andrmodîñcations may >be made within the scope of the invention asset returns from theY absorber through the `gas heat exchanger 36 to the lower -end of evaporator coil _forth in the following claims. -What is claimed is: section Gas flow 21. is upward ,throughv v ¿ coil section » . 21 and evaporates at a temperature dependent upon -the partial pressure of ammonia vapor in theîv‘p‘res ence of the evaporating liquid. ' ' ’ y occurs to produce refrigeration, means .for flowing inert gas through said parts in series, meanspro Since weak gas of ammonia vapor in this coil section is less than the partial pressure of ammonia vapor in coil I ' - l. A refrigeration system having a plurality of parts in which evaporation of refrigerantliquid - downward through coil section r,28. Ammonia _ñows iirst in coil section 21, the partial pressure - Y viding thermal insulation between a lfirst of said 55 section 28. Therefore, the temperature of coil section 21 is lower than the ‘temperature of coil par-ts on one `hand and others »of Said parts on the other, and mean-s for simultaneously .intro ducing liquid refrigerant .individually into said otherparts, said ñrst partbeing 'connected Vand arranged to receive liquid from saidother parts. 2.l »A refrigeration system having-a pluralityof _ The evaporator coils shown diagrammatically 60 parts in which evaporation of refrigerantyliquid in Fig. l are formed into a usable cooling element occursto produce refrigeration, means ïfor'flow» which is shown located in a _household_refrigering inert `gas through said parts in seriespmeans ator in Fig. 2 and illustrated in detail sections proyiding'thermal insulation between a'?lrstof section 28. Figs; 3, 4 and-5. t . _ Referring to Fig.y 2, andvprin- . . said'parts on one "handI and othersof saidj parts cipally to, Figs. 3, fl, and 5., the evaporator ß25 located in the storage compartment -2Iì`o'f are kf_rigeratorßì'ä is formed to provide a low temper 65 aturezonefor freezing wateror the like, and a higher temperature Zone for Vcooling of air in „ . the refrigerator. The evaporator coil section 21 on thegother, means for simultaneously conduct ing liquid refrigerant individually to said ¿other parts, and means for simultaneously v»conducting liquid refrigerant individually from said> other partsrto fsa-id first part'. .~ . l ‘ '3, A> refrigeration vsystem vhaving a plurality of is arranged in good thermal conductive'relation parts’in vwhich evaporation of refrigerant 'liquid with an Vinner casing 46, ,Casing 46 forms a plu-` occurs to produce refrigeration, means for flow; rality of compartments- to receive ice freezing ing inert’gasA through‘said parts`,`.means.for sìmulè trays or the like. Asshown, coil section`2'1`isA -¿ taneou-sly conducting liquid-refrigerant individ embedded in an aluminum casting 45.' The ually to some of said parts, and means for simul ‘2,407,733 taneously conducting- -` liquid individually from -said some parts toanother'of said parts.v 4. A refrigeration system having a plurality of parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid occurs to produce refrigeration, means providing thermal insulation between a first of said parts on one hand and others of said parts on the other, a refrigerant fluid liqueiier, means for conducting ‘6 freezing chamber, a pipe coil arranged for cool ing said chamber, a second pipe coil encompass ing said first coil'and cooling chamber in spaced relation thereto, a casing thermally associated with said second coil providing exteriorly an `air _cooling’surface and interiorly a dead airspace, means for conducting liquid refrigerant individu ally to different partsmof said second coilg'm'eans >for conducting `liquid from ’said-.second coil >to said first coil, and-'means'for flowing inertv gas liquefied refrigerant fluid from said liqueñer in dividually and> simultaneously to said other parts, i through said first coil and then through said sec means for conducting liquid from said other parts to said first part, and means for flowing inert gas ond coil. 11. A refrigerator cooling element including a through said first part and then through said other parts. freezing chamber, a first pipe coil thermally asso 5. A refrigeration system having a plurality of 15 ciated with said chamber, a second pipe coil lo parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid cated about said first coil and freezing chamber occurs to produce refrigeration, a refrigerant fluid and insulated therefrom, said second coil being liqueñer, means for simultaneously conducting provided with heat transfer surface for cooling liquefied. refrigerant fluid from said liqueñer in air, means for conducting liquid refrigerant indi dividually to some of said parts, means for simul 20 vidually to different parts of said second coil, taneously conducting liquid individually from means for conducting liquid from said second said some parts to another of said parts, and coil to said ñrst coil, and means for flowing inert means for flowing inert gas through said parts. gas through said first coil and then through said second coil. partment, a refrigeration system having a plural 12. A refrigeration system having two sections ity of parts in- which evaporation of refrigerant in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid occurs liquid occurs to produce refrigeration, a freezing to produce refrigeration, one of said sections chamber in heat transfer relation with a ñrst of shielding the other of said sections from ambient said parts, means providing thermal insulation air, means for flowing inert gas through said sec between said first part and said chamber on one 30 tions, means for conducting liquid refrigerant in hand and others of said parts on the other, said dividually to different parts of said one section, other parts being arranged to cool air in said re and means for conducting liquid refrigerant; indi- „ frigerator storage compartment, means for simul vidually from said parts to said other section. 6. In a refrigerator having a food storage com taneously conducting liquid refrigerant individu _ ally to said other parts, means to conduct liquid from said other parts to said ñrst part, and means to flow inert gas through said first part and then through said other parts. 7. A refrigeration system having a plurality of thermally separated sections in which evapora tion of refrigerant liquid occurs to produce re frigeration, means for flowing inert gas through said sections, means to simultaneously conduct liquid refrigerant individually to different parts parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid . occurs to produce refrigeration, a first of said of one of said sections, and means to simultane 13. A refrigeration system having a plurality of ously conduct liquid individually from said >parts parts being en_folded by and insulated from others of said parts, means for conducting liquid refrig erant individually to said other parts, means to to another of said sections. 14. A refrigeration system having a plurality of parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid . conduct liquid from said other parts to said first 45 occurs to produce refrigeration at distinctly dif part, and means to flow inert gas through said ferent temperatures, structure providing thermal first part countercurrent to flow of liquid therein insulation between a first of said parts on one and then through said other parts concurrent to hand and others of said parts on the other, struc ñow of liquid therein. , ture for introducing warm liquid refrigerant into 8. A refrigeration system having a plurality of 50 said other parts, said first part being connected parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liquid and arranged to receive liquid from said other occurs to produce refrigeration, some of said parts, and means for flowing inert gas through parts encompassing another of said parts in said first part countercurrent to flow of liquid spaced relation thereto, means providing a dead therein and then through said other parts con air space enveloping said other part, means for 55 current to flow of liquid therein. conducting liquid refrigerant individually to said ` 15. A refrigeration system having a plurality some parts, means for conducting liquid from said 'some parts to said other part, and means for iioW of parts in which evaporation of refrigerant liq uid occurs to produce refrigeration at distinctly different temperatures, structure for conducting ing inert gas through said other part and then through said some parts. warm liquid refrigerant individually to some of 9. A refrigerator including a cabinet having a 60 said parts, structure for conducting liquid indi storage compartment, a cooling element in said vidually from said some parts to another of said compartment having a plurality of parts in which parts, and means for flowing inert gas ñrst evaporation of refrigerant liquid occurs to pro through said another part and then concurrent duce refrigeration, one of said parts being encom 65 to flow of liquid in said some parts. passed by others of lsaid parts and insulated 16. A refrigeration system having a plurality therefrom, a freezing chamber associated with of thermally separated sections in which evapora said one part, said other parts being provided tion of refrigerant liquid occurs to produce re with means for cooling of air in said compart frigeration at distinctly different temperatures, ment, means to conduct liquid refrigerant indi 70 structure to conduct warm liquid refrigerant in vidually to said other parts, means to conduct liq dividually to different parts of one of said sec uid from said other parts to said one part, and tions, structure to conduct liquid individually means to iloW inert gas through said one part and from said parts to -another of said sections, and then through said other parts. means for flowing inert gas ñrst through said 10. A refrigerator cooling element including a 75 another section and then concurrent to flow of Y2,407,739. 8 7 liquid in said different parts >of said onesection. 17'. A refrigeration system having a plurality 0f thermally separated sections in whichevapora tion'of refrigerant liquid occurs to produce refrig eration at distinctly different temperatures, struc 5 1 18. A refrigeration system having a. cooling ele ment including a ñrst pipe coil and a second pipe coil, a refrigerant ñuid liqueñer, means .for simul taneously conducting liquid refrigerant from said liqueñer individually to diiîerent parts of said ture to conduct warm liquid refrigerant to one >of said sections and thence to another of Vsaid second coil, and means for simultaneously con sections, and means for ñowing inert ¿gas ñrst through saidanother section and then concur 10 rent’to flow of liquid in said one section. Yñrst; coil. ducting liquid individually from said parts to said , CARL T. ASHBY.