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Патент USA US2407789

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Sept. 17, 1946.
R. H. KNAUSS Y
2,407,788
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed July_ 1, 1944'
‘ s Sheets-Sheet 1
Sept. 17, 1946.
7
R. H. KNAUSS
INTERNAL —COMBUSTION
Filed July 1, 1944
.1.
‘WA.
2,407,788
ENGINE
3 Sheets-Sheet 2'
Sept. 17, 1946.
' R, ‘H, KNAUSS
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed July 1, 1944 '
‘m
. k
27 'I
26
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“
2,407,788
.
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
I
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,788
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
2,407,788
IN TERNAL-VCOMBUSTION ENGINE
Richard H. Knauss, Peoria, Ill.
Application July 1, 1944, Serial No. 543,062
12 Claims.
This invention relates to a power unit, and to
improvements in internal combustion engines
as members of said unit.
More particularly the invention has to do with
a power unit employing twin combustion engines
of the two cycle type using any form of fuel, in
cluding Diesel fuel, wherein provision is made
for introducing into the ?ring chambers thereof
?ring charges at pressure greater than the pres
(Cl. 123-59)
2
pistons by ‘which the explosive mixture is far
greater in density than that resulting from the
power pistons alone.
This as an “overcharge”
is forced into each ?ring cylinder in turn, in
alternate manner, in the two engines and, due
to the compressed ‘volume of ?ring mixture the
unit will operate as efficiently at high levels as
at sea level.
These pressures are set up alter
nately in alternate ?ring cylinders ‘?rst by one
sures that can be produced by the pistons in 10 auxiliary piston and then by the other, the
such chambers.
proper pressure charges being provided by spring
An object of the invention is to provide a .
unit comprising twin engines wherein compres
sions auxilary to and greater than those pro
duced by the usual power pistons can be intro
duced into the combustion chambers of each -
said engine by the employment of auxiliary
pressure creating pistons, such auxiliary pres
sures being valved in timed order from one en
gine toward the other engine as a part of a ?r
held valves adapted to open at a predetermined '
setting for pressure at'the altitude to be attained.
In Figure 1 of the‘drawings, ‘I represents the
15 base portion or crank case of twin engines of
the power unit, while 2 isthe single crank shaft
serving both engines, and 3 the upper body struc
tures of each secured in a customary manner to '
the crank case and which includes ?ring cylin
20 ders 4 and 5 spaced from each other, wherein
ing charge through a valve which is capable of
are the usual power’plstons B and 1, respectively,
being set for any predetermined pressure or such
above which are exhaust valves A in the engine
a pressure as is necessary to provide for proper
engine performance for‘planes operating at high
heads operated in the usual way with respect to ‘
timing. The said cylinders 4 and 5 in this in
altitudes.
25 stance depend into the crank case I, the cylinder
Another object is that by building up pressures
4'being encircled by a ring piston 8, the cylinder
and introducing them into the ?ring chambers
5 being encircled by similar ring piston 9, it be
of a pair of engines through valving means capa
ing noted that each of the connecting rods ID of
ble of being set to open under any given pres
such pistons engage about a cracked portion ll
sure for high altitude purposes.
30 of the crank shaft 2, which portions l l are spaced
That the structure of my engine may be fully
opposite the connecting rods l2 of the said power
understood the appended drawings are provided
pistons 6 and ‘l, i. e., at opposite sides of the
as parts thereof.
crank-shaft-center so that the‘ power pistons and
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section in elevation,
ring pistons will move in opposite directions. In
of the engine of my invention.
Figure 2 is a horizontal section of the same, 35 the crank case a web 3' lies midway between the
produced on line 2-2 of Figure 1.
two engines, and serves as a bearing support for
the crank shaft together with those at 32 at the
Figure 3 is also a horizontal section of the
crank case ends.
‘
engine taken on line 3-3 of said Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a transverse sectional elevation of
An outer wall 2' of each upper body structure
the engine as produced on line 4-4 of Figure 1.
encircles and is spaced from the cylinders 4 and
Figure 5 is a plan of a valve arrangement in
5 forming a companion cylinder for the ring pis
horizontal section constructed according to Fig
tons 8 and 9, the two latter, therefore, working
ures 1 and 2 but much enlarged and
between said wall 2’ and cylinders 4, 5 respec
Figure 6 is a vertical section of part of a valve 45 tively.
case.
.
My improved structure is arranged and adapt
ed for operation at high altitudes where atmos
Further, outward from the wall 2' of each
structure 2 is a wall 22 spaced from the said
wall 2' creating an annular recess I3, Figure 3,
pheric pressure may be even as low as twelve
pounds. Since power pistons cannot take in as 50 which in this instance partially encircles the
latter and both of which merge into each other at
much air for compression at high altitudes as
23 between the structures as in Figures 2 and 3,
‘at low altitudes, near sea level for example, I
the purpose of the recess l3 appearing later
provide an auxiliary piston for each of the two
herein. It is to be stated however, that in the
pistons employed in the power unit shown, such
wall 2' of each engine is a series of transfer open
pistons having greater areas than said power 55 ings or ports l4 through which the space l3 may
2,407,788
3,
the recess H3 at the cylinder 5 and the ring pls
ton cavity at that same cylinder, it being Ob!
served that the Walls of the cylinders 4, 5 as in
communicate with the cylinder in which the ring
pistons 8 and 9 travel.
Again, each upper structure 2 has a wall l5
Figures 1 and 3, are connected by a bridging por
tion I4’ for closing communication between the
each partially encircling the cylinders 4 and 5
in spaced relation thereto creating a recess [6
said cylinders having said pistons 8, 9. There
which may communicate with the bores of the
said cylinder 4, 5 through transfer openings or
ports H in the walls of the two latter, a recess
fore, neither of the cylinder cavities can com
municate with its neighbor except through the
unseating of a valve 22. .-
8 of the upper structure of each engine together
'
,
In the wall 2' below the position of the valve
forming a conduit or passageway, as Figures 10
,
case
is an inlet opening 30, Figures 1 and'3, for the
1 and 2, lying between said structures.
intake of the explosive mixture conveyed by a
manifold connection 3 l, the inducted mixture be
ing free to enter the cavity for ring piston 8, or
l9 suitably secured in place and closing the space
between them as in Figure 2 and having two com 15 the cavity for ring piston 9, as each piston in its
travel uncovers the openings l4 of the wall 2’.
partments or passages therethroughleading into
The adjustment of spring tension at the valves
said heads through windows [9’, Figure 4, the
determines the degree of compression necessary
case with normally seated valves therein forming
Within this space I8, and lying between the
head portions of the two engines is a valve case
to unseat the valves, both said valves being set
a barrier to cormnunication of the ?oores for the
pistons 8, 9, and the bores of the cylinder 4, 5 with 20
each other, a closure [92 for the top of the case
for a like pressure, as stated.
'
'
‘
In operating the unit at or near sea level, the
valves may momentarily be prevented opening
by engaging the ends of the members 29 in the
to Figure 5 particularly, the said case I9 is divided
grooves of the collars 21, said members being so
into the two named compartments by a wall 20.
One end of each compartment is open, while at 25 located of course that their engagement with the
collars is always at the closed or seated position
the other end of each is a seat 2| 'for a valve 22.
of the valves. This arrangement serves to place
The valves are designed to open outwardly, in op
a full charge of gas from the bores of the cylinders
posite directions or each toward a cylinder 4, 5,
2' for the ring pistons 8, 9 into the ?ring cham
the stem 23 of each valve being slidable in a sup
completing the barrier thus provided. ' Referring
bers. Thus a sudden increase in power is avail
able, and such charges may also serve for start
ing purposes.
The numerous openings l4 and H are provided
port 24, each stem also carrying a nut 25, for ex
ample, threaded thereon for adjustment there
along.
Between a support 24 and an adjacent
nut‘ 25 of each stem is a compression spring 26,
at the recesses l3, l6 merely in order that the
these springs normally holding the valves in their
said seats 2|. The adjustment of the nuts vary 35 compressed gases may have free ?ow into the cyle
inders 4, 5 though, perhaps this free ?ow may
the tension of the springs, the spring tensions
7 be obtained in other ways.
being equal one to the other for the present pur
In Figure 1 the auxiliary or pressure piston 8
pose. Included in- the valve structure is a grooved
is in its lowest position, having in its descent ‘
collar 27 fixed on each stem, each groove adapted
drawn gas mixture through ports [4 of the cylin
to receive the end of a shiftable member 29 slid 40 der 4 the power piston 6 having reached the top
able through a wall of the valve case and each
of its stroke. The piston 9 has reached the top
so placed with respect to a collar that both the
of its compression stroke, having closed the inlet
valves may be held ?rmly in their seats when de
ports !4 at the cylinder 5, and at this time the
sired, any suitable means not shown, being used
to shift the members 29 simultaneously into and 45 power piston ‘I has reached the extreme of its
power stroke. As said piston 5 descends due to
out of engagement with the collars.
the ?red gas charge thereabove the said piston
In the present instance'ea'ch valve seat 2| is
v8 moves upward to compress the gas mixture
situated inward from the ends of the case l9, the
valves 22 therefor each having a guide member
‘22' snugly slidable within a cupped member 222
screwed, for example, into one end of each of a
named compartment, there being an opening 23'
in the wall of each- member 222 which leads
through the wall of said case l9 and the cover
l92 to the outer air, see Figures 5 and 6, said open
ing serving as a “breather” for the cavity behind.
the said'guide member 22" as a valve shifts posi
tion. Also, in the lower wall of the case in each
above it, after closing the port [4 adjacent it. At
this time the piston 9will move down and the pis
ton ‘I will move up.
the purpose of this structure appearing later
herein.
'
The valve so provided lies between the cylin- ,
,
charge above, and received by it from the port
14, is compressed during the time the piston 6
is descending, is con?ned by the closed valve 22
and is forced into the cylinder 4 above said piston
' ~compartment is an opening, or port, 232 for pas
sage therethrough for gases under pressure from
the valve casing when each valve is forced open,
.
In the upward travel of the piston 8 a gas
60
5 when that member uncovers the adjacent port
i1. Any pressure above or in excess of that in
troduced by said piston 8, or that pressure in
excess of that for which the valves are set, un
seats the valve that opens toward the piston ‘l
to admit such excess, or overcharge,‘into that
portion of the passage ii; at the engine of which
said piston ‘I is a part.
'
During the descent of the piston B the piston ‘I
ders 4, 5 as shown clearly in Figures 1 and 2 and 65 is, of course rising, the port I‘! adjacent it being
either compartment of the same through its open
closed thereby, the gas for that piston having
end, may communicate with a recess IB leading
previously passed through that port in the upward
to cylinders 4, 5. Also the compartments are in
compression stroke of the piston 9 which, as"
communication separately, only, with the cavities
shown in the drawings, has just reached the limit
of the cylinder for the ring pistons 8, 9, Stated in
of that stroke. The excess pressure, or over
another way, but one compartment of the valve
charge, as in the ?rst instance, will unseat the
box can communicate separately at its open end
other of the valves 22' for movement of that
with the space or recess l8 at the cylinder 4 and
charge toward and into the passage l6 at the en
‘the ring piston cavity adjacent thereto while the
gine having the piston 6, these overcharges being
other compartment can only communicate with
2,407,788
5
‘subsequently-parts of further fresh gas charges
supplied 'by ‘the‘pressure pistons ‘in the manner
described.
The named excess charges or over
charges held .in the passage [6, and subsequently
withdrawn, are the amounts that balance the
charges forced into the cylinders above the pis
tons 3.6, 7 and the exact amount displaced ‘by their
pistons in said travel.
Naturally, when the lighter air at higher alti
6
iliary pistons. These air charges are then in
jected into the power cylinders, and finally mixed
with separately injected fuel therein to create
?ring charges during the compression strokes of
the power pistons. Any overcharge of air, i. e.,
charges above the set requirements for such en
gines are still passed through the valves 22 but
are ?nally discharged into the outer air in any
desired ‘manner as surplus.
As may be seen,
tudes is inducted the valves 22 will be opened 10 thereiore, the said valves 22 in effect meter the
at the same pressures as at low altitudes but fol
charges in any engine, whether overcharging
‘lowing higher positions of the pistons, i. e., longer
explosive mixtures ‘as in the earlier description
'travels thereof so that the same exact cubic
charges will still be placed in the cylinders 4, 5
although, of course, the overcharges will be less
‘due to lighter air.
‘The pistons B, -9 each has a cubic displacement
42% greater than the displacement of either
‘piston 6, 1. That is to say, the cubic displace
ment of pistons 8, 9 each with a stroke of one
inch is 42% greater than the cubic displacement
of either piston 6, ‘I having a stroke of but one
inch and'three quarters.
Naturally, each piston 8, 9 in its descent for
herein, or as in said Diesel engines where the
overcharges are charges of air only.
While I have adapted my invention to an en
gine of the two cycle type it ‘may also be adapted
to a four cycle engine, in principle.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination, a pair of companion en
gines of the two cycle type jointly forming power
unit and each including power piston and power
cylinder, and including also a pressure piston
and a compression cylinder, the latter to con?ne
pressures set up by the former, like pistons of
intake of gases will create a vacuum within its 25
each engine‘acting in opposite directions, there
cylinder that may tend to unseat the valve “22
above it. If the vacuum is su?icient to overcome
the spring tension on said valve, or in addition
thereto, if pressure of gas is on the valve at the
same time said valve might unseat and thus the 30
proper joint functioning of the two engines would
be interfered with by premature release of pres
sure, with consequent insu?icient charges intro
duced into the ‘power cylinders. For this reason
‘each valve is hooded by a described cupped mem
ber 222 so that a formed vacuum cannot affect
it. Thus provided, the valves can be un-seated
only by gas pressure, that is to say such pressures
being a transfer port in a wall of the compression
cylinder of each engine in communication with
the bore of that cylinder when the pressure pis
ton is begnining its compression stroke, said port
having communication with a source of fuel mix
ture, there also being a port in a wall of the
power cylinder to communicate with the bore of
the latter at the end of the fuel intake stroke of
said power piston, said port and the ?rst named
port being communicable with ‘each other and
with the fuel source, there being a single avenue
of communication between the bores of the com
pression cylinders of the two engines with each
as have been predetermined by the tension of
the springs. ‘However, other ways for accom 40 other, the two named ports of each engine also
communicable jointly with the named avenue, a
plishing the same end may, of course, be em~
valve case lying in said avenue comprising two
ployed.
separatepassages, and an elastically controlled
At sea level any well known method of cal
valve in each passage and normally seated to
culating for the setting of the ‘valves '22 may be
close communication through said avenue and
employed so that they will each be unseated at
adapted to be unseated separately in opposite di
a given pressure at any altitude. Naturally un
rections by ‘pressures set up alternately in said
seating of the valve will occur at shorter travels
compression cylinders by the pistons therein for
of the piston 8, 9 at or near sea levels than in
directing pressure from one of each cylinder of
the more rari?ed atmospheres. In other words
greater travels of these pistons would be required .50' one engine into the power cylinder of the com
panion engine in alternate order.
progressively as altitudes become greater.
2. A power unit including in its construction
The intake of the gasses may be in excess of
a pair of engines of the two cycle type, each
charges needed by the power cylinder of either en
engine including a power piston and its cylinder,
gine to function at any altitude, this excess over
and a pressure piston and a pressure cylinder
flowing into the opposite pressure cylinder as the
for compression of gases, there being two pas
piston in the latter recedes in its intake stroke.
sageways connecting the bores of the pressure
Thus all fuel mixture is used and no more is
cylinders, said bores being otherwise noncom
drawn from the intake manifold than required to
municable with each other, there being a port
supply a de?ciency, should there be such.
Important is the fact that the single intake for 60 in each power cylinder and a ‘port in each pres~
sure cylinder communicable with a source of‘ fuel
fuel mixture supplies both engines so that a
proper mixture for one of them is correct for the
other, all other conditions being equal.
Thus
mixture, the said ports of one engine being c0m~
municable with but one of said passages, and an
elastically controlled valve in each passage nor
by a correct carburetor setting the twin engines
work together as a unit in perfect coordination, 65 mally seated and closing communication between
the ‘bores of said pressure cylinders, said valves
a smoothly operating mechanism being assured.
At sea level the operation of the unit is like
adapted to be separately unseated in opposite di
that of any conventional engine unit, overcharg"
ing occurring as high ?ying levels are attained.
rections by pressure set up ‘alternately by the
pressure pistons of the engines, and means for
The power units composed of twin engines .as
adjusting each valve mechanism to hold it seated
herein provided may be multiplied foriproviding
except under a given gas pressure thereon.
3. A power unit including in its construction a
power plants of greater power, a single crank
shaft serving all of such units, naturally.
In ‘employing my invention with Diesel engines
pair of engines of the two cycle type, each engine
including its power piston and cylinder, and hav
air charges only, of course, are'inducted by aux- .
ins a pressure piston and a pressure cylinder for
2,407,788
7
‘8
compression of gases, a pair of passageways con
necting the bores of the pressure cylinders, there
being a port in each power cylinder and a port
in each pressure cylinder communicable with a
source of fuel mixture, said ports of one engine
being communicable with but one of said pas
‘sure, cylinders adapted in alternate order to 'un
'seatthe valves, the gases under pressurein one
engine of the two being forced into the ?ring
chamber of the other engine in alternate order.
'7. A power unit including in its construction
_two internal combustion engines of the two cycle
sageways, a valve case seated between the engines
and open at opposite sides forming communica
inder in additionto its power piston and a cyl
type, each having'an auxiliary piston and cyl-‘
tions with the bores of both pressure cylinders,
inder for compressing gas charges from a‘fuel
pair of engines of the two cycle type, each engine
including its power piston and its cylinder, and
a recess under the pressure charges so set up, said
said case being divided into two compartments 10 source common to both engines, there being a
cavity adjacent each engine to communicate with
separate one from the other, a valve mounted
the ?ring chambers thereof wherein to receive
in each compartment one of them arranged to
compressed fuel charges set up by said auxiliary
open in a direction opposite to that of the other,
pistons, a pair of separate normally elastically
and a spring to hold each valve elastically in'its
15 seated valves normally separating said cavities
seat.
one from the other, the valves adapted to sep
4. A power unit including in its construction a
arately unseat in opposite directions each toward
charges being separately forced into the ?ring
having a pressure piston and a pressure cylinder
for compression of gases, a pair of passageways 20 chambers of opposite chambers in alternate order.
8. A power unit including in its construction
connecting the bores of the pressure cylinders,
two internal combustion engines of the two cycle
there being a port in each power cylinder and
type, each having an auxiliary, piston and cylin
a port in each pressure cylinder communicable
der in addition to its power piston and cylinder
with a source of fuel mixture, said ports of each
engine being separately communicable with one 25 for compressing gas charges from a fuel source
common to both engines, there being a cavity ad
of the said passageways, a valve case seated be
jacent each engine to communicate with the ?ring
tween the engines and open at opposite sides
chambers thereof wherein to receive compressed
forming a passage therethrough communicating
fuel charge set up by said auxiliary pistons, a
with both pressure cylinders, said case being
divided into two compartments separate one from 30 pair of separate normally elastically seated valves
normally separating said cavities one from the
the other, a valve mounted in each compartment,
other, the valves adapted to 'separately‘unseat
one arranged to open in a direction opposite to
in opposite directions each toward a recess under
that of the other, a spring to hold each valve
the pressure charges so set up, said charges being
elastically in its‘ seat and, means to adjust the
tension of the spring of each valve for setting 35 separately forced into the ?ring chambers of 0p
posite‘chambers in alternate order and means to
each of the latter to open at a given pressure of
vary the degree with which the valves are elas
a gas thereagainst.
tically seated whereby they may be unseated by
5. A power unit including in its construction
varying predetermined pressure charges. _
I
a pair of engines of the two cycle type, each en
9. A power unit including in its construction
gine including a power piston and its cylinder,
a pair of internal combustion engines having
and having a pressure piston and a pressure cyl
power pistons operating in contrary directions, a
inder for compression of gases, a pair of passage
separate pressure piston on each engine for'in
ways connecting the bores of the pressure cyl
taking and compressing fuel charges, the same
inders, there being a port in each power cylinder
and a port in each pressure cylinder communi 45 operating in contrary directions, and each oper
ating in a direction contrary to the travel of
cable with a source of fuel mixture, said ports
the power piston of the same engine of which. each
of one engine being communicable with but one
said pressure piston is a part, there being a port
of said passageways, a valve box seated between
for intake of fuel to both said pressure pistons,
the engines and open at opposite sides forming
a communication between both pressure cylin 50 there also being a passage arranged to com
municate with thecylinders of the power pistons
ders, said case being divided into two compart
while having communication also with the cylin
ments separate one from the other, a valve
ders of the pressure pistons and with said port,
mounted in each compartment one arranged to
said passage being separated in a part thereof
open in a direction opposite to that of the‘ other,
into two passageways, an elastically seated valve
a spring to hold each valve elastically in its
seat, means to adjust the tension of the spring 55 in each passageway adapted to unseat in separate
order in opposite directions, each in the direction
of each valve for setting eachof the latter to
of a given engine, the compression stroke of the
open at a given pressure, and means for prevent
pressure piston of one engine adapted to force
ing unseating of the valves.
a gas charge through said passage’upon the power
6. A power unit including in its construction
two internal combustion engines, each engine 60 piston of the same engine, said charge also un
seating the valve directed toward the companion
having a pressure cylinder and a/ piston therefor
engine when the pressure of such gas charge is in
in addition to the power piston of each, the two
excess of that required for the named power pis
pressure pistons having opposite directions of
travel, and like pistons having opposite direction
ton.
,
,10. The invention as de?ned by claim 9, in
cluding means for setting each valve to unseat at
a predetermined pressure thereupon.
pressure cylinders of the engines being normally
11. A power unit including in its construction
noncommunicable, there being a pair of passages
a pair of internal combustion engines having
communicable with both said cylinders, an elas
tically controlled valve in each passage normally 70 power pistons operating in contrary directions, a
pressure pistonrat each engine for intaking and
closing each said passage, and adapted to be un
compressing fuel charges, the same operating in
seated in opposite directions each in the direc
of travel in the two engines and all of them ar
ranged to draw from a fuel mixture source, the
contrary directions and each operating in a direc
tion of a different cylinder, and means for set
tion contrary to the travel of the power piston
ting each valve to unseat under a given‘ pressure
of gas thereagainst, pressures from the two pres 75 for the same engine of vwhich each said pressure
’
9
2,467,788“
piston is a part, there being a passage between
the power-piston cylinders, said passage being
divided into two separate passageways, an elas~
tically controlled valve in each passageway
adapted to unseat under pressure in opposite
directions, the Wall of each cylinder having a port,
the ports communicating with the said passage
and with each other through the latter when one
or the other of the valves is unseated, said pas“
sage also being in communication with both pres 10
sure-piston cylinders and communicating with
placement area than that of its corresponding
power piston, there being a port for intake of fuel
charges to both pressure pistons, there also be
ing a passage arranged to communicate with the
cylinders of the pressure pistons and with said
port, a valve casing having two separate and in-'
dependent bores each to separately communi
cate with the fuel-charge passage to an engine,
an elastically seated valve in each bore adapted
to unseat in separate order in opposite directions
each in the ‘direction of a given engine, the com
pression strokes of the pressure pistons adapted
the source of fuel mixture, the power pistons in
their travel exposing and closing the named ports,
to alternately unseat the valves and force fuel >
the compressing stroke of the pressure piston of
charges through and beyond the valves toward
one engine adapted to force a gas charge through
and into power-piston cylinders when the pres
the said passage upon the power piston of the
sure of ‘fuel charges are in excess of those nor
same engine, said charge also unseating the valve
mally required for such power pistons, the said
directed toward the companion engine when such
valve casing having a cavity separate from and
charge is in excess of that required at the named
in line with each bore thereof, there being a port
power piston.
20 leading from each cavity into the named passage,
12. A power unit including in its construction
there also being a port leadingr from each cavity
a pair of internal combustion engines including
to the atmosphere, and a piston in each cavity
their power pistons operating simultaneously in
each as a part of one of the named elastically
contrary directions, a separate pressure piston in
seated valves, each of the last named pistons
each engine for intaking and compressing i‘uel
adapted to alternately expose one of the named
charges, each operating contrary to the travel oi
ports of a cavity, and to close the other port dur
the power piston of the engine of which power
ing the seating and unseating of said valves.
piston is a part, and each having a greater dis
RICHARD H. KNAUSS.
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