Патент USA US2407792код для вставки
Sept. 17, 1946. T_ a MARTW Em ' 2,407,791 GOVERNOR VALVE Filed. June 1,3942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 68 I95 '55 .50 lNVENTOR-S Allh THOMAS E. MRRTI H Jorm F. names BY [2'7- 4 ‘ - i/‘eir' ATToRNgg/é" Patented Sept. 17, 1946 UNETE. 2,497,791 PATENT OFFICE ST 2,407,791 GOVERNOR VALVE Thomas B. Martin and John F. Haines, Dayton, Ohio, assignors to General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware Application June 1, 1942, Serial ‘No. 445,366 18 Claims. (01. 1705-4163) 1 2 This invention relates to variable pitch pro pellers, and particularly to those controlled by a bodiment of the present invention is clearly shown. ?uid medium con?ned by a system of ?uid con nected passages within which the ?uid medium under pressure is selectively or automatically di Fig. l is a sectional view of a propeller mech anism ?tted with a, ?uid actuated regulator In the drawings : rected into an expansion chamber for altering the effectiveness of a rotating propeller‘ blade such as described and claimed in the U. S. patent to Blanchard et a1. 2,307,102 and on which this is an improvement. mechanism embodying the instant invention, it being a view partly in section and partly in eleva tion, substantially as indicated by the line and arrows l-I of Fig. 2. 10 An object of the invention is to provide a con trol valve and governing mechanism that will be instantaneously responsive to slight changes of a controlling force. > r V Fig; 2 is a transverse sectional view substan tially as indicated by the line and arrows 2—2 of Fig. 1. i - - Fig. 3 is a fragmentary showing on an enlarged scale illustrating certain features of the inven Another object is to provide a governing mech» 15 tion, it being a view substantially as indicated anism that will be sustained in a potentially re by the line and arrows 3--3 of Fig. 2. sponsive condition, such as to be immediately Fig. 4 is a similar fragmentary view in section available to respond to a weak controlling func~ showing a modi?ed form valve actuating lever. tion in correcting blade pitch setting upon slight With particular reference to the drawings, variation from a selected standard of propeller there is shownin Fig. 1, a controllable pitch pro operation. peller having‘blades i0 rotatably mounted in Another object is to provide means for main sockets I2 radiating from a hub M, the blades taining a control valve in a state of'constant having hollow root portions l6 enclosing torque vibratory motion of relatively small magnitude applying units‘ I8 where they are anchored in preparatory to being moved to a force-delivering 25 retained position by blade retaining nuts 20. The position immediately that a controlling function hub l4 extends rearwardly to provide a sleeve 22 for correction from a condition of unbalance is that seats on a rear cone 24 carried by an engine manifest. driven shaft 26 extending from within an engine Another object is to maintain a radially mov nosing or casing 28, there being splined connec able spring resisted control valve in a state of 30 tions 30 between the shaft and sleeve to provide sustained oscillation so that the control valve will the necessary driving couple. The hub is re be in readiness to effect a controlling function tained on the shaft in the conventional manner bearing a de?nite relation to a change from a by use of a forward cone and shaft nut, ‘not prescribed condition, directly that such change occurs. > Another object of the invention is the substan tial elimination of friction effects in a control valve mechanism subject to small changes of con herein shown. A?ixed to the forward end of the 35 hub in any preferred manner is a spinner adapter 32 that pilots the front end of a spinner 34 adapted to fair the hub and ‘proximate portions of the blades, the spinner being notched appro trolling force, whereby the control valve will'be priately at 35 for passage of the blade roots in more readily responsive‘ for correcting deviations 40 assembling. The rear end of thespinner is sup from a predetermined standard of operating con ditions. ported by a bulk-head member or plate 38 of an nular form and whose inner periphery is secured A further object is to provide a governor mech beneath screw devices 40 threaded into the edge anism for ?uid circuits that is basically simple portion of a regulator 42. in design and easily of fabrication though e?i 45 The regulator is of annular form mounted cient and sensitive to changes in a controlling for rotation with the hub l4, and comprises a force at all speeds of operation and which makes plate member 44 having a central aperture mak use of a single spring force opposing centrifugal ing a sliding ?t over the sleeve portion 221 of the force that gives stability by reason of a combina hub whererit is held in ?rm engagement by a tion of spring rate, columnar rigidity and geo sleeve nut 46. The plate'membery44 operates as metrical relation of parts. a support for fluid actuated control mechanism 7 Further objects and advantages of the pres and ?uid connections therebetween as will pres ent invention will be apparent from the follow ently appear, and provides one wall of a reservoir ing description, reference being had to the ac-' 50 enclosed by a cover member 52‘ ?tting over the companying drawings wherein a preferred em 55 edge of the ‘plate 44 where it is held by the screw 2,407,791 3 4 and is accomplished by means of an abutting ring The inboard end of the porting sleeve I I 0 is pro vided with an outwardly extending ?ange H2 adapted to engage the block I02 at the end of the bore Hi8 and prevent longitudinal movement thereof in response to centrifugal ‘force, while the other or outboard end of the sleeve projects su?i ciently beyond the block to receive a cross-pin I I4 for retaining the sleeve in place and for pre venting rotation with respect to the block. Adapted for reciprocation within the sleeve there is a valve plunger IIS having a pair of longi tudinally spaced lands H8 and I20 and adapted 60 engaging an adapter ring 62, the two of which normally to register with ports in the porting devices 40 before mentioned. The cover mem ber 42 extends radially inward to support an oil seal 54 that engages the rear end of an adapter sleeve 55 extending into the reservoir along and in radially spaced relation with respect to the sleeve nut 46, the inner or forward end of the adapter sleeve engaging a second oil seal 53 carried by the plate 44. ‘ The adapter sleeve 56 is maintained against rotation with respect to the regulator by means ~ of external support from the engine nosing 28, sleeve H8 that open into the ports 96 and 98. Way to oscillatably receive a ring gear-64 meshing » I The ports in the sleeve ill! that register with the ports 98 and 93 are unique in their arrange with pinions 66 on the ends of screw shafts 68 V ment or location, in that they are arranged as journaled in the adapter sleeve 4%. Screw ‘devices sets or series, and for each port of the control (not shown) retain the elements 55, 60 and 52 in passages a set comprises a circular row of small relatively non-rotatable relation, and as an adapter assembly are retained against rotation 20 openings I22 and a circular row of large open ings I24 for the control port 95, with similar rows with respect to the regulator and hub by screw of small and large openings I26 and I28 respec devices ‘I0 engaging the engine nosing 28. For are circumferentially grooved to provide ‘for a oscillating the ring gear 84, it is provided with an tively for the control port 98. While the large extension ‘I2 to which may be connected a con openings in one row may be staggered with re trol cable or rod such as to be manipulated in the cockpit, "and makes iti‘possible to oscillate the ring ‘gear 64 which rotates the screw shafts 68 and thereby moves anything that ‘is appropriately spect to the small openings of the other and associated row, it is desirable that the small open connected with the ends of them extending with in the reservoir 50. . V The fluid‘actuated ‘control mechanism support ed by the plate 44 includes a pump or pressure developing means 1'4 mounted in a pocket or re cess 16 of the plate and adapted to have‘ an intake 1'! from the reservoir 50, ‘which pressure ?uid is delivered to ‘a pressure supply passage 18 in accordance with the impetus given by a pump driving gear 80 provided ‘by the adapter sleeve 46, and meshing with a pump gear 82. Exposed to the pressure of the ?uid in the pressure supply passage ‘I8 thereris a relief valve 84 that deter mines the maximum of pressure that may be built up Within the passage and adapted to spill any excess ‘into the .reservoir ‘50 through a port 86. The terminal end of the pressure supply passage 18 is at a juncture block 88 that forms a mount ing pad for a distributing valve and governor mechanism 913. Also ending at the mounting pad there ‘are two ‘control passages 92 and 94 each of which leads from a port '96 and 98 respectively in the governor mechanism and communicate with opposite sides of the torque applying units Ill be ings of each series he on the proximate sides of the respective series, and that the lineal extent ‘of the series of openings be slightly greater than the longitudinal dimension of the cooperating land of the plunger valve. That particular rela tion is shown generally in Fig. 4, where it ap pears that the land II8, though the valve is’ in the equilibrium position, does not completely cover both rows of openings E22 and I24. The same is true with respect to the land I20 and the rows of openings I26 and I23. The porting'sleeve Ilil also has openings I30 therethrough that operate to connect the port I80 from the pressure supply passage 18 to the space I32 within the porting sleeve IIU between the lands IE8 and I26. Thus. in a state ‘of equi librium, oil or other ?uid pressure medium is admitted to the three sets of openings in the " porting sleeve, the center set of openings being exposed to the high pressure line from the pump and having no metering characteristics. Par tially covering the other two sets of openings are the two lands of the plunger or distributor valve so as to have de?nite metering characteristics fore ‘mentioned. Similarly, the pressure supply which give a proportionalizing characteristic to the governor by causing the eliective valve open ing to hold a de?nite relationship to the amount passage '58 communicates with a port I00 of the of correction to be made. governor mechanism and makes provision through opération of the governor mechanism-to deliver ?uid under pressure to either side of the torque applying units. The ‘governor mechanism responds to predetermined operating conditions At the ends of the plunger valve II6 beyond the lands I I8 and I20 the porting sleeve is opened ‘ to the reservoir 50 such as to remove all restric tion to fluid flow relieving one of the control pas sages ‘912, 94 when the other is being impressed of the propeller to shift from a position in which 60 with ‘a ?uid under pressure. As to the outboard the‘control passages are subject to equal pres end of the valve, the return from the port 98 is sures. to a position in which greater pressure is through the open end of the sleeve around the delivered to one or the other of the ports 96 cross pin H4, and the inboard end is slotted at and 98 for correction with respect to a particular I34 through the ?ange II! and a portion of the setting‘ on a scale. V sleeve, through which the return from port 96 The governor mechanism under .consideration is had. To insure that this relief is su?icient comprises a valve block I102 having a, vmachined to take care of the return flow additional holes face ‘I04 for mounting against the plate 44 over I36 may be provided that open from the sleeve the pad 88 by means of screw devices I06. Open inboard 0f theland IIBthrough the side of the ing‘ through the face IM there are the ports 9-6, block into the reservoir 50. 98 and I00 before mentioned, and the inner ex The inboard end of the valve plunger I I6 is tents thereof are intersected 'by a bore I08 adapt provided with a third land I38 having a diametri ed to receive in press-?tted or other sealed rela cal slot or the like I39 adapted to receive one tion a porting sleeve I I0 so located as to extend end of a lever I48 extending from the reservoir radially of the axis of rotation for the propeller. 75 50 through the slot I34 of the sleeve where it is 2,407,791, 5 lpivotally connected’by a cross-pin I42.’ In the form shown in ‘Fig.8, the lever I40 is of yoke construction in which a bridge portion I44 ex tends crosswise of, the lever just outside oflthe the valve member II6 are exactly equal and the valve‘mem-ber takes a neutral position, partially covering both sets of holes or openings .in the porting sleeve. I Under those conditions no pres-1 block I02 and at its ends joins one end each of 5 sure fluid flows to the torque applying units or a pair of parallel arms I46'that extend length from them and the pitch of the blades :remains wise of the lever to engage a fulcrum roller I48; constant. An increase of speed above the equi Extending from the bridge‘ I44 in offset relation librium speed will cause the centrifugal moment and between the arms I46 there is a shelf portion to be dominant and the governor valve will move I50 whose one surface is socketed at I52 to seat 10 outwardly to the “over speed” position, opening the‘point of a seating member I54 engaged‘ by the control passage 94 to the high pressure ?uid, one end ‘of a compression spring ;I56.- In the and the control passage 92 to the reservoir. In form shown in Fig. 4, the lever I40 embodies that positionv the ?uid under‘pressure will flow some modi?cation and simpli?cation as indicated from the pump to one side of the torque applying by the reference character 240, and comprises a 15 unit for increasing the pitch of the propeller single ‘substantially straight lever extending from the valve member II6 into'the reservoir 50 to _ engage a single fulcrum roller ‘I48. At an inter mediate point of its length it supports a spring seating member 254 engaged by one end of the 20 spring I56. I » In either case, for supporting the other end of the spring I56 there is an arm I58 extending from the block I02 substantially parallel with the valve actuating lever and which is apertured to receive the plain stem I60 of an adjustable plug I62 carrying a second spring seat I64. The spring seat I64 is threaded upon the plug I62 blades. The increased pitch will cause the engine to slowdown and the slowing down of the engine will in turn bring the governor valve member I I6 back to its neutral position. Conversely, a drop in speed from the equilibrium speed‘ will open the control passage 92'to the high pressure ?uid and the control passage 94 to the reservoir 50 causing ?uid under pressure to flow from the pump to the other side of the torque applying unit, thereby decreasing the pitch of the propeller blade until the governor valve is brought back to the normal or equilibrium positionm ' t In order to control the equilibrium or governor and has an arm I66 engaging in a slot $68 of the speed, the roller fulcrum I48 may be moved fore block I02 to prevent its turning relative to‘ the 30 and aft of the lever arm I40 or 240, thereby block. A stop collar I10 on the plug is notched changing the equilibrium speed by changing ‘the at I12 for ratcheting or detenting with a pin ratio of the spring force arm to the centrifugal I13 in the arm I58, and a screwdriver slot I14 force arm. As the roller is moved toward the end provides for selected adjustment of the spring of the lever the spring force becomes more effec I56. Since the portion I60 is capable of rotating tive and more centrifugal force is required .to and sliding in the hole of the arm I58, a screw move the valve member I I6 out to the equilibrium driver applied to the slot I14 serves to push the position. That movement is accomplished by stop collar I10 away from the arm I58 and dis mounting the fulcrum roller or rollers I48 on a engage one of the notches‘ I12 from the cooper carriage I16 so that it may slide along on ways ating pin, after which the plug I62 may be turned -I18 extending along side of the lever I40 or 240. until there is registration with some other notch. The ways I18 may comprise the parallel arms of The force of the spring I56 tends always to urge a notched plate I80 secured to the valve block I02 the stop collar I10 against the arm I58, and from by screw devices I82, and‘ the end of the arms that as a rigid support applies its force to the should support a key or pin I84 to forestall ‘sepa valve actuating arm I40 or 240 as the case may " ration of the carriage therefrom. The carriages be, tendingr to rock the am about its roller ful in both of‘the forms illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4 crum I48. ‘ I _ That rocking of the arm, if it were not opposed are the same except that for the single arm con, struction of Fig. 4, it provides but one fulcrum by some other force would result in movement of roller I48, while that for the double arm con the attached valve plunger II6 to a position in 50 struction of Fig. 3 provides two fulcrum rollers, board of the equilibrium position shown in Fig. one for ‘each of the arms I46. Attached to the 4. That inboard position is what is termed the carriage is a shoe I86 that rides in a groove I88 “under speed” position and is that normally taken of a control ring I90 mounted‘ for movement when the propeller mechanism is at rest such as lengthwise of the adapter sleeve 56, which, as when the engine is not operating. It is also the 55 stated above, is a relatively ?xed part of the pro position of the valve when it is moved to correct peller. Axial movement of this control ring is the blade pitch adjustment for a drop in propeller accomplished by the screw shafts 68 hereinbefore speed. An opposite extreme or outboard position described, and desirably there are three of them is possible as will presently appear, and is termed distributed about the circumference of ,the the “over speed” position, which is the position 60 adapter sleeve so that movement of the ring gear of the valve when it is moved to correct the blade 64 rotates all of the screw shafts coincidentally.‘ pitch adjustment for a rise in propeller speed. From the foregoing it can be seen that each posi The “over speed” position is due to centrifugal , tion of the control lever 12 corresponds to av defl force acting on the valve plunger II6 and 'as nite equilibrium speed for the propeller» The sociated lever, which is the force that opposes 65 screw shafts 68 may be su?icient to prevent the the force of the spring I55 tending to rock the contro1 ring‘from rotating with respect to ‘the arm I40 or 240 about its respective fulcrum. relatively ?xed parts of .the assembly, such as - With the fulcrum roller set in any normal the adapter sleeve 56, but it is desirable to insure position,‘ as shown in Figs-3 and 4, centrifugal its non-rotation by means of a key or keys I82 force tends to throw the valve member II6 out 70 or the like secured to the adapter sleeve 55 and wardly or to the “over speed” position. ' That motion is resisted by the spring I56 acting through the lever system. At equilibrium speed the moments about the fulcrum roller of the received in sliding engagement by alnotch I04 cut in the inner surface of the control ring ‘I80. By that construction, when the propeller is 1'0 ‘tating, the regulator and all of the structuralele spring force and the centrifugal force acting upon 75 ments carried by;it rotateabout the adapterwas; 2,407,791 7 . 8 pins at all times, assuring a positive lock. Turn sembly secured to the engine nose and extending into‘ the regulator. Thus, the adapter sleeve and control ring are held against rotation and the governor mechanism is caused to revolve about them, the shoe I186 riding in and following the (.11 ing theadjusting screw I62 clockwise gives a de-_ crease in R. P. M., and turning it r-counter-clocke wise gives an increase in R. P. M. Particular attention should be given to the spring I56. It should be made accurately so that its columnar course of the groove I88. "The groove I88 in the control ring I9!) is ma rigidity can be controlled through the ratio of Wire size to diameter. Particularly in the form of construction shown in Fig. 4, stability at high speed is maintained by the proper spring rate while stability at low speed is assisted by the columnar rigidity of the spring resistingthe til-t—_ chined with a slight fore and aft wobble so that the governor-‘fulcrum. I48. oscillates fore and aft during each revolution of the propeller. The groove may zbcso formed that it lies in a plane forming an angle with the plane of the control ring, such as to provide a narrow flange I96 011 ing action of the governor lever. As an example of a suitable spring having the desired char the Opposite side, with reverse relations at one 115 acteristics use may be made of a spring having compressed force and rigidity in the order of 26 or more points about the circumference of the pounds when compressed to something like one control ring. Those features are shown in Fig. 3 quanter inch less than its assembled'length as of the drawings from which it should be apparent shown in the drawings. that rotation of the regulator mechanism with From .the foregoing it is apparent that the reg respect to the control ring I90 causes a recipro 20 one side of the groove and a wide ?ange i913 on ulator mechanism can be assembled as a single cating vor vibrating motion of the carriage I16 unit complete with all of the control mechanism for each rotation of the propeller. For that par ticular equilibrium setting of the carriage, the arrowsa indicate the maximum length of the spring force arm or that obtaining while the ful .crum roller I48 is in the aft/position of the oscil mounted on the plate 44 and enclosed within the reservoir provided by the plate 44 and the cover 25 52, rotatably engaging the adapter assembly and particularly the sleeve 56 which completes the enclosure of the reservoir 50, thereby forming a latory travel, while the arrows b indicate, the complete unit. That unit so assembled may be minimum length of the spring force arm or that shipped separately as a replacement unit, or it ‘obtaining while the fulcrum roller I48 is in the fore position of :said travel. The difference in 30. may be installed immediately on the propeller construction. In either case, the unit when as; length between the maximum .and minimum sembled with the propeller is passed over the spring force arms then represents the extent of sleeve 22 where it is retained by'the sleeve nut 46 the sustained incremental movement imparted to threading upon the sleeve 22. The assembled hub the carriage, and hence the fulcrum roller, due to and regulator is then mounted on the shaft 26 the ‘wobble of the control ring groove. The vibra tory motion of the carriage need not be great, and desirably should not be great, but should be of such extent that the valve member I I6, in re sponding to the continuous and reversing‘in fluences due to the aforementioned motion will 40 be maintained in sustained oscillation so as to be potentially responsive to an actual speed change. Under those conditions, the control valve will be readily responsive to slight changes of a controlling force because of theielimination of static friction from the entire movable por tion of the governor mechanism. The fulcrum roller ‘1.48 may be moved to a point more or less ‘distant from the point of spring force applica tion in order to establish a new equilibrium speed for which regulation is to be made. The selec tion of a new governing speed will not, however, disturb or upset the oscillatory feature of the in stallation. It is of note that the motion of the and pushed rearwardly until the adapter plate 62 can be anchored to the engine nose 28 by means of one or more screw devices 10. Coinci dent with that, the hub sleeve 22 will seat against the rear cone 24 where it is held by the usual forward cone and shaft nut. If the reservoir» 50 has not theretofore been charged with the fluid operating medium it should noW be done by ro tating the propeller until the ?ller plug 200 is , something like 15° above the horizontal passing through the axis of rotation. The fluid pressure medium, which might be a light oil, is now added until it reaches the level of the opening for the plug. Replacement of the plug and safetying, as should be done with all others of the screw de vices, conditions the structure for immediate op eration, though it is advisable to make tests and adjustments on the ground before actual .?ight is attempted. - 'lating” it does not operate to effect any appre ciable pitch shift. In effect then, when the valve is called upon to effect a regulating function it will have already been started on its movement While there has been shown and described means for "accomplishing the vibratory motion of the fulcrum as embodying a groove disposed at an angle with the plane of rotation, the same result may be accomplished by means of a groove toward either the “under speed” or “over speed” ’ that wavers fore and aft of the plane of the ring 7 ‘valve piston‘ is of such rapidity that in “oscil- V . carrying it. That is, the groove may be an un dulating groove of regular or irregular track cut in the periphery ‘of the ring so that the shoe in following it may cause reciprocation of the ful crum and carriage for each rotation of the de vice, Satisfactory results might also be accom access to which may be had by removing the ?ller plished by using screw shafts of different pitch so plug 200 in the cover 52 of the regulator housing. that as the controlv ring is‘ moved fore and aft As hereinbefore described, a ‘slotted screw I14 is of the adapter sleeve, the control ring, and con located inside the regulator cover, which has a bearing face I64 .in contact with the governor 70 sequently the groove, is caused to change its in clination with respect to the plane of rotation. spring I56. By placing a screw driver in the ‘In that way, the amount of vibration, or rather slotted screw head and pushing the screw in ap the amplitude of the vibratory movement would proximately qle inch to clear the ‘locking pins, it change as the fulcrum is movedfore or aft of the is possiblelto turn the screw. ‘The governor spring pressure keeps the slots l'lll engaged with the‘ 75 :adapter sleeve, so that the greater amplitude position, resulting in the requirement of less ‘force and time in accomplishing the governing function. Governor adjustment for maximum speed is obtained by adjusting ‘the governor spring I56, 2,407,791 10 would be during the higher speed of propeller rotation. , - While the embodiment of the present inven tion as herein disclosed,‘ constitutes a preferred form, it is to be understood .that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow. on, either side of the lever, a fulcrum carried by one of the rigid members adapted to support the lever, and spring means engaging the lever and the other of the rigid members for balancing the centrifugal force acting on the valve member while it is in the equilibrium position. ‘ 5. The combination set forth in claim 4, in ‘ which means are provided for moving the, ful What is claimed is as follows: crum along the rigid member toward and from 1. In anaircratt propeller, the combination of a cylindrical porting sleeve, a piston valve mov 10 the point of spring engagement with the lever. 6. A governor control‘ mechanism comprising able longitudinally relatively thereto, means in combination, a valve block having a longitudi mounting the sleeve and valve for rotation with nal bore providing a pressure supply port inter the propeller, means including a balance of spring mediate a pair of control ports, a valve member force and centrifugal force for maintaining the sleeve and valve‘in a relatively equilibrium posi 15. movable along the bore of the block and having lands adapted to cover the centrol ports, a lever tion but adapted on domination by either spring pivotally connected to the valve member and ex force. or centrifugal force to effect relative uni tending to one side of the block, rigid support directional movement of the valve and sleeve, and means disposed on either and opposite sides of means operative upon rotation of the propeller effecting sustained vibratory reciprocating move 20 the lever, a movable fulcrum carried by one of the rigid supports engaging the‘ outer extent of ment of the valve and along the same path as said the lever, yieldable means engaging an interme ‘ 1 diate portion of the lever and the other of the 2. The combination of a‘ "cylindrical porting rigid supports, rotatable means supporting ‘the ‘ sleeve," a piston valve movable within and along the "bore of said' sleeveiin one direction in re 25 block and valve member so that the latter is ra clially disposed with respect to the axis of rota sponse to centrifugal force, means including a unidirectional movement. 7 spring for opposing ‘movement of the valve by centrifugal force and:tending t0 ‘m‘ove the valve 'in‘ the ‘other direction to establish ‘an equilibrium ‘position of'the valvewithin the sleeve, said valve adapted upon domination of either opposing force to move toward an extreme position within the “sleeve to effect a control function, means for ro ‘tatably mountingithe‘fsleeve, valve and ‘spring, tion, centrifugal force tending to move the valve member from an equilibrium position outward to a controlling position, and said yieldablle means opposing the centrifugal force to move the valve - from the equilibrium position inward to a second control position, said yieldable means and cen trifugal force effecting a balance of forces on the lever to maintain the. valve in the equilibrium and mechanical means continuously acting upon 35 position while the valve and block supporting means are rotating at a pre-selected speed, means for moving the fulcrum for selecting the speed, for effecting lineal vibration ‘of the valve within and means continuously operable uponthe ful the sleeve in thedirection ofmovement of the crum for vibrating the valve member so as to valve to a control position, whereby said valve is maintained continuously in a state of readiness to reduce the static friction and maintain the valve susceptible to control movement on domination to move‘ to the control position directly that a said valve throughout‘ rotation of the assembly control function is manifest. ' " of either force. > 7. A‘ governor control mechanism comprising 3. A‘ governor control mechanism comprising ‘:in combination a valve chamber having spaced a valve block h'aving pressure supply and control ‘ports, a piston‘ valve member slidable within the 45 ‘ports, a centrifugally responsive weight member comprising a valve stem disposed within the valve block, rotating means for supporting the block for revolutionab‘out an axis normal'to the sliding movement‘ of said valve, means including a balance of ‘spring force and ‘centrifugal force of valve revolution for establishing an equilib rium position between the valve member and the control ports, said last means adapted on domi nation of either of the ‘balancing forces to move the valve member from the‘ equilibrium position to a controlling‘ position in whichone of the con trol ports is connected withthe pressure supply port, and cam‘ means continuously operable upon rotation of the support means for effecting lineal vibration of the valve member withoutinterfer ing with‘ the amount‘ and the direction of its sliding movement. ' 4. A governor control mechanism for a rotat able assembly comprising in combination, a valve chamber and controlling said ports by relative reciprocation between said stem and chamber, .means providing a, reservoir for enclosing the 50' chamber and stem supplying a source of oper ating fluid therefor, means for rotating the res ervoir thereby revolving the chamber and stem, means extending into from without the reservoir for manually controlling the valve stem with re spect to the chamber, and means automatically operable upon rotation of said reservoir and in cluding said extending means for vibrating the valve along its reciprocating path, whereby‘ to condition the valve stem for movement in re sponse to small forces calling for a change of position of said valve stem. _ ‘8. A propeller control mechanism for use with a valve member. having lands adapted to cover a controllable blade propeller having ?uid actu ated means for e?’ecting change in pitch of the blades, comprising in combination, a housing ro -members extending fromltheblockland disposed sponsive to the speed of rotation for selectively block having .press'ure supply and control ports, tatable with the propeller shaft, a relatively sta ‘the control ports of the block and being of such tionary member projecting into the housing and mass‘as to constitute a weight member respond cooperating therewith to form a reservoir, pump ving to‘ centrifugal .force,’means for rotatably ‘means within the housing and having an inlet mounting the block so that the valve member .may move radially of the axis of rotation from 70 from the reservoir, means for actuating said pump means upon relative rotational movement ‘an equilibrium positioning ‘covering the control between said stationary member and said hous ports to either of two positions connecting a con ing to provide a source of said ?uid pressure, a ,trol 'port ‘with the pressure supply port, a lever regulator valve member within said housing re pivotally connecting thervalve member, rigid 2,407,791 11 controlling the application of said, ‘?uid pres sure to said ?uid actuated means to "effect change of, pitch of the propeller blades, means outside of the housing and projecting into the reservoir for selecting the speed of rotation at which the reg ulator valve member will effect a change in pitch, and means including a part of the stationary member effecting lineal vibration of the regu- I lator valve member within the housing suflicient to overcome static friction to movement 50 that small changes in speed of rotation of the pro peller will be responded to by the regulator valve member for connecting the pump developed pres ing the speed at which‘ the equilibrium position shall obtain, and means for impressing upon'said fulcrum during rotation of the’ propeller'recip rocating movement of short amplitude along ‘the lever for vibrating the valve stem lineally of the path of control movement. ‘ e l ' 12. The combination set forth in claim ‘11, wherein the means for moving the fulcrum for speed determination constitutesa control ring slidable axially of the ?xed part and which 'con trol ring has a movable'groove "within which rides a shoe for effecting reciprocatory ‘movement of the fulcrum. ' ' - r " 13. The combination set forth in .claimyll, 9. A propeller control mechanism for use with 15 wherein the means ‘for moving the fulcrum con an adjustable blade propeller having ?uid actu stitutes a control ring" slidable along the ?xed ated means for effecting change in the pitch of part and has a groove within which‘rides ae'shoe the blades, comprising in combination, a source carried by the fulcrum, said groove lying :in a of ?uid pressure, a regulator valve body mounted plane forming an angle with the plane of rota for rotation with said propeller and directly re 20 tion, whereby said fulcrum 'is reciprocated for ' sponsive to centrifugal force, means for sup each revolution of the propeller; ' 1 ' plying‘ the pressure ?uid under the control of 14. In a controllable pitch propeller, a regulator’ said regulator valve to ‘said ?uid actuated means, mechanism comprising in combination, a gov resilient means acting radially with a force sub ernor valve assembly carried by the propeller and stantially independent of the speed‘ of said pro revolvable about a relatively ‘?xed part, said as peller for opposing the action of _ centrifugal sembly including a valve block having spaced force on said body’ with a predetermined regu ports opening into a radially extending, bore; a lating force, a lever for applying ‘the force of valve stem being "itself directly responsive to said opposingmeans to be‘ effective upon said centrifugal force and subject to generally radial valve body, an adjustable control operable from 30 movement along the bore of ‘said block, a;1ever the exterior of said rotating propeller for vary operable upon the valvestem and extending sub-' stantially parallel with the axis ‘of rotation for ing thee?ective moment‘, arm of said lever, and meansconstantly acting upon said lever for vi the propeller, a movable fulcrum interposed be bratingrsaid regulator valve along the path of tween the lever and the ?xed part for supporting .movement effected by the centrifugal force and the end of the lever, means exerting asubstan opposing .means, said vibration conditioning the tially constant yielding ‘force bearing upon‘ the regulator valve .for movement in response to lever at a point intermediate itslength and op slight disturbances of equilibrium between cen posing movement of ‘the lever by centrifugal force, trifugal and opposing forces. 7 said yielding force and’ centrifugal force at a 10. ‘The combination, set ‘forth in claim 9, 40 preselected speed of propeller rotation vmaintain wherein the adjustable control ‘includes a_con_ ing the valve stem in equilibrium position with trolring and a plurality of spaced high lead con respect to the spaced ports, means provided by the relatively ?xed part for moving the fulcrum trol screws with means for coincidentally rotat-i ing the control screws, said control ring pro for preselecting the speed at which‘ the equilib viding a groove therein with fore and aft points rium position shall obtain, and means for impress disposed on opposite sides of the plane of the ing upon said fulcrum injresponse to rotation of ring, and means including a fulcrum supporting the propeller lineal vibratory movement of 'shor one end of the lever and following the groove amplitude along the length of the lever. * c of the ring for vibrating the regulator valve along 15. The combination set forth in claim .14, in sure with the ?uid actuated means. , the path of movement effected by the centrifugal , force and opposing means thereby minimizing static friction of the valve member against move ment by a control function. , 11. In a controllable pitch propeller, a regu lator mechanism comprising in combination, a governor valve assembly carriedfby the propeller which the means for moving the fulcrum consti tutes a control ring slidable along the ?xed part and has a groove within which'rides a shoe'car ried by the fulcrum, said groove lying in a plane forming an angle with'the plane of said control ring, whereby said fulcrum is reciprdcated during each rotation of the propeller. ' and revolvable about a relatively ?xed part, said 16. The combination set forth in claim 14, in assembly including a valve block having spaced which the means for moving the fulcrum consti ports opening into a radially extending bore, a tutes a control ring slidable along the ?xed part valve stem being itself directly responsive to cen 60 and has a camming groove in its periphery within trifugal force and subject to generally radial which rides a shoe carried by the ‘fulcrum, ‘where movement along the bore of said block, a lever by rotation of the propeller mechanism about the pivoted to thevalve stem and extending substan ?xed part causes vibratory movement of the ful tially at right angles to said radially extending crum along ‘the length of the lever. bore, a movable fulcrum interposed between the 17. The combination set forth in claim 9 lever‘ and said ?xed Dart‘for supporting the end wherein the adjustable control includes a grooved of the lever, means exerting a substantially con control ring and high lead screws operable from stant spring force bearing upon an intermediate a remote point for moving the control ring along portion. of the lever and opposing movement of the length of the lever, said high lead screws maintaining the groove of said ring with spaced the valve stem by centrifugal force, said spring force and centrifugal force at a'predetermined points fore and aft of the plane of the ring where— ,speed of propeller rotation maintaining the valve by the fulcrum in following the groove effects stem in equilibrium position with respect to the spaced ports, means carried by the relatively ?xed part for moving the fulcrum for determin vibratory movement of the valve member during rotation of the propeller. ' 18. In a rotatable hydraulic regulator for air 13 2,407,791 craft propellers, the combination comprising, a plate providing a conduit system-mounted for rotation by the propeller, a ?xed tubular exten sion ending near the plate, a control valve in cluding a porting sleeve open to the conduit sys tem, and a plunger mounted on the plate for rotation therewith, said plunger itself being a weight member responding to centrifugal force of propeller rotation for controlling the ?ow of ?uid 14 in the conduit system, means carried by the tu bular extension for controlling the action of the plunger and including a grooved ring movable axially of the extension, and means including the lcontrol ring‘ for rapidly reciprocating the plunger throughout rotation of the plate relative to the extension. ' THOMAS E. MARTIN. JOHN F. HAINES.