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Sept. 17, 1946.
H. w. McPHERsoN
2,407,761
VALVE
Filed Jan. 14, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVENTOI?
Hai, WMCP/zßf?o?l,
Sep?- 17, 1946-
H. w. McPHERsoN
2,407,761
VALVE
Filed Jan. 14, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 4
I
25'
12
I
INV
Sept. 17, 1946.
H, w. McPHERsoN
2,407,76l
VALVE
Filed Jan. 14, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 5 ~
IN VEN TOR.
Hczú WN CF/zer?om,
2,407,76l
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,761
VALVE
Hal W. McPherson, Chicago, Ill., assignor to
Allied Control Co., Inc., New York, N. Y., a, cor
poration of New York
Application January 14, 1944, Serial No. 518,233
7 Claims. (Cl. 137-139)
2
1
Fig. 5 is a plan view of the large diaphragm
This invention has to do with valves, and is
which is located in the main chamber of the
particularly concerned with shut-off valves of the
valve;
type in which the pressure of the fluid entering
Fig. 6 is a plan view of the small diaphragm
the valve is utilized to either open or close the
which is located in the operator:
valve under the control of an associated Operating
Fig. 7 is a bottom plan view of the diaphragm
device.
in
the operator;
One of the objects of the invention is to pro
Fig. 8 is a plan view of a modified form of the
vide an improved valve of the type described in
large diaphragm in the main chamber of the
which the passages through the valve are so
shaped as to permit the fluid to flow through such 10 valve;
Fig. 9 is a Vertical section through the center
passages with but a very small drop in pressure.
of a fully balanced valve constructed in accord
Another object is to provide an improved valve
ance with the invention, showing the valve open;
of the type described which is extremely simple,
Fig. 10 is a similar section, showing the valve
light, compact and inexpensive in construction;
closed;
15
shuts off quickly and completely; can be cperated
Fig. 11 is a plan view of a. modi?ed form of the
from a remote point; will not stick; requires no
diaphragm in the chamber of the valve shown
grinding; holds the pressure of the entering fluid
in Figs. 9 and 10; and
or any back pressure with equal facility when
Fig. 12 is a Vertical section through the center
closed; is leak proof and absolutely dependable;
and can be made in either a semi-balanced form for handling a flow in but one direction or in a
fully balanced form for handling a flow in either
direction.
Still another object is to provide, in connection
with a valve of the type described, an improved
solenoid actuated operator for controlling the
of the diaphragm shown in Pig. 11.
The valve shown in Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive will
?rst be described. This valve is semí-balariced|
in the sense that while the valve will handle a
?ow of fluid in but one direction, namely, from
the left, the pressure of the fluid being handled
will act to hold the valve closed after it has once
been closed regardless of the direction in which
valve, which operator uses but a very small
such pressure is exerted on the closure means.
amount of current.
As will be observed in these views, the valve
While a. valve constructed in accordance with
the present invention can be used advantageously 30 includes a body lß which contains a chamber ll,
an inlet port |2, and an outlet port |3. The body
in many different applications, it is especially well
lo is composed of two complementary parts Id
suited for use in airplane fuel line applications
and l5 which are fastened together by a plurality
and other similarly exacting situations where
of machine screws IB. The chamber Il in the
líghtness, compactness, simplicity, ease of con
trcl, and dependability are factors of prime im- ; body is a shallow circular cavity which is divided
by a flexible diaphragm |1 into a front portion
portance.
|8 and a rear portion IS. The inlet and Outlet
The foregoing statements are indicative in a
ports |2 and 13 enter the body l? from opposite
general way of the nature of the invention but
directions and curve rearwardly toward the cen
other more specific objects and advantages will
be apparent to those skilled in the art upon a 40 ter of the front portion Ill of the chamber in a
plane which is perpendicular to the plane of the
full understanding of the construction and oper
chamber, forming with the front portion of the
ation of the new valve.
chamber a sinuous free flow passage through the
Two different embodiments of the invention
body from one side to the other when the dia
one a semi-balanced form for ?ow in but one
direction and the other a fully balanced form for 45 phragm l'l is in its rearwardly flexed position.
The front wall 20 of the chamber H is dished
flow in either direction-are presented hereln
forwardly
to conform generally to the Shape of
for the purpose of exempli?cation, but it will of
the diaphragm I'l when the latter is in its for
course be appreciated that the invention is sus
wardly flexed position, and is provided with two
ceptible of incorporation in other modi?ed forms
coming equally within the scope of the appended ez o circular seats 2| and 22 which are located at
opposite sides of the center of the front portion
claims.
of the chamber in laterally spaced relation to
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side View of a. semi-balanced valve
each other.
The seats 2| and 22 form the ends
of the inlet and outlet ports |2 and 13, and are
constructed in accordance with the invention;
55 located on head-like rims 23 and 24 which project
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the valve;
rearwardly from the front wall 20, leaving chan
Fig. 3 is a Vertical section through the center
nels 25 in the front portion of the chamber about
of the valve, taken on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2,
such rims. The seats 2| and 22 have the same
showing the valve open;
dished curvature as the diaphragm I'l when the
Fig. 4 is a similar section, showing the valve
60 letter is in its forwardly ?exed position, and are
closed;
3
adapted to be engaged and sealed by correspond
ingly spaced ciroular portions 26 and 21 of the
diaphragm H.
The diaphragm | 1 is preferably made of thin,
readily fiexible imperforate material. The Cir
cular portions 26 and 21, which are adapted to
4
circled by magnet coils 52 and are bridged by a
tie bar 53 to form the electromagnet of a solenoid.
This electromagnet is housed within a cap 54
which ?ts over a rim 55 on the base plate.
When the solenoid is energized the armature
disk 48 will be drawn up against the ends of
engage with the seats 2| and 22, are relatively
thick portions which are preferably formed by
the pole pieces 5|, against the yielding resistance
bonding one or more layers of synthetic rubber or
When the solenoid is de-energized the spring 56
will force the armatura disk away from the pole
picces and the seat will be closed. The opening
of the seat 42 will result in the diaphragm |1
being ?exed rearwardly to open up the sinuous
passage through the valve, as shown in Fig. 3,
while the closing of the seat 42 will result in the
other suitable sealing material to the material of
the diaphragm proper. The outer marginal por
tion 28, which is clamped between the comple
mentary edges of the body parts I 4 and IB, is like
wise a relatively thick portion which is preferably
formed by the addition of one or more layers of
synthetic rubber or other suitable sealing ma
terial.
The diaphragm |`| is provided, opposite the
Channels 25 in the front portion |8 of the cham
ber, with a plurality of minute vents 23, formed '
by the insertion of eyelets 30. These vents serve
as bleeders for ?ooding the rear portion |9 of
the Chamber behind the diaphragm |1.
A solenoid operator 3| is connected with the
valve for Operating the same. This operator in
cludes a base plate 32 which is sccured to the rear
wall 33 of the chamber || by a plurality of ma
chine screws 34. The operator 3| is provided
with a relatively small shallow Circular Chamber
35. which Chamber is formed partly in the base
plate 32 and partly in. the rear wall 33, The
of a coil spring 55. and the seat 42 will be opened.
diaphragm |1 being ?exed forwardly to close off
the passage through the valve, as shown in Fig. 4.
This action is brought about by a fiooding of
the rear portion |9 of the Chamber ||, which
?ooding results from the fluid being pocketed in
the rear portion |9 by the closing off of the escape
duct 45 at the seat 42. The cross sectional area
of the duet 46, as well as of the seat 42 and the
ducts 43, 44 and 45, is larger than the aggregate
cross sectional areas of the vents 29.
As long as
the seat 42 is open, the ?uid entering the rear
portion |9 of the Chamber through the vents 29
will escape from the rear portion through the
duet 46. When the duct 46 is shut off, however,
by the Closing of the Seat 42, the ?uid entering
the rear portion |9 through the vents 29 will be
pocketed, ?ooding the rear portion and forcing
3a which is clamped marginally between the base
the diaphragm |1 forwardly into engagement with
plate and the rear wall. The diaphragm 35 di
the seats 2| and 22, and particularly with the
vides the chamber 35 into a front portion 31 and .' seat 22.
a rear portion 38. The diaphragm is provided, at
The rate of closing of the valve can be con
its outer edge, with a thickened portion 39 of
trolled by either changing the size or the num
Synthetic rubber or other suitable sealing mate
ber of the vents 29. For example, two vents of
ríal, and is provided. at its center, with a thick
the size shown might close the valve in say about
ened portion 49 of similar sealing material. 'I'he
' a third of a second, one might close it in about
diaphragm 35 has an intervening annular por
a second, and three might close it in about one
tion 4|, in the form of a fine porous screen,
tenth of a second.
through which the ?uid can flow to equalize the
When the diaphragm |1 has ?exed forwardly
pressure in the Chamber 35 on both sides of the
into a position wherein the seat 22 is engaged
diaphragm. The portion 4| also acts as a pro
by the portion 21 of the diaphragm, the fluid will
tecting filter for the cooperating parts of the sole
Continue to flow momentarily between the seat
noid. The thickened center portion 4|] of the
2| and the portion 26 of the diaphragm into the
diaphragm is adapted to engage with a small Cir
Channels 25 and through the vents 29, until the
Cular seat 42 in front of the same, to close off such
pressure behind the diaphragm urging the portion
seat. The seat 42 opens into a duct 43 which
21 against the seat 22 has reached the pressure
chamber 35 contains a thin flexible diaphragm
communicates with a laterally extending duet 44.
The duet 44 in turn communicates with a duet
45 which discharges into the outlet port |3 of
the valve. Another duct 46 leads from the rear
portion |9 of the Chamber || of the valve into
the front portion 31 of the Chamber 35 in the
operator.
The diaphragm 3B in the operator 3| is pro
of the fluid in the inlet port |2, whereupon the
portion 21 of the diaphragm will be securely
sealed against the seat 22 and maintained in such
sealed condition by the pressure of the ?uid on the
inlet side.
Should the valve when closed be holding ?uid
under pressure on the Outlet side, the valve can
be even disconnected at the inlet side without al
vided on its front face with a reinforcing washer
lowing the ?uid to flow back through the valve.
41 and on its rear face with an armatura disk 48.
60 Under such conditions, the back pressure of the
The washer 41 and the disk 48 are secured to
fluid will act against the rear face of the portion
gether through the imperforate center portion 40
26 of the diaphragm to maintain the portion 26
of the diaphragm by a plurality of small rivets
in securely sealed engagement with the seat 2|,
49. The outer edge of the disk 48 is beveled at
the flow necessary to create such pressure passing
50 to permit the diaphragm to cup to a certain U.) momentarily between the portion 21 of the dia
extent about the same when the diaphragm is
`phragm and the seat 22.
?exed forwardly. The opening in the center of
As previously pointed out, the operator 3| will
the washer 41 is larger than the seat 42 to clear
open the valve and keep it open only as long as
the latter.
the solenoid in the operator is energized, and will
The base plate 32 of the operator 3| supports 70 automatically close as soon as the solenoid is de
two pole pieces 5| which are threaded through
energized. These Operations can be reversed, if
the base plate into the rear portion 38 of the
desired, by substituting an operator in which the
Chamber 35 at points equidistant from the cen
seat 42 is positioned behind the diaphragm 36
ter of the armatura disk 48, for electromagnetic
instead of in front of the same, in which case
Coaction with the latter. The pole pleces are en 75 the valve will close when the solenoid is ener
5
gized and remain closed only as long as the sole
noid continues to be energlzed.
The valve shown in Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive. is
what is known as a normally closed valve, that is
to say it is open only when the solenoid in the
operator 3| is energized. It could of course be
constructed just as easily as a normally open
valve, merely by substituting a different oper
ator.
The diaphragm I'l, instead of being provided
with the vents 29, might be formed, as shown in
Fig. 8, of a semi-porous fabric 51 having a total
porosity over the exposed areas equivalent to
the porosity obtained with the vents.
The valve shown in Figs. 9 and 10 is similar
fiuid against pressure in either direction. When
the solenoid is again energized, the fluid pock
eted behind the dlaphragm |1' will escape
through the duct 62 and the valve will resume its
opened position.
If it is desired to have the valve move into its
closed position instead of into its open position
when the solenoid in the operator 3|' is energized,
this can be done very simply by substituting an
10 operator in which the positlons of the seats 59
and 6|! with respect to the diaphragm 36' are re
versed.
If the valve is to be subject to extremely high
pressures, the diaphragm in the main chamber
of the valve may be provided, at the locations of
the ports to be closed, with metallic reinforcing
in many respects to the valve shown in Flgs. 1
disks 64. as shown in Figs. 11 and 12. The disks
to 'Z inclusive, but is fully balanced, in the sense
64 are attached to the underlying seallng por
that it will handle a ?ow passing through the
tions 65 of the diaphragm by rivets 65. If de
valve in either direction. In this valve the dia
sired, light coil springs 61 may be positioned un
phragm l'l' contains no vents of any kind, and 20 der compression between the rear Wall of the
the fluid used in ?ooding the rear portion IQ' of
chamber and the disks 64 for urging the dia
the chamber II' to move the diaphragm for
phragm forwardly into its sealed position.
wardly into sealed engagement with the seats 2 I '
In constructing a valve in accordance with the
and 22' both enters and leaves the rear portion
lnvention the metal parts of the valve are prefer
|9' through a duct 58.
ably made of aluminum, or of some alloy of
An operator 3|' is employed having a margin
aluminum. whereby to reduce the weight of the
ally perforated diaphragm 35' which is movable
valve to a minimum and at the same time avoid
rearwardly into sealed engagement with an an
the necessity of insulating the electrically actu
nular seat 59 and is movable forwardly into sealed
ated parts of the operator.
engagement with an annular seat 5D. The seat 30
I claim:
59 forms the end of a duct 6| which leads by a
1. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un
rather circuitous path from one of the connected
der pressure, a chamber, a, movable diaphragm
channels 25' surroundlng the seats 2|' and 22'
dividing the chamber into a front portion and a
in the front portion I8' of the chamber Il' in
rear portion, two ports opening into the front
the valve. The seat 59 opens into the rear por
portion of the chamber, one of said ports con
stituting an inlet for the fluid and the other
constituting an outlet for the ?uid, said dia
phragm being movable forwarclly to seat a por
tion -of the area thereof against said ports and
close o?' the outlet port and being movable rear
the entrance to a duct 62 which during the open
wardly to place the outlet port in communica
ing movement only of the valve discharges a
tion with the inlet port by way of the front por
small quantity of the fluid either into the atmos
tlon of the chamber, means disposed downstream
phere or into a conduit 63 leading to a container
or other low pressure part of the system. The 45 from said inlet port, between the inlet and outlet
ports and outside of said portion of the diaphragm
duct 58 communicates with the discharge duct 52
area for conducting some of the fluid from the
through the front portion 31' of the chamber
inlet port into the rear portion of the Chamber.
35' when the diaphragm 36' is in its rearwardly
whereby to pocket such fluid under pressure in
flexed position in sealed engagement with the
the rear portion of the chamber behind the dia
50
seat 59.
.
phragm to ?ood the rear portion and cause the
When the solenoid in the operator 3|' is in its
diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed engage
energized condition, as shown in Fig. 9, the seat
ment with the outlet port, and means for con
59 will be closed and the seat Eli will be open.
troiling the operation of said last mentioned
As a result, the duct 6| used in flooding the rear
portion |9' of the chamber ll' during the valve 55 means.
2. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un
closing operation will be closed and the duct 62
der pressure, a chamber, two ports opening into
used in evacuating the rear portion |9' during
the chamber, one port constituting an inlet for
the valve opening operation will be open to the
the fluid under pressure and the other an outlet
atmosphere, maintaining the diaphragm I'l' in its
rearwardly ?exed or open position. When the 60 for such fluid, a fiexible diaphragm in the cham
ber spanning both ports and dividing the cham
solenoid in the operator is de-energized, as shown
ber into front and rear portions, `the diaphragm
in Pig. 10, the seat 59 will be opened and the seat
being movable into the front portion of the cham
50 will be closed. This will open the duct 6|
ber to seat a portion of the area thereof across
and allow the fluid being handled to pass through
such duct into the rear portion |9' of the cham 65 and close off the ports and being movable into
the rear portion to permit communication of the
ber. The fluid entering the rear portion will be
outlet port with the inlet port through the front
pocketed in the same and prevented from leav
portion, means located downstream from said
ing by the closed condition of the duct 52, and
inlet port, between the inlet and outlet ports and
will result in the rear portion [9' of the chamber
outside of said portion of the diaphragm area
becoming fiooded, causing the diaphragm I'l' to
for conducting some of the fluid from the inlet
move into sealed engagement with first one of
port into the rear portion of the chamber where
the ports 2|' and 22' and then the other, the or
by to pocket such ?uid under pressure in the rear
der depending of course upon the directlon of
portion of the chamber behind the diaphragm
?ow. After the valve has been closed it will shut
off the flow through the valve and will hold the 75 to fiood the rear portion and cause the diaphragm
tion 38' of the chamber 35' in the operator and
communicates with the duct 58 through the per
forated portion of the diaphragm 36' when the
latter is in its forwardly fiexed position in sealed
engagement with the seat 50. The seat 60 forms
2,407,76 1
7
to move forwardly into the front portion into
sealed engagement With the outlet port, and
means for Operating said last mentioned means.
3. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un
der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm
dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a
rear portion, two ports opening into the front
portion of the Chamber, one of said ports con
stituting an inlet for the ?uid and the other con
stream from the inlet port, between the inlet and
Outlet ports and outside of said predetermined
diaphragm area for Conducting some of the fluid
under pressure from the inlet port into the rear
portion of the Chamber behind the diaphragm1
means for Conducting such ?uid from the rear
portion to the outlet port, said last mentioned
means permitting of a greater rate of iiow than
the ?rst mentioned means, whereby to prevent
stituting an outlet for the ?uid. said diaphragm 10 any substantial accumulation of the ?uid in the
being movable forwardly to seat a portion of the
rear portion, and means for rendering said last
area thereof against said ports and Close o? the
mentioned means inoperative, whereby the ?uid
outlet port and being movable rearwardly to
entering the rear portion of the Chamber through
place the outlet port in communication with the
said ?rst mentioned means will be pocketed in
inlet port by way of the front portion of the 15 the rear portion and will fiood the same to cause
Chamber, means located downstream from said
the diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed en
inlet port, between the inlet and outlet ports and
gagement with the outlet port.
outside of said portion of the diaphragm area for
6. In a shut-off valve for handling a fluid un
conducting some of the fluid under pressure from
der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm
the inlet port into the rear portion of the cham 20 dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a
ber behind the diaphragm, means for Conducting
rear portion, two ports opening into the front
such ?uid from the rear portion to the outlet
portion of the Chamber, one of said ports consti
port, and means for rendering said last men
tioned means inoperative, whereby the ?uid en
tering the rear portion of the Chamber through
said first mentioned means will be pocketed in
tuting an inlet for the fluid and the other con
dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a
for conducting some of the ?uid under pressure
stituting an Outlet for the fluid, said diaphragm
being movable forwardly to seat a predetermined
area thereof against said ports and Close off the
the rear portion and will ?ood the same to cause
Outlet port and being movable rearwardly to
the diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed en
place the outlet port in communication with the
gagernent With the outlet port.
inlet port by way of the front portion of the
4. In a shut-off valve for handling a fluid un 30 Chamber, a passage located downstream from the
der pressure, means de?ning a Chamber having
inlet port, between 'the inlet and outlet ports and
a front wall, a rear wall and a movable diaphragm
outside of said predetermined diaphragm area
rear portion, two ports opening into the front
portion of the Chamber through the front wall of
the latter, one of said ports constituting .an inlet
for the ?uid and the other constitutmg an outlet
for the ?uid, said diaphragm being movable for
from the inlet port into the rear portion of the
Chamber behind the diaphragm, a second rela
tively large passage for conducting such ?uid
from the rear portion to the outlet port, and a
pilot valve for olosing off said second passage,
wardly to seat a predeterrnined area thereof
whereby the ?uid entering the rear portion of the
against said ports and close off the outlet port 40 Chamber through said ?rst passage will be pock
and being movable rearwardly to place the out
eted in the rear portion and will ?ood the same
let port in communication With the inlet port by
to Cause the diaphragm to move forwardly into
Way of the front portion of the Chamber, said
sealed engagement with the outlet port.
?rst named means having means disposed down
7. In a shut-off valve for handling a ?uid un
stream from the inlet port, between the inlet and
der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm
outlet ports and outside of said predetermined
dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a
area for pocketing some of the ?uid under pres
rear portion, two ports opening into the front
sure in the rear portion of the Chamber behind
portion of the Chamber, either of said ports Con
the diaphragm whereby to ?ood the rear portion
stituting an inlet for the ?uid and the other con
and cause the diaphragm to move forwardly into
stituting an outlet for the ?uid, said diaphragm
sealed engagement with the outlet port, and
being moi/fable forwardly to seat a predetermined
means for controlling the operation of said last
portion of the area, thereof against said ports
mentioned means, said Outlet port being provided
and close off the outlet p-ort and being movable
with a seat in the form of a marginal rim which
rearwardly to place the outlet port in Communi
projects toward the diaphragm from the front
cation with the inlet port by way of the front
wall of the front portion of the Chamber, for en
portion of the Chamber, means located down
gagement with said Dredetermined area of the
stream ;from the inlet port, between the inlet
diaphragm, whereby when the diaphragm is in
and Outlet ports and outside of said predeter
its forward position it will engage only With the
mined diaphragm area for Condueting some of
rim and leave a space for the ?uid about the out 60
the ?uid under pressure from the inlet port into
let port between the dia-phragm and said front
the rear portion of the Chamber behind the dia
wall.
phragm, means for discharging such ?uid from
5. In a shut-off valve for handling a fluid un
the rear portion, said last mentioned means per
der pressure, a Chamber, a movable diaphragm
dividing the Chamber into a front portion and a 65 mitting of a greater rate of flow than the first
mentioned means, Whereby to prevent any sub
rear portion, two ports opening into the front
stantial accumulation of the ?uid in the rear
portion of the Chamber, one of said ports oonsti
tuting an inlet for the fluid and the other con
portion, .and means for rendering said last men
stituting an outlet for the ?uid, said diaphragm
vtioned means inoperative, Whereby the ?uid en
being movable forwardly to seat a predetermined
tering the rear portion of the Chamber through
portion of the area thereof against said ports 70 said ?rst mentioned means W111 be pocketed in
and close off the outlet port and being movable
the rear portion and will ?ood the same to cause
rearwardly to place the outlet port in communi
the diaphragm to move forwardly into sealed
cation With the inlet port by way of the front
engagement with the outlet port.
portion of the Chamber, means disposed down 75
HAL W. MCPHERSON.
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