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‘SeptL1‘7,1946.
A. M. MMCALV'LU'M,
'
2,407,757
MAGNETIC CLUTCH
Filed Dec. a, 1943
'
.JNVENTOR.
'
NALIMMMIW }
#1- M
ATTQRIVEY
2,407,757
Patented Sept. 17,’ 1946
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
. Bendix Aviation Corporation, Tet-erboro, N..J., ‘
a corporation‘of Delaware
‘
>
T-
.
Application December 8, 1943, ‘Serial No. 513,421
3 Claims,‘ (01.1-92-84)
1
couplings ‘between ‘drive and driven elements.
on drive and driven shafts "extending within "a
stationary coil, so as to thereby automatically :re
lease and couple in response ‘to E. M. F. .pro~
@duced in ‘the coil without ‘the ‘use of frictional
Heretofore in the manufacture of a magnetic
clutches, a coil, to be energized, iscarried by the
driven clutch face which is usually sp'line'd, keyed
‘or otherwise mounted on the drive shaft for lon
gitudinal movement, and is energized from a
source of power connected thereto through col
electric contacts asso'ciated‘with'the clutch mem
hers-or their shaft ‘means.
10
.lector rings and brushes. The collector rings and
brushes are subject ‘to Wear and corrosion after
continued’use and exposure to conditions, so that
they must be watched and replaced to insure
‘proper actuation of the clutch, while the splined
orl-key‘ed mounts forthe drive. face of the clutch,
‘unless they inter'?-t perfectly, will cause lost mo
tion in a radial direction, when the clutch faces
are coupled to provide driving torque.
‘To insure proper clutch actuation independent
of such conditions, va novel clutch arrangement is
hereby devised, ‘whereby brushes, collector rings,
splines, keys and the like are eliminated by fas
tening the drive clutch member'to the drive shaft
by a longitudinally ?exible member responsive to
longitudinal thrust and/or pull to provide for
longitudinal shifting of one clutch :member to
provide for clutching the said driving and ‘driven
members together for driving torque without
splines or keys.
2
A ‘further object 'i's'to provide a novel “improve
'ment in ‘magnetic clutches, ‘whereby a pair ‘of
coupling elements are concentrically mounted
The present invention relates to automatically
releasable couplingsand. particularly ‘to magnetic
Such an arrangement has para
‘
I
-
Another vobject ‘is to provide in an electro
magnetic ~clut’ch, 'a‘p‘air of coupling members com
prising clutching faces of unlike non-magnetiz
vable material to ‘thereby prevent sticking ‘when
the clutch is ide‘ener'gized.
'
The ‘above and other objects and advantages
of the present invention‘ will appear more fully
hereinafter from a ‘consideration of the detailed
description which follows, taken together with
the ‘accompanying drawing ‘wherein “several em
bodiments of the inventionlare illustrated. It' is
to ‘be expressly ‘understood, vhowever, ‘that the
drawing ‘is for the purpose of ‘illustration only
and is not designed as ‘a. definition of the limits
‘of the invention. Reference ‘for this ‘latter ‘pur
pose should be had to the appended claims.
In the drawing, wherein like reference char
-a'ct-ers refer to like parts throughout the several
views,
‘
.
.
Figure 1 is a side sectional ‘view of the .novel
ticular utility in automatic. ‘pilot ‘systems for 30 clutch ‘and surrounding coil of the ‘present in
mobile objects because of. its rugged construc
tion and ‘its instantaneous couple, which elimi
nates lost motion andautomatie release action
provided for in the drive shaft ‘connection'to the
clutch face about to be ‘described in detail. Fur
thermore, because each clutch means is separate
and independent ‘of the‘coil, either may be readily
replaced without disturbing the coil as in the prior
art.
‘
vention.
'
,
'
‘Figure -2 is an end View of the structure of Fig
ure 1 looking ‘from the ‘drive shaft ‘toward the
spring deelutching means.
‘ ’
.
.
Figure 3 is ‘aside elevation ‘of the ‘clutch mem
lb'ers‘wi'th a diagrammatic ‘illustration of the coil
circuit.
'_
Figure 4 is ‘a plan view of one form of dia'~
phrag-m =or spider designed to provide for de
Accordingly, one ‘object of the present inven 40 clu'tching ‘the ‘drive and driven “members.
‘Figure 5 is a plan View of another form of spider
tion is to provide novel means for joining the
designed for the purpose of declutching the mem
clutch drive plate with the drive shaft whereby
‘lost motion resulting from "worn or poorly ‘ma
chined splines, key connections and the like such
as usually used between the drive shaft and the
clutch face associated therewith, is eliminated.
Another object of- the present invention is to
provide a clutch construction, which is relatively
simple to manufacture and one in which the
clutch plates may be readily demounted and re
placed, and which because of its ruggedness and
simple construction is particularly suitable and
safe for use with automatic pilot systems for
aircraft.
Another object is to provide a novel magnetic l
clutch, whereby brushes, ‘collector rings or the
like are rendered unnecessary.
‘
'
Another object vis to provide a novel magnetic
clutch including a novel automatic release ar
rangement.
'
‘
7
bers.
‘
i
_
Figure dis a plan View of ‘another former spider
designed ‘for the purpose of declutching the mem
bers.
'
>
Figure’? is a plan view of another ‘form of spider
designed for the purpose of declutching the mem
' bers.
Figure 8 is a plan view=of another form vo‘flspider
"designed for the purpose of declutching the mem
bers.
.
Figure 9 is a plan view ‘of still another form
' of spiderdesigned for the purpose of declutching
the members.
’
.‘
Figure 10 is a plan view of another form ofspi
-‘ der designed vforthe purpose of declutching the
members.
‘
.
‘
_
Referring ‘now “to “the drawing for a detailed
no description of the present invention, and ?rst
2,407,757
3
4
with particular reference to Figure 1, numeral
l0 represents a coil concentrically mounted
around two clutch members II 'and I 2, which
may be formed of magnetic material of which
outer portion with the inner edge of the annu
lar rim 3| with lugs or arms 33a.
'
Figure 8 ‘illustrates ‘a further form, of disc,
wherein no continuous or annular outer rim is
one or both‘ of the faces l3 and I4 may be of non
provided, but rather a rim comprising a plurality
magnetic material, preferably unlike material.
of spiral or tangentially radiating corrugated
Clutch member II is connected to the drive
arms 31 with spaced segmental or arcuate flat‘
shaft l5 through a ?exible spring means, such as
rim sections 31a extending from a centrally ap
metallic diaphragm l6.
'
'
.
,
ertured annular. flat .plate 38.
Diaphragm I6 may include corrugations l1 10
Figure 9 shows still another form of disc con
around a non-corrugated axial center portion l8,
struction, wherein a plate 39 having a ?at annu
riveted, welded or otherwise suitably secured to
lar rim 39a and a ?at central surface or plate
the end of drive shaft I5, and similarly secured
391), is corrugated therebetween and apertured at >
to the back of clutch member II at a non-corru-v
desirable points to provide maximum ?exing
gated annular area It at its perimeter.
value, such as the half-moon openings 40.
The clutch member I l is provided with face I3,»
Figure 10 is a further form of disc construction
of non-magnetic material such as aluminum or
the like and may be designed as a ring with an
annular countersunk portion 20 to allow for any
wherein a plate 4| is apertured as at Ma, so as
to form a rim 42, with relatively wide off-center
spokes 43.
,;
‘ ~'
thrust from the drive shaft or ?exing of the 20
diaphragm spring l6.
.Clutch member [2 is secured to the driven
shaft 2|, as an integral part thereof or by other
suitable means and faces member H within the
con?nes of coil [0, which connects through leads
22 and 23, shown in Figure 2, to a suitable power
Although several embodiments of the invention
have been‘ illustrated and described, other
changes and modi?cations, which will now ap
pear to those skilledin the art, may be made with
out departing from‘ the scope of the present in
25 vention. Referenceis, therefore,,to be had to the
appended claims for a de?nition of the limits of
source for energization.
the present invention,
.
‘ ,
When the coil Ill is energized, movable clutch
I claim:
member II is magnetically attracted to longi
1. In a magnetic clutch having a pair of op
tudinally ?xed magnetic clutch member I 2, which 30 posed clutch members adapted to be’ arranged
may if desired have a non-magnetic clutch face
within a surrounding coil, a driven shaft connect
[4 preferably of material unlike that of face 13,
ed at one end to one clutch member, a drive shaft,
whereby any sticking from lagging magnetic flux
the other clutch member being in the form of a
is eliminated. _ Longitudinal movement‘of clutch
ring having a side recess at its inner periphery,
member ll into'engagement with clutch member 35 and a resilient drive coupling comprising a cor
[2 is made againstthe resiliency cf the ?exible
rugated plate secured at its central portion to an
spring diaphragm‘ l6, which is moved forward
end of the drive shaft and to one side face of said
from a normally aligned on center declutched po
sition, so that face [3 of clutch member I l con
' tacts with ?xed clutch face M to provide driving
couple.
'
a
ring adjacent its perimeter to thereby normally
hold said ring clutch member spaced from the
other clutch member and through ?exing of the
plate to permit the. clutch members to move to
'
When the coil I 0 is deenergized the clutch
members are parted by the return action of
gether.
’
V
2. A magnetic coupling comprising, coaxial
spring diaphragm US, which automatically re
drive and driven shafts, opposing clutch members
turns to. normal on center declutched position.
45
of magnetic material for each of said shafts, one
As shown in the several Figures 4 through 10,
of
said members being annular in form, a resilient
numerous forms of diaphragms, spiders or the
~member having a ?at hub portion and a ?at pe
like for declutching the parts may be provided.
ripheral; portion, the hub portion being ?xed to
In Figure 4 the spider member comprises a cor
one of said shafts, the peripheral ?at portion be
rugated disc with a level, plane or ?at non-cor 5 0
ing ?xed to. the outer peripheral face of said an
rugated center surface l8 anda level, plane or
nular'clutch'member, the other of said clutch
?at non-corrugated rim or annular area H! at its
members being ?xed to the other of said shafts:
perimeter as hereinbefore described. Each sur
a coil surrounding both of said clutch members,
face l8 and I9 may be provided with rivet or
said members being con?ned within the two
screw holes for attachment to the end of drive 5 5 planes defined by the outer edges of said coil;
shaft 15 and the rear peripheral edge of clutch
and means to energize said coil.
member ll. '
In Figure 5 is shown another form of spring
disc of wheel-like design including ‘an annular
?at'rim 25, a central ?at hub 26 and a plurality
of radially extending corrugated spokes 21.
Figure 6 shows a further form of spring disc,
wherein there is provided a ?at rim 28, a central
3. A magnetic coupling comprising, coaxial
drive and driven shafts, opposing clutch members
60
of magnetic material for, each of said shafts, one
of said members being annular in form, at least
one of the opposing faces of said clutch members
being of non-magneticmaterial; a resilient mem
ber having a’ ?at hub portion. and a ?at periph
eral portion, the hub portion being ?xed to one
annular flat ring 29 and tangentially curving or
spiral spokes 30, curving around from the central 6 5 of said shafts, the peripheral ?at portion being
ring 29, so as to tangentially merge into the
?xed to the outer peripheral face of said annular
outer rim 28.
'
'
\ a
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clutch member, the other of said clutch members
Figure 7 illustrates another form of disc, where
being ?xed to the other of said shafts; a coil sur
in there is provided an outer annular ?at rim 3|,
rounding both of said clutch members, said mem
a concentrically mounted apertured inner ?at 7 O bers being con?ned within the two planes de?ned
ring 32 with‘ two diametrically opposite or aligned
1 by the outer edges of ‘said coil; and means to en
radially extending lugs or arms 33 and 34, each
ergize-said coil.
outer end of which is formed into arcuate loops,
ALAN‘ M. MACCALLUM.
such as 35 and .36, and centrally merged at each
’
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