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Патент USA US2407792

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Sept. 17, 1946.
T_ a MARTW Em
'
2,407,791
GOVERNOR VALVE
Filed. June 1,3942
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
68
I95
'55
.50
lNVENTOR-S
Allh
THOMAS E. MRRTI H
Jorm F. names
BY
[2'7- 4
‘
-
i/‘eir' ATToRNgg/é"
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
UNETE.
2,497,791
PATENT OFFICE
ST
2,407,791
GOVERNOR VALVE
Thomas B. Martin and John F. Haines, Dayton,
Ohio, assignors to General Motors Corporation,
Detroit, Mich., a corporation of Delaware
Application June 1, 1942, Serial ‘No. 445,366
18 Claims. (01. 1705-4163)
1
2
This invention relates to variable pitch pro
pellers, and particularly to those controlled by a
bodiment of the present invention is clearly
shown.
?uid medium con?ned by a system of ?uid con
nected passages within which the ?uid medium
under pressure is selectively or automatically di
Fig. l is a sectional view of a propeller mech
anism ?tted with a, ?uid actuated regulator
In the drawings :
rected into an expansion chamber for altering the
effectiveness of a rotating propeller‘ blade such
as described and claimed in the U. S. patent to
Blanchard et a1. 2,307,102 and on which this is
an improvement.
mechanism embodying the instant invention, it
being a view partly in section and partly in eleva
tion, substantially as indicated by the line and
arrows l-I of Fig. 2.
10
An object of the invention is to provide a con
trol valve and governing mechanism that will
be instantaneously responsive to slight changes
of a controlling force.
>
r
V
Fig; 2 is a transverse sectional view substan
tially as indicated by the line and arrows 2—2
of Fig. 1.
i
-
-
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary showing on an enlarged
scale illustrating certain features of the inven
Another object is to provide a governing mech» 15 tion, it being a view substantially as indicated
anism that will be sustained in a potentially re
by the line and arrows 3--3 of Fig. 2.
sponsive condition, such as to be immediately
Fig. 4 is a similar fragmentary view in section
available to respond to a weak controlling func~
showing a modi?ed form valve actuating lever.
tion in correcting blade pitch setting upon slight
With particular reference to the drawings,
variation from a selected standard of propeller
there is shownin Fig. 1, a controllable pitch pro
operation.
peller having‘blades i0 rotatably mounted in
Another object is to provide means for main
sockets I2 radiating from a hub M, the blades
taining a control valve in a state of'constant
having hollow root portions l6 enclosing torque
vibratory motion of relatively small magnitude
applying units‘ I8 where they are anchored in
preparatory to being moved to a force-delivering 25 retained position by blade retaining nuts 20. The
position immediately that a controlling function
hub l4 extends rearwardly to provide a sleeve 22
for correction from a condition of unbalance is
that seats on a rear cone 24 carried by an engine
manifest.
driven shaft 26 extending from within an engine
Another object is to maintain a radially mov
nosing or casing 28, there being splined connec
able spring resisted control valve in a state of 30 tions 30 between the shaft and sleeve to provide
sustained oscillation so that the control valve will
the necessary driving couple. The hub is re
be in readiness to effect a controlling function
tained on the shaft in the conventional manner
bearing a de?nite relation to a change from a
by use of a forward cone and shaft nut, ‘not
prescribed condition, directly that such change
occurs.
>
Another object of the invention is the substan
tial elimination of friction effects in a control
valve mechanism subject to small changes of con
herein shown. A?ixed to the forward end of the
35 hub in any preferred manner is a spinner adapter
32 that pilots the front end of a spinner 34
adapted to fair the hub and ‘proximate portions
of the blades, the spinner being notched appro
trolling force, whereby the control valve will'be
priately at 35 for passage of the blade roots in
more readily responsive‘ for correcting deviations 40 assembling. The rear end of thespinner is sup
from a predetermined standard of operating con
ditions.
ported by a bulk-head member or plate 38 of an
nular form and whose inner periphery is secured
A further object is to provide a governor mech
beneath screw devices 40 threaded into the edge
anism for ?uid circuits that is basically simple
portion of a regulator 42.
in design and easily of fabrication though e?i 45
The regulator is of annular form mounted
cient and sensitive to changes in a controlling
for rotation with the hub l4, and comprises a
force at all speeds of operation and which makes
plate member 44 having a central aperture mak
use of a single spring force opposing centrifugal
ing a sliding ?t over the sleeve portion 221 of the
force that gives stability by reason of a combina
hub whererit is held in ?rm engagement by a
tion of spring rate, columnar rigidity and geo
sleeve nut 46. The plate'membery44 operates as
metrical relation of parts.
a support for fluid actuated control mechanism 7
Further objects and advantages of the pres
and ?uid connections therebetween as will pres
ent invention will be apparent from the follow
ently appear, and provides one wall of a reservoir
ing description, reference being had to the ac-'
50 enclosed by a cover member 52‘ ?tting over the
companying drawings wherein a preferred em 55 edge of the ‘plate 44 where it is held by the screw
2,407,791
3
4
and is accomplished by means of an abutting ring
The inboard end of the porting sleeve I I 0 is pro
vided with an outwardly extending ?ange H2
adapted to engage the block I02 at the end of
the bore Hi8 and prevent longitudinal movement
thereof in response to centrifugal ‘force, while the
other or outboard end of the sleeve projects su?i
ciently beyond the block to receive a cross-pin
I I4 for retaining the sleeve in place and for pre
venting rotation with respect to the block.
Adapted for reciprocation within the sleeve there
is a valve plunger IIS having a pair of longi
tudinally spaced lands H8 and I20 and adapted
60 engaging an adapter ring 62, the two of which
normally to register with ports in the porting
devices 40 before mentioned.
The cover mem
ber 42 extends radially inward to support an oil
seal 54 that engages the rear end of an adapter
sleeve 55 extending into the reservoir along and
in radially spaced relation with respect to the
sleeve nut 46, the inner or forward end of the
adapter sleeve engaging a second oil seal 53
carried by the plate 44.
‘
The adapter sleeve 56 is maintained against
rotation with respect to the regulator by means ~
of external support from the engine nosing 28,
sleeve H8 that open into the ports 96 and 98.
Way to oscillatably receive a ring gear-64 meshing » I The ports in the sleeve ill! that register with
the ports 98 and 93 are unique in their arrange
with pinions 66 on the ends of screw shafts 68 V
ment or location, in that they are arranged as
journaled in the adapter sleeve 4%. Screw ‘devices
sets or series, and for each port of the control
(not shown) retain the elements 55, 60 and 52 in
passages a set comprises a circular row of small
relatively non-rotatable relation, and as an
adapter assembly are retained against rotation 20 openings I22 and a circular row of large open
ings I24 for the control port 95, with similar rows
with respect to the regulator and hub by screw
of small and large openings I26 and I28 respec
devices ‘I0 engaging the engine nosing 28. For
are circumferentially grooved to provide ‘for a
oscillating the ring gear 84, it is provided with an
tively for the control port 98. While the large
extension ‘I2 to which may be connected a con
openings in one row may be staggered with re
trol cable or rod such as to be manipulated in the
cockpit, "and makes iti‘possible to oscillate the
ring ‘gear 64 which rotates the screw shafts 68 and
thereby moves anything that ‘is appropriately
spect to the small openings of the other and
associated row, it is desirable that the small open
connected with the ends of them extending with
in the reservoir 50.
.
V
The fluid‘actuated ‘control mechanism support
ed by the plate 44 includes a pump or pressure
developing means 1'4 mounted in a pocket or re
cess 16 of the plate and adapted to have‘ an intake
1'! from the reservoir 50, ‘which pressure ?uid
is delivered to ‘a pressure supply passage 18 in
accordance with the impetus given by a pump
driving gear 80 provided ‘by the adapter sleeve
46, and meshing with a pump gear 82. Exposed
to the pressure of the ?uid in the pressure supply
passage ‘I8 thereris a relief valve 84 that deter
mines the maximum of pressure that may be built
up Within the passage and adapted to spill any
excess ‘into the .reservoir ‘50 through a port 86.
The terminal end of the pressure supply passage
18 is at a juncture block 88 that forms a mount
ing pad for a distributing valve and governor
mechanism 913. Also ending at the mounting pad
there ‘are two ‘control passages 92 and 94 each of
which leads from a port '96 and 98 respectively in
the governor mechanism and communicate with
opposite sides of the torque applying units Ill be
ings of each series he on the proximate sides of
the respective series, and that the lineal extent
‘of the series of openings be slightly greater than
the longitudinal dimension of the cooperating
land of the plunger valve.
That particular rela
tion is shown generally in Fig. 4, where it ap
pears that the land II8, though the valve is’ in
the equilibrium position, does not completely
cover both rows of openings E22 and I24. The
same is true with respect to the land I20 and
the rows of openings I26 and I23.
The porting'sleeve Ilil also has openings I30
therethrough that operate to connect the port
I80 from the pressure supply passage 18 to the
space I32 within the porting sleeve IIU between
the lands IE8 and I26. Thus. in a state ‘of equi
librium, oil or other ?uid pressure medium is
admitted to the three sets of openings in the
" porting sleeve, the center set of openings being
exposed to the high pressure line from the pump
and having no metering characteristics. Par
tially covering the other two sets of openings are
the two lands of the plunger or distributor valve
so as to have de?nite metering characteristics
fore ‘mentioned. Similarly, the pressure supply
which give a proportionalizing characteristic to
the governor by causing the eliective valve open
ing to hold a de?nite relationship to the amount
passage '58 communicates with a port I00 of the
of correction to be made.
governor mechanism and makes provision
through opération of the governor mechanism-to
deliver ?uid under pressure to either side of the
torque applying units. The ‘governor mechanism
responds to predetermined operating conditions
At the ends of the plunger valve II6 beyond
the lands I I8 and I20 the porting sleeve is opened
‘
to the reservoir 50 such as to remove all restric
tion to fluid flow relieving one of the control pas
sages ‘912, 94 when the other is being impressed
of the propeller to shift from a position in which 60 with ‘a ?uid under pressure. As to the outboard
the‘control passages are subject to equal pres
end of the valve, the return from the port 98 is
sures. to a position in which greater pressure is
through the open end of the sleeve around the
delivered to one or the other of the ports 96
cross pin H4, and the inboard end is slotted at
and 98 for correction with respect to a particular
I34 through the ?ange II! and a portion of the
setting‘ on a scale.
V sleeve, through which the return from port 96
The governor mechanism under .consideration
is had. To insure that this relief is su?icient
comprises a valve block I102 having a, vmachined
to take care of the return flow additional holes
face ‘I04 for mounting against the plate 44 over
I36 may be provided that open from the sleeve
the pad 88 by means of screw devices I06. Open
inboard 0f theland IIBthrough the side of the
ing‘ through the face IM there are the ports 9-6,
block into the reservoir 50.
98 and I00 before mentioned, and the inner ex
The inboard end of the valve plunger I I6 is
tents thereof are intersected 'by a bore I08 adapt
provided with a third land I38 having a diametri
ed to receive in press-?tted or other sealed rela
cal slot or the like I39 adapted to receive one
tion a porting sleeve I I0 so located as to extend
end of a lever I48 extending from the reservoir
radially of the axis of rotation for the propeller. 75 50 through the slot I34 of the sleeve where it is
2,407,791,
5
lpivotally connected’by a cross-pin I42.’ In the
form shown in ‘Fig.8, the lever I40 is of yoke
construction in which a bridge portion I44 ex
tends crosswise of, the lever just outside oflthe
the valve member II6 are exactly equal and the
valve‘mem-ber takes a neutral position, partially
covering both sets of holes or openings .in the
porting sleeve. I Under those conditions no pres-1
block I02 and at its ends joins one end each of 5 sure fluid flows to the torque applying units or
a pair of parallel arms I46'that extend length
from them and the pitch of the blades :remains
wise of the lever to engage a fulcrum roller I48;
constant. An increase of speed above the equi
Extending from the bridge‘ I44 in offset relation
librium speed will cause the centrifugal moment
and between the arms I46 there is a shelf portion
to be dominant and the governor valve will move
I50 whose one surface is socketed at I52 to seat 10 outwardly to the “over speed” position, opening
the‘point of a seating member I54 engaged‘ by
the control passage 94 to the high pressure ?uid,
one end ‘of a compression spring ;I56.- In the
and the control passage 92 to the reservoir. In
form shown in Fig. 4, the lever I40 embodies
that positionv the ?uid under‘pressure will flow
some modi?cation and simpli?cation as indicated
from the pump to one side of the torque applying
by the reference character 240, and comprises a 15 unit for increasing the pitch of the propeller
single ‘substantially straight lever extending from
the valve member II6 into'the reservoir 50 to _
engage a single fulcrum roller ‘I48. At an inter
mediate point of its length it supports a spring
seating member 254 engaged by one end of the 20
spring I56.
I
»
In either case, for supporting the other end of
the spring I56 there is an arm I58 extending
from the block I02 substantially parallel with
the valve actuating lever and which is apertured
to receive the plain stem I60 of an adjustable
plug I62 carrying a second spring seat I64. The
spring seat I64 is threaded upon the plug I62
blades. The increased pitch will cause the engine
to slowdown and the slowing down of the engine
will in turn bring the governor valve member
I I6 back to its neutral position. Conversely, a
drop in speed from the equilibrium speed‘ will
open the control passage 92'to the high pressure
?uid and the control passage 94 to the reservoir
50 causing ?uid under pressure to flow from the
pump to the other side of the torque applying
unit, thereby decreasing the pitch of the propeller
blade until the governor valve is brought back
to the normal or equilibrium positionm
' t
In order to control the equilibrium or governor
and has an arm I66 engaging in a slot $68 of the
speed, the roller fulcrum I48 may be moved fore
block I02 to prevent its turning relative to‘ the 30 and aft of the lever arm I40 or 240, thereby
block. A stop collar I10 on the plug is notched
changing the equilibrium speed by changing ‘the
at I12 for ratcheting or detenting with a pin
ratio of the spring force arm to the centrifugal
I13 in the arm I58, and a screwdriver slot I14
force arm. As the roller is moved toward the end
provides for selected adjustment of the spring
of the lever the spring force becomes more effec
I56. Since the portion I60 is capable of rotating
tive and more centrifugal force is required .to
and sliding in the hole of the arm I58, a screw
move the valve member I I6 out to the equilibrium
driver applied to the slot I14 serves to push the
position. That movement is accomplished by
stop collar I10 away from the arm I58 and dis
mounting the fulcrum roller or rollers I48 on a
engage one of the notches‘ I12 from the cooper
carriage I16 so that it may slide along on ways
ating pin, after which the plug I62 may be turned
-I18 extending along side of the lever I40 or 240.
until there is registration with some other notch.
The ways I18 may comprise the parallel arms of
The force of the spring I56 tends always to urge
a notched plate I80 secured to the valve block I02
the stop collar I10 against the arm I58, and from
by screw devices I82, and‘ the end of the arms
that as a rigid support applies its force to the
should support a key or pin I84 to forestall ‘sepa
valve actuating arm I40 or 240 as the case may
" ration of the carriage therefrom. The carriages
be, tendingr to rock the am about its roller ful
in both of‘the forms illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4
crum I48.
‘
I
_
That rocking of the arm, if it were not opposed
are the same except that for the single arm con,
struction of Fig. 4, it provides but one fulcrum
by some other force would result in movement of
roller I48, while that for the double arm con
the attached valve plunger II6 to a position in 50 struction of Fig. 3 provides two fulcrum rollers,
board of the equilibrium position shown in Fig.
one for ‘each of the arms I46. Attached to the
4. That inboard position is what is termed the
carriage is a shoe I86 that rides in a groove I88
“under speed” position and is that normally taken
of a control ring I90 mounted‘ for movement
when the propeller mechanism is at rest such as
lengthwise of the adapter sleeve 56, which, as
when the engine is not operating. It is also the 55 stated above, is a relatively ?xed part of the pro
position of the valve when it is moved to correct
peller. Axial movement of this control ring is
the blade pitch adjustment for a drop in propeller
accomplished by the screw shafts 68 hereinbefore
speed. An opposite extreme or outboard position
described, and desirably there are three of them
is possible as will presently appear, and is termed
distributed about the circumference of ,the
the “over speed” position, which is the position 60 adapter sleeve so that movement of the ring gear
of the valve when it is moved to correct the blade
64 rotates all of the screw shafts coincidentally.‘
pitch adjustment for a rise in propeller speed.
From the foregoing it can be seen that each posi
The “over speed” position is due to centrifugal
, tion of the control lever 12 corresponds to av defl
force acting on the valve plunger II6 and 'as
nite equilibrium speed for the propeller» The
sociated lever, which is the force that opposes 65 screw shafts 68 may be su?icient to prevent the
the force of the spring I55 tending to rock the
contro1 ring‘from rotating with respect to ‘the
arm I40 or 240 about its respective fulcrum.
relatively ?xed parts of .the assembly, such as
- With the fulcrum roller set in any normal
the adapter sleeve 56, but it is desirable to insure
position,‘ as shown in Figs-3 and 4, centrifugal
its non-rotation by means of a key or keys I82
force tends to throw the valve member II6 out 70 or the like secured to the adapter sleeve 55 and
wardly or to the “over speed” position. ' That
motion is resisted by the spring I56 acting
through the lever system. At equilibrium speed
the moments about the fulcrum roller of the
received in sliding engagement by alnotch I04
cut in the inner surface of the control ring ‘I80.
By that construction, when the propeller is 1'0
‘tating, the regulator and all of the structuralele
spring force and the centrifugal force acting upon 75 ments carried by;it rotateabout the adapterwas;
2,407,791
7
.
8
pins at all times, assuring a positive lock. Turn
sembly secured to the engine nose and extending
into‘ the regulator. Thus, the adapter sleeve and
control ring are held against rotation and the
governor mechanism is caused to revolve about
them, the shoe I186 riding in and following the (.11
ing theadjusting screw I62 clockwise gives a de-_
crease in R. P. M., and turning it r-counter-clocke
wise gives an increase in R. P. M. Particular
attention should be given to the spring I56. It
should be made accurately so that its columnar
course of the groove I88.
"The groove I88 in the control ring I9!) is ma
rigidity can be controlled through the ratio of
Wire size to diameter. Particularly in the form
of construction shown in Fig. 4, stability at high
speed is maintained by the proper spring rate
while stability at low speed is assisted by the
columnar rigidity of the spring resistingthe til-t—_
chined with a slight fore and aft wobble so that
the governor-‘fulcrum. I48. oscillates fore and aft
during each revolution of the propeller. The
groove may zbcso formed that it lies in a plane
forming an angle with the plane of the control
ring, such as to provide a narrow flange I96 011
ing action of the governor lever. As an example
of a suitable spring having the desired char
the Opposite side, with reverse relations at one 115 acteristics use may be made of a spring having
compressed force and rigidity in the order of 26
or more points about the circumference of the
pounds when compressed to something like one
control ring. Those features are shown in Fig. 3
quanter inch less than its assembled'length as
of the drawings from which it should be apparent
shown in the drawings.
that rotation of the regulator mechanism with
From .the foregoing it is apparent that the reg
respect to the control ring I90 causes a recipro 20
one side of the groove and a wide ?ange i913 on
ulator mechanism can be assembled as a single
cating vor vibrating motion of the carriage I16
unit complete with all of the control mechanism
for each rotation of the propeller. For that par
ticular equilibrium setting of the carriage, the
arrowsa indicate the maximum length of the
spring force arm or that obtaining while the ful
.crum roller I48 is in the aft/position of the oscil
mounted on the plate 44 and enclosed within the
reservoir provided by the plate 44 and the cover
25 52, rotatably engaging the adapter assembly and
particularly the sleeve 56 which completes the
enclosure of the reservoir 50, thereby forming a
latory travel, while the arrows b indicate, the
complete unit. That unit so assembled may be
minimum length of the spring force arm or that
shipped separately as a replacement unit, or it
‘obtaining while the fulcrum roller I48 is in the
fore position of :said travel. The difference in 30. may be installed immediately on the propeller
construction. In either case, the unit when as;
length between the maximum .and minimum
sembled with the propeller is passed over the
spring force arms then represents the extent of
sleeve 22 where it is retained by'the sleeve nut 46
the sustained incremental movement imparted to
threading upon the sleeve 22. The assembled hub
the carriage, and hence the fulcrum roller, due to
and regulator is then mounted on the shaft 26
the ‘wobble of the control ring groove. The vibra
tory motion of the carriage need not be great,
and desirably should not be great, but should be
of such extent that the valve member I I6, in re
sponding to the continuous and reversing‘in
fluences due to the aforementioned motion will 40
be maintained in sustained oscillation so as to
be potentially responsive to an actual speed
change. Under those conditions, the control valve
will be readily responsive to slight changes of
a controlling force because of theielimination
of static friction from the entire movable por
tion of the governor mechanism. The fulcrum
roller ‘1.48 may be moved to a point more or less
‘distant from the point of spring force applica
tion in order to establish a new equilibrium speed
for which regulation is to be made. The selec
tion of a new governing speed will not, however,
disturb or upset the oscillatory feature of the in
stallation. It is of note that the motion of the
and pushed rearwardly until the adapter plate
62 can be anchored to the engine nose 28 by
means of one or more screw devices 10.
Coinci
dent with that, the hub sleeve 22 will seat against
the rear cone 24 where it is held by the usual
forward cone and shaft nut. If the reservoir» 50
has not theretofore been charged with the fluid
operating medium it should noW be done by ro
tating the propeller until the ?ller plug 200 is
, something like 15° above the horizontal passing
through the axis of rotation. The fluid pressure
medium, which might be a light oil, is now added
until it reaches the level of the opening for the
plug. Replacement of the plug and safetying, as
should be done with all others of the screw de
vices, conditions the structure for immediate op
eration, though it is advisable to make tests and
adjustments on the ground before actual .?ight is
attempted.
-
'lating” it does not operate to effect any appre
ciable pitch shift. In effect then, when the valve
is called upon to effect a regulating function it
will have already been started on its movement
While there has been shown and described
means for "accomplishing the vibratory motion of
the fulcrum as embodying a groove disposed at
an angle with the plane of rotation, the same
result may be accomplished by means of a groove
toward either the “under speed” or “over speed” ’
that wavers fore and aft of the plane of the ring 7
‘valve piston‘ is of such rapidity that in “oscil- V .
carrying it. That is, the groove may be an un
dulating groove of regular or irregular track cut
in the periphery ‘of the ring so that the shoe in
following it may cause reciprocation of the ful
crum and carriage for each rotation of the de
vice, Satisfactory results might also be accom
access to which may be had by removing the ?ller
plished by using screw shafts of different pitch so
plug 200 in the cover 52 of the regulator housing.
that as the controlv ring is‘ moved fore and aft
As hereinbefore described, a ‘slotted screw I14 is
of the adapter sleeve, the control ring, and con
located inside the regulator cover, which has a
bearing face I64 .in contact with the governor 70 sequently the groove, is caused to change its in
clination with respect to the plane of rotation.
spring I56. By placing a screw driver in the
‘In that way, the amount of vibration, or rather
slotted screw head and pushing the screw in ap
the amplitude of the vibratory movement would
proximately qle inch to clear the ‘locking pins, it
change as the fulcrum is movedfore or aft of the
is possiblelto turn the screw. ‘The governor spring
pressure keeps the slots l'lll engaged with the‘ 75 :adapter sleeve, so that the greater amplitude
position, resulting in the requirement of less
‘force and time in accomplishing the governing
function.
Governor adjustment for maximum speed is
obtained by adjusting ‘the governor spring I56,
2,407,791
10
would be during the higher speed of propeller
rotation.
,
-
While the embodiment of the present inven
tion as herein disclosed,‘ constitutes a preferred
form, it is to be understood .that other forms
might be adopted, all coming within the scope of
the claims which follow.
on, either side of the lever, a fulcrum carried by
one of the rigid members adapted to support the
lever, and spring means engaging the lever and
the other of the rigid members for balancing the
centrifugal force acting on the valve member
while it is in the equilibrium position.
‘
5. The combination set forth in claim 4, in
‘
which means are provided for moving the, ful
What is claimed is as follows:
crum along the rigid member toward and from
1. In anaircratt propeller, the combination of
a cylindrical porting sleeve, a piston valve mov 10 the point of spring engagement with the lever.
6. A governor control‘ mechanism comprising
able longitudinally relatively thereto, means
in combination, a valve block having a longitudi
mounting the sleeve and valve for rotation with
nal bore providing a pressure supply port inter
the propeller, means including a balance of spring
mediate a pair of control ports, a valve member
force and centrifugal force for maintaining the
sleeve and valve‘in a relatively equilibrium posi 15. movable along the bore of the block and having
lands adapted to cover the centrol ports, a lever
tion but adapted on domination by either spring
pivotally connected to the valve member and ex
force. or centrifugal force to effect relative uni
tending to one side of the block, rigid support
directional movement of the valve and sleeve, and
means disposed on either and opposite sides of
means operative upon rotation of the propeller
effecting sustained vibratory reciprocating move 20 the lever, a movable fulcrum carried by one of
the rigid supports engaging the‘ outer extent of
ment of the valve and along the same path as said
the lever, yieldable means engaging an interme
‘
1
diate portion of the lever and the other of the
2. The combination of a‘ "cylindrical porting
rigid supports, rotatable means supporting ‘the ‘
sleeve," a piston valve movable within and along
the "bore of said' sleeveiin one direction in re 25 block and valve member so that the latter is ra
clially disposed with respect to the axis of rota
sponse to centrifugal force, means including a
unidirectional movement. 7
spring for opposing ‘movement of the valve by
centrifugal force and:tending t0 ‘m‘ove the valve
'in‘ the ‘other direction to establish ‘an equilibrium
‘position of'the valvewithin the sleeve, said valve
adapted upon domination of either opposing force
to move toward an extreme position within the
“sleeve to effect a control function, means for ro
‘tatably mountingithe‘fsleeve, valve and ‘spring,
tion, centrifugal force tending to move the valve
member from an equilibrium position outward to
a controlling position, and said yieldablle means
opposing the centrifugal force to move the valve -
from the equilibrium position inward to a second
control position, said yieldable means and cen
trifugal force effecting a balance of forces on
the lever to maintain the. valve in the equilibrium
and mechanical means continuously acting upon 35 position while the valve and block supporting
means are rotating at a pre-selected speed, means
for moving the fulcrum for selecting the speed,
for effecting lineal vibration ‘of the valve within
and means continuously operable uponthe ful
the sleeve in thedirection ofmovement of the
crum for vibrating the valve member so as to
valve to a control position, whereby said valve is
maintained continuously in a state of readiness to reduce the static friction and maintain the valve
susceptible to control movement on domination
to move‘ to the control position directly that a
said valve throughout‘ rotation of the assembly
control function is manifest.
'
"
of either force.
>
7. A‘ governor control mechanism comprising
3. A‘ governor control mechanism comprising
‘:in combination a valve chamber having spaced
a valve block h'aving pressure supply and control
‘ports, a piston‘ valve member slidable within the 45 ‘ports, a centrifugally responsive weight member
comprising a valve stem disposed within the
valve block, rotating means for supporting the
block for revolutionab‘out an axis normal'to the
sliding movement‘ of said valve, means including
a balance of ‘spring force and ‘centrifugal force
of valve revolution for establishing an equilib
rium position between the valve member and the
control ports, said last means adapted on domi
nation of either of the ‘balancing forces to move
the valve member from the‘ equilibrium position
to a controlling‘ position in whichone of the con
trol ports is connected withthe pressure supply
port, and cam‘ means continuously operable upon
rotation of the support means for effecting lineal
vibration of the valve member withoutinterfer
ing with‘ the amount‘ and the direction of its
sliding movement.
'
4. A governor control mechanism for a rotat
able assembly comprising in combination, a valve
chamber and controlling said ports by relative
reciprocation between said stem and chamber,
.means providing a, reservoir for enclosing the
50' chamber and stem supplying a source of oper
ating fluid therefor, means for rotating the res
ervoir thereby revolving the chamber and stem,
means extending into from without the reservoir
for manually controlling the valve stem with re
spect to the chamber, and means automatically
operable upon rotation of said reservoir and in
cluding said extending means for vibrating the
valve along its reciprocating path, whereby‘ to
condition the valve stem for movement in re
sponse to small forces calling for a change of
position of said valve stem.
_
‘8. A propeller control mechanism for use with
a valve member. having lands adapted to cover
a controllable blade propeller having ?uid actu
ated means for e?’ecting change in pitch of the
blades, comprising in combination, a housing ro
-members extending fromltheblockland disposed
sponsive to the speed of rotation for selectively
block having .press'ure supply and control ports,
tatable with the propeller shaft, a relatively sta
‘the control ports of the block and being of such
tionary member projecting into the housing and
mass‘as to constitute a weight member respond
cooperating therewith to form a reservoir, pump
ving to‘ centrifugal .force,’means for rotatably
‘means within the housing and having an inlet
mounting the block so that the valve member
.may move radially of the axis of rotation from 70 from the reservoir, means for actuating said
pump means upon relative rotational movement
‘an equilibrium positioning ‘covering the control
between said stationary member and said hous
ports to either of two positions connecting a con
ing to provide a source of said ?uid pressure, a
,trol 'port ‘with the pressure supply port, a lever
regulator valve member within said housing re
pivotally connecting thervalve member, rigid
2,407,791
11
controlling the application of said, ‘?uid pres
sure to said ?uid actuated means to "effect change
of, pitch of the propeller blades, means outside of
the housing and projecting into the reservoir for
selecting the speed of rotation at which the reg
ulator valve member will effect a change in pitch,
and means including a part of the stationary
member effecting lineal vibration of the regu- I
lator valve member within the housing suflicient
to overcome static friction to movement 50 that
small changes in speed of rotation of the pro
peller will be responded to by the regulator valve
member for connecting the pump developed pres
ing the speed at which‘ the equilibrium position
shall obtain, and means for impressing upon'said
fulcrum during rotation of the’ propeller'recip
rocating movement of short amplitude along ‘the
lever for vibrating the valve stem lineally of the
path of control movement.
‘
e
l
'
12. The combination set forth in claim ‘11,
wherein the means for moving the fulcrum for
speed determination constitutesa control ring
slidable axially of the ?xed part and which 'con
trol ring has a movable'groove "within which rides
a shoe for effecting reciprocatory ‘movement of
the fulcrum.
'
'
-
r
"
13. The combination set forth in .claimyll,
9. A propeller control mechanism for use with 15 wherein the means ‘for moving the fulcrum con
an adjustable blade propeller having ?uid actu
stitutes a control ring" slidable along the ?xed
ated means for effecting change in the pitch of
part and has a groove within which‘rides ae'shoe
the blades, comprising in combination, a source
carried by the fulcrum, said groove lying :in a
of ?uid pressure, a regulator valve body mounted
plane forming an angle with the plane of rota
for rotation with said propeller and directly re 20 tion, whereby said fulcrum 'is reciprocated for '
sponsive to centrifugal force, means for sup
each revolution of the propeller; ' 1
' plying‘ the pressure ?uid under the control of
14. In a controllable pitch propeller, a regulator’
said regulator valve to ‘said ?uid actuated means,
mechanism comprising in combination, a gov
resilient means acting radially with a force sub
ernor valve assembly carried by the propeller and
stantially independent of the speed‘ of said pro
revolvable about a relatively ‘?xed part, said as
peller for opposing the action of _ centrifugal
sembly including a valve block having spaced
force on said body’ with a predetermined regu
ports opening into a radially extending, bore; a
lating force, a lever for applying ‘the force of
valve stem being "itself directly responsive to
said opposingmeans to be‘ effective upon said
centrifugal force and subject to generally radial
valve body, an adjustable control operable from 30 movement along the bore of ‘said block, a;1ever
the exterior of said rotating propeller for vary
operable upon the valvestem and extending sub-'
stantially parallel with the axis ‘of rotation for
ing thee?ective moment‘, arm of said lever, and
meansconstantly acting upon said lever for vi
the propeller, a movable fulcrum interposed be
bratingrsaid regulator valve along the path of
tween the lever and the ?xed part for supporting
.movement effected by the centrifugal force and
the end of the lever, means exerting asubstan
opposing .means, said vibration conditioning the
tially constant yielding ‘force bearing upon‘ the
regulator valve .for movement in response to
lever at a point intermediate itslength and op
slight disturbances of equilibrium between cen
posing movement of ‘the lever by centrifugal force,
trifugal and opposing forces.
7
said yielding force and’ centrifugal force at a
10. ‘The combination, set ‘forth in claim 9, 40 preselected speed of propeller rotation vmaintain
wherein the adjustable control ‘includes a_con_
ing the valve stem in equilibrium position with
trolring and a plurality of spaced high lead con
respect to the spaced ports, means provided by
the relatively ?xed part for moving the fulcrum
trol screws with means for coincidentally rotat-i
ing the control screws, said control ring pro
for preselecting the speed at which‘ the equilib
viding a groove therein with fore and aft points
rium position shall obtain, and means for impress
disposed on opposite sides of the plane of the
ing upon said fulcrum injresponse to rotation of
ring, and means including a fulcrum supporting
the propeller lineal vibratory movement of 'shor
one end of the lever and following the groove
amplitude along the length of the lever.
* c
of the ring for vibrating the regulator valve along
15. The combination set forth in claim .14, in
sure with the ?uid actuated means.
,
the path of movement effected by the centrifugal ,
force and opposing means thereby minimizing
static friction of the valve member against move
ment by a control function.
,
11. In a controllable pitch propeller, a regu
lator mechanism comprising in combination, a
governor valve assembly carriedfby the propeller
which the means for moving the fulcrum consti
tutes a control ring slidable along the ?xed part
and has a groove within which'rides a shoe'car
ried by the fulcrum, said groove lying in a plane
forming an angle with'the plane of said control
ring, whereby said fulcrum is reciprdcated during
each rotation of the propeller.
'
and revolvable about a relatively ?xed part, said
16. The combination set forth in claim 14, in
assembly including a valve block having spaced
which the means for moving the fulcrum consti
ports opening into a radially extending bore, a
tutes a control ring slidable along the ?xed part
valve stem being itself directly responsive to cen 60 and has a camming groove in its periphery within
trifugal force and subject to generally radial
which rides a shoe carried by the ‘fulcrum, ‘where
movement along the bore of said block, a lever
by rotation of the propeller mechanism about the
pivoted to thevalve stem and extending substan
?xed part causes vibratory movement of the ful
tially at right angles to said radially extending
crum along ‘the length of the lever.
bore, a movable fulcrum interposed between the
17. The combination set forth in claim 9
lever‘ and said ?xed Dart‘for supporting the end
wherein the adjustable control includes a grooved
of the lever, means exerting a substantially con
control ring and high lead screws operable from
stant spring force bearing upon an intermediate
a remote point for moving the control ring along
portion. of the lever and opposing movement of
the length of the lever, said high lead screws
maintaining the groove of said ring with spaced
the valve stem by centrifugal force, said spring
force and centrifugal force at a'predetermined
points fore and aft of the plane of the ring where—
,speed of propeller rotation maintaining the valve
by the fulcrum in following the groove effects
stem in equilibrium position with respect to the
spaced ports, means carried by the relatively
?xed part for moving the fulcrum for determin
vibratory movement of the valve member during
rotation of the propeller.
'
18. In a rotatable hydraulic regulator for air
13
2,407,791
craft propellers, the combination comprising, a
plate providing a conduit system-mounted for
rotation by the propeller, a ?xed tubular exten
sion ending near the plate, a control valve in
cluding a porting sleeve open to the conduit sys
tem, and a plunger mounted on the plate for
rotation therewith, said plunger itself being a
weight member responding to centrifugal force of
propeller rotation for controlling the ?ow of ?uid
14
in the conduit system, means carried by the tu
bular extension for controlling the action of the
plunger and including a grooved ring movable
axially of the extension, and means including the
lcontrol ring‘ for rapidly reciprocating the plunger
throughout rotation of the plate relative to the
extension.
'
THOMAS E. MARTIN.
JOHN F. HAINES.
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