Sept. 17, 1946. H. w. McPHERsoN 2,407,761 VALVE Filed Jan. 14, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOI? Hai, WMCP/zßf?o?l, Sep?- 17, 1946- H. w. McPHERsoN 2,407,761 VALVE Filed Jan. 14, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 I 25' 12 I INV Sept. 17, 1946. H, w. McPHERsoN 2,407,76l VALVE Filed Jan. 14, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 ~ IN VEN TOR. Hczú WN CF/zer?om, 2,407,76l Patented Sept. 17, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,761 VALVE Hal W. McPherson, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Allied Control Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., a, cor poration of New York Application January 14, 1944, Serial No. 518,233 7 Claims. (Cl. 137-139) 2 1 Fig. 5 is a plan view of the large diaphragm This invention has to do with valves, and is which is located in the main chamber of the particularly concerned with shut-off valves of the valve; type in which the pressure of the fluid entering Fig. 6 is a plan view of the small diaphragm the valve is utilized to either open or close the which is located in the operator: valve under the control of an associated Operating Fig. 7 is a bottom plan view of the diaphragm device. in the operator; One of the objects of the invention is to pro Fig. 8 is a plan view of a modified form of the vide an improved valve of the type described in large diaphragm in the main chamber of the which the passages through the valve are so shaped as to permit the fluid to flow through such 10 valve; Fig. 9 is a Vertical section through the center passages with but a very small drop in pressure. of a fully balanced valve constructed in accord Another object is to provide an improved valve ance with the invention, showing the valve open; of the type described which is extremely simple, Fig. 10 is a similar section, showing the valve light, compact and inexpensive in construction; closed; 15 shuts off quickly and completely; can be cperated Fig. 11 is a plan view of a. modi?ed form of the from a remote point; will not stick; requires no diaphragm in the chamber of the valve shown grinding; holds the pressure of the entering fluid in Figs. 9 and 10; and or any back pressure with equal facility when Fig. 12 is a Vertical section through the center closed; is leak proof and absolutely dependable; and can be made in either a semi-balanced form for handling a flow in but one direction or in a fully balanced form for handling a flow in either direction. Still another object is to provide, in connection with a valve of the type described, an improved solenoid actuated operator for controlling the of the diaphragm shown in Pig. 11. The valve shown in Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive will ?rst be described. This valve is semí-balariced| in the sense that while the valve will handle a ?ow of fluid in but one direction, namely, from the left, the pressure of the fluid being handled will act to hold the valve closed after it has once been closed regardless of the direction in which valve, which operator uses but a very small such pressure is exerted on the closure means. amount of current. As will be observed in these views, the valve While a. valve constructed in accordance with the present invention can be used advantageously 30 includes a body lß which contains a chamber ll, an inlet port |2, and an outlet port |3. The body in many different applications, it is especially well lo is composed of two complementary parts Id suited for use in airplane fuel line applications and l5 which are fastened together by a plurality and other similarly exacting situations where of machine screws IB. The chamber Il in the líghtness, compactness, simplicity, ease of con trcl, and dependability are factors of prime im- ; body is a shallow circular cavity which is divided by a flexible diaphragm |1 into a front portion portance. |8 and a rear portion IS. The inlet and Outlet The foregoing statements are indicative in a ports |2 and 13 enter the body l? from opposite general way of the nature of the invention but directions and curve rearwardly toward the cen other more specific objects and advantages will be apparent to those skilled in the art upon a 40 ter of the front portion Ill of the chamber in a plane which is perpendicular to the plane of the full understanding of the construction and oper chamber, forming with the front portion of the ation of the new valve. chamber a sinuous free flow passage through the Two different embodiments of the invention body from one side to the other when the dia one a semi-balanced form for ?ow in but one direction and the other a fully balanced form for 45 phragm l'l is in its rearwardly flexed position. The front wall 20 of the chamber H is dished flow in either direction-are presented hereln forwardly to conform generally to the Shape of for the purpose of exempli?cation, but it will of the diaphragm I'l when the latter is in its for course be appreciated that the invention is sus wardly flexed position, and is provided with two ceptible of incorporation in other modi?ed forms coming equally within the scope of the appended ez o circular seats 2| and 22 which are located at opposite sides of the center of the front portion claims. of the chamber in laterally spaced relation to In the accompanying drawings: Fig. 1 is a side View of a. semi-balanced valve each other. The seats 2| and 22 form the ends of the inlet and outlet ports |2 and 13, and are constructed in accordance with the invention; 55 located on head-like rims 23 and 24 which project Fig. 2 is a plan view of the valve; rearwardly from the front wall 20, leaving chan Fig. 3 is a Vertical section through the center nels 25 in the front portion of the chamber about of the valve, taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2, such rims. The seats 2| and 22 have the same showing the valve open; dished curvature as the diaphragm I'l when the Fig. 4 is a similar section, showing the valve 60 letter is in its forwardly ?exed position, and are closed; 3 adapted to be engaged and sealed by correspond ingly spaced ciroular portions 26 and 21 of the diaphragm H. The diaphragm | 1 is preferably made of thin, readily fiexible imperforate material. The Cir cular portions 26 and 21, which are adapted to 4 circled by magnet coils 52 and are bridged by a tie bar 53 to form the electromagnet of a solenoid. This electromagnet is housed within a cap 54 which ?ts over a rim 55 on the base plate. When the solenoid is energized the armature disk 48 will be drawn up against the ends of engage with the seats 2| and 22, are relatively thick portions which are preferably formed by the pole pieces 5|, against the yielding resistance bonding one or more layers of synthetic rubber or When the solenoid is de-energized the spring 56 will force the armatura disk away from the pole picces and the seat will be closed. The opening of the seat 42 will result in the diaphragm |1 being ?exed rearwardly to open up the sinuous passage through the valve, as shown in Fig. 3, while the closing of the seat 42 will result in the other suitable sealing material to the material of the diaphragm proper. The outer marginal por tion 28, which is clamped between the comple mentary edges of the body parts I 4 and IB, is like wise a relatively thick portion which is preferably formed by the addition of one or more layers of synthetic rubber or other suitable sealing ma terial. The diaphragm |`| is provided, opposite the Channels 25 in the front portion |8 of the cham ber, with a plurality of minute vents 23, formed ' by the insertion of eyelets 30. These vents serve as bleeders for ?ooding the rear portion |9 of the Chamber behind the diaphragm |1. A solenoid operator 3| is connected with the valve for Operating the same. This operator in cludes a base plate 32 which is sccured to the rear wall 33 of the chamber || by a plurality of ma chine screws 34. The operator 3| is provided with a relatively small shallow Circular Chamber 35. which Chamber is formed partly in the base plate 32 and partly in. the rear wall 33, The of a coil spring 55. and the seat 42 will be opened. diaphragm |1 being ?exed forwardly to close off the passage through the valve, as shown in Fig. 4. This action is brought about by a fiooding of the rear portion |9 of the Chamber ||, which ?ooding results from the fluid being pocketed in the rear portion |9 by the closing off of the escape duct 45 at the seat 42. The cross sectional area of the duet 46, as well as of the seat 42 and the ducts 43, 44 and 45, is larger than the aggregate cross sectional areas of the vents 29. As long as the seat 42 is open, the ?uid entering the rear portion |9 of the Chamber through the vents 29 will escape from the rear portion through the duet 46. When the duct 46 is shut off, however, by the Closing of the Seat 42, the ?uid entering the rear portion |9 through the vents 29 will be pocketed, ?ooding the rear portion and forcing 3a which is clamped marginally between the base the diaphragm |1 forwardly into engagement with plate and the rear wall. The diaphragm 35 di the seats 2| and 22, and particularly with the vides the chamber 35 into a front portion 31 and .' seat 22. a rear portion 38. The diaphragm is provided, at The rate of closing of the valve can be con its outer edge, with a thickened portion 39 of trolled by either changing the size or the num Synthetic rubber or other suitable sealing mate ber of the vents 29. For example, two vents of ríal, and is provided. at its center, with a thick the size shown might close the valve in say about ened portion 49 of similar sealing material. 'I'he ' a third of a second, one might close it in about diaphragm 35 has an intervening annular por a second, and three might close it in about one tion 4|, in the form of a fine porous screen, tenth of a second. through which the ?uid can flow to equalize the When the diaphragm |1 has ?exed forwardly pressure in the Chamber 35 on both sides of the into a position wherein the seat 22 is engaged diaphragm. The portion 4| also acts as a pro by the portion 21 of the diaphragm, the fluid will tecting filter for the cooperating parts of the sole Continue to flow momentarily between the seat noid. The thickened center portion 4|] of the 2| and the portion 26 of the diaphragm into the diaphragm is adapted to engage with a small Cir Channels 25 and through the vents 29, until the Cular seat 42 in front of the same, to close off such pressure behind the diaphragm urging the portion seat. The seat 42 opens into a duct 43 which 21 against the seat 22 has reached the pressure chamber 35 contains a thin flexible diaphragm communicates with a laterally extending duet 44. The duet 44 in turn communicates with a duet 45 which discharges into the outlet port |3 of the valve. Another duct 46 leads from the rear portion |9 of the Chamber || of the valve into the front portion 31 of the Chamber 35 in the operator. The diaphragm 3B in the operator 3| is pro of the fluid in the inlet port |2, whereupon the portion 21 of the diaphragm will be securely sealed against the seat 22 and maintained in such sealed condition by the pressure of the ?uid on the inlet side. Should the valve when closed be holding ?uid under pressure on the Outlet side, the valve can be even disconnected at the inlet side without al vided on its front face with a reinforcing washer lowing the ?uid to flow back through the valve. 41 and on its rear face with an armatura disk 48. 60 Under such conditions, the back pressure of the The washer 41 and the disk 48 are secured to fluid will act against the rear face of the portion gether through the imperforate center portion 40 26 of the diaphragm to maintain the portion 26 of the diaphragm by a plurality of small rivets in securely sealed engagement with the seat 2|, 49. The outer edge of the disk 48 is beveled at the flow necessary to create such pressure passing 50 to permit the diaphragm to cup to a certain U.) momentarily between the portion 21 of the dia extent about the same when the diaphragm is `phragm and the seat 22. ?exed forwardly. The opening in the center of As previously pointed out, the operator 3| will the washer 41 is larger than the seat 42 to clear open the valve and keep it open only as long as the latter. the solenoid in the operator is energized, and will The base plate 32 of the operator 3| supports 70 automatically close as soon as the solenoid is de two pole pieces 5| which are threaded through energized. These Operations can be reversed, if the base plate into the rear portion 38 of the desired, by substituting an operator in which the Chamber 35 at points equidistant from the cen seat 42 is positioned behind the diaphragm 36 ter of the armatura disk 48, for electromagnetic instead of in front of the same, in which case Coaction with the latter. The pole pleces are en 75 the valve will close when the solenoid is ener 5 gized and remain closed only as long as the sole noid continues to be energlzed. The valve shown in Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive. is what is known as a normally closed valve, that is to say it is open only when the solenoid in the operator 3| is energized. It could of course be constructed just as easily as a normally open valve, merely by substituting a different oper ator. The diaphragm I'l, instead of being provided with the vents 29, might be formed, as shown in Fig. 8, of a semi-porous fabric 51 having a total porosity over the exposed areas equivalent to the porosity obtained with the vents. The valve shown in Figs. 9 and 10 is similar fiuid against pressure in either direction. When the solenoid is again energized, the fluid pock eted behind the dlaphragm |1' will escape through the duct 62 and the valve will resume its opened position. If it is desired to have the valve move into its closed position instead of into its open position when the solenoid in the operator 3|' is energized, this can be done very simply by substituting an 10 operator in which the positlons of the seats 59 and 6|! with respect to the diaphragm 36' are re versed. If the valve is to be subject to extremely high pressures, the diaphragm in the main chamber of the valve may be provided, at the locations of the ports to be closed, with metallic reinforcing in many respects to the valve shown in Flgs. 1 disks 64. as shown in Figs. 11 and 12. The disks to 'Z inclusive, but is fully balanced, in the sense 64 are attached to the underlying seallng por that it will handle a ?ow passing through the tions 65 of the diaphragm by rivets 65. If de valve in either direction. In this valve the dia sired, light coil springs 61 may be positioned un phragm l'l' contains no vents of any kind, and 20 der compression between the rear Wall of the the fluid used in ?ooding the rear portion IQ' of chamber and the disks 64 for urging the dia the chamber II' to move the diaphragm for phragm forwardly into its sealed position. wardly into sealed engagement with the seats 2 I ' In constructing a valve in accordance with the and 22' both enters and leaves the rear portion lnvention the metal parts of the valve are prefer |9' through a duct 58. ably made of aluminum, or of some alloy of An operator 3|' is employed having a margin aluminum. whereby to reduce the weight of the ally perforated diaphragm 35' which is movable valve to a minimum and at the same time avoid rearwardly into sealed engagement with an an the necessity of insulating the electrically actu nular seat 59 and is movable forwardly into sealed ated parts of the operator. engagement with an annular seat 5D. The seat 30 I claim: 59 forms the end of a duct 6| which leads by a 1. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un rather circuitous path from one of the connected der pressure, a chamber, a, movable diaphragm channels 25' surroundlng the seats 2|' and 22' dividing the chamber into a front portion and a in the front portion I8' of the chamber Il' in rear portion, two ports opening into the front the valve. The seat 59 opens into the rear por portion of the chamber, one of said ports con stituting an inlet for the fluid and the other constituting an outlet for the ?uid, said dia phragm being movable forwarclly to seat a por tion -of the area thereof against said ports and close o?' the outlet port and being movable rear the entrance to a duct 62 which during the open wardly to place the outlet port in communica ing movement only of the valve discharges a tion with the inlet port by way of the front por small quantity of the fluid either into the atmos tlon of the chamber, means disposed downstream phere or into a conduit 63 leading to a container or other low pressure part of the system. The 45 from said inlet port, between the inlet and outlet ports and outside of said portion of the diaphragm duct 58 communicates with the discharge duct 52 area for conducting some of the fluid from the through the front portion 31' of the chamber inlet port into the rear portion of the Chamber. 35' when the diaphragm 36' is in its rearwardly whereby to pocket such fluid under pressure in flexed position in sealed engagement with the the rear portion of the chamber behind the dia 50 seat 59. . phragm to ?ood the rear portion and cause the When the solenoid in the operator 3|' is in its diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed engage energized condition, as shown in Fig. 9, the seat ment with the outlet port, and means for con 59 will be closed and the seat Eli will be open. troiling the operation of said last mentioned As a result, the duct 6| used in flooding the rear portion |9' of the chamber ll' during the valve 55 means. 2. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un closing operation will be closed and the duct 62 der pressure, a chamber, two ports opening into used in evacuating the rear portion |9' during the chamber, one port constituting an inlet for the valve opening operation will be open to the the fluid under pressure and the other an outlet atmosphere, maintaining the diaphragm I'l' in its rearwardly ?exed or open position. When the 60 for such fluid, a fiexible diaphragm in the cham ber spanning both ports and dividing the cham solenoid in the operator is de-energized, as shown ber into front and rear portions, `the diaphragm in Pig. 10, the seat 59 will be opened and the seat being movable into the front portion of the cham 50 will be closed. This will open the duct 6| ber to seat a portion of the area thereof across and allow the fluid being handled to pass through such duct into the rear portion |9' of the cham 65 and close off the ports and being movable into the rear portion to permit communication of the ber. The fluid entering the rear portion will be outlet port with the inlet port through the front pocketed in the same and prevented from leav portion, means located downstream from said ing by the closed condition of the duct 52, and inlet port, between the inlet and outlet ports and will result in the rear portion [9' of the chamber outside of said portion of the diaphragm area becoming fiooded, causing the diaphragm I'l' to for conducting some of the fluid from the inlet move into sealed engagement with first one of port into the rear portion of the chamber where the ports 2|' and 22' and then the other, the or by to pocket such ?uid under pressure in the rear der depending of course upon the directlon of portion of the chamber behind the diaphragm ?ow. After the valve has been closed it will shut off the flow through the valve and will hold the 75 to fiood the rear portion and cause the diaphragm tion 38' of the chamber 35' in the operator and communicates with the duct 58 through the per forated portion of the diaphragm 36' when the latter is in its forwardly fiexed position in sealed engagement with the seat 50. The seat 60 forms 2,407,76 1 7 to move forwardly into the front portion into sealed engagement With the outlet port, and means for Operating said last mentioned means. 3. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a rear portion, two ports opening into the front portion of the Chamber, one of said ports con stituting an inlet for the ?uid and the other con stream from the inlet port, between the inlet and Outlet ports and outside of said predetermined diaphragm area for Conducting some of the fluid under pressure from the inlet port into the rear portion of the Chamber behind the diaphragm1 means for Conducting such ?uid from the rear portion to the outlet port, said last mentioned means permitting of a greater rate of iiow than the ?rst mentioned means, whereby to prevent stituting an outlet for the ?uid. said diaphragm 10 any substantial accumulation of the ?uid in the being movable forwardly to seat a portion of the rear portion, and means for rendering said last area thereof against said ports and Close o? the mentioned means inoperative, whereby the ?uid outlet port and being movable rearwardly to entering the rear portion of the Chamber through place the outlet port in communication with the said ?rst mentioned means will be pocketed in inlet port by way of the front portion of the 15 the rear portion and will fiood the same to cause Chamber, means located downstream from said the diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed en inlet port, between the inlet and outlet ports and gagement with the outlet port. outside of said portion of the diaphragm area for 6. In a shut-off valve for handling a fluid un conducting some of the fluid under pressure from der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm the inlet port into the rear portion of the cham 20 dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a ber behind the diaphragm, means for Conducting rear portion, two ports opening into the front such ?uid from the rear portion to the outlet portion of the Chamber, one of said ports consti port, and means for rendering said last men tioned means inoperative, whereby the ?uid en tering the rear portion of the Chamber through said first mentioned means will be pocketed in tuting an inlet for the fluid and the other con dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a for conducting some of the ?uid under pressure stituting an Outlet for the fluid, said diaphragm being movable forwardly to seat a predetermined area thereof against said ports and Close off the the rear portion and will ?ood the same to cause Outlet port and being movable rearwardly to the diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed en place the outlet port in communication with the gagernent With the outlet port. inlet port by way of the front portion of the 4. In a shut-off valve for handling a fluid un 30 Chamber, a passage located downstream from the der pressure, means de?ning a Chamber having inlet port, between 'the inlet and outlet ports and a front wall, a rear wall and a movable diaphragm outside of said predetermined diaphragm area rear portion, two ports opening into the front portion of the Chamber through the front wall of the latter, one of said ports constituting .an inlet for the ?uid and the other constitutmg an outlet for the ?uid, said diaphragm being movable for from the inlet port into the rear portion of the Chamber behind the diaphragm, a second rela tively large passage for conducting such ?uid from the rear portion to the outlet port, and a pilot valve for olosing off said second passage, wardly to seat a predeterrnined area thereof whereby the ?uid entering the rear portion of the against said ports and close off the outlet port 40 Chamber through said ?rst passage will be pock and being movable rearwardly to place the out eted in the rear portion and will ?ood the same let port in communication With the inlet port by to Cause the diaphragm to move forwardly into Way of the front portion of the Chamber, said sealed engagement with the outlet port. ?rst named means having means disposed down 7. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un stream from the inlet port, between the inlet and der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm outlet ports and outside of said predetermined dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a area for pocketing some of the ?uid under pres rear portion, two ports opening into the front sure in the rear portion of the Chamber behind portion of the Chamber, either of said ports Con the diaphragm whereby to ?ood the rear portion stituting an inlet for the ?uid and the other con and cause the diaphragm to move forwardly into stituting an outlet for the ?uid, said diaphragm sealed engagement with the outlet port, and being moi/fable forwardly to seat a predetermined means for controlling the operation of said last portion of the area, thereof against said ports mentioned means, said Outlet port being provided and close off the outlet p-ort and being movable with a seat in the form of a marginal rim which rearwardly to place the outlet port in Communi projects toward the diaphragm from the front cation with the inlet port by way of the front wall of the front portion of the Chamber, for en portion of the Chamber, means located down gagement with said Dredetermined area of the stream ;from the inlet port, between the inlet diaphragm, whereby when the diaphragm is in and Outlet ports and outside of said predeter its forward position it will engage only With the mined diaphragm area for Condueting some of rim and leave a space for the ?uid about the out 60 the ?uid under pressure from the inlet port into let port between the dia-phragm and said front the rear portion of the Chamber behind the dia wall. phragm, means for discharging such ?uid from 5. In a shut-off valve for handling a fluid un the rear portion, said last mentioned means per der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a 65 mitting of a greater rate of flow than the first mentioned means, Whereby to prevent any sub rear portion, two ports opening into the front stantial accumulation of the ?uid in the rear portion of the Chamber, one of said ports oonsti tuting an inlet for the fluid and the other con portion, .and means for rendering said last men stituting an outlet for the ?uid, said diaphragm vtioned means inoperative, Whereby the ?uid en being movable forwardly to seat a predetermined tering the rear portion of the Chamber through portion of the area thereof against said ports 70 said ?rst mentioned means W111 be pocketed in and close off the outlet port and being movable the rear portion and will ?ood the same to cause rearwardly to place the outlet port in communi the diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed cation With the inlet port by way of the front engagement with the outlet port. portion of the Chamber, means disposed down 75 HAL W. MCPHERSON.