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Sept. 17, 1946.
Original Filed Feb. 13, 1942
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Leonard Boddj/ \
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
Leonard Boddy, Ann Arbor, Mich., assignor to The
Anderson Company, a corporation of Indiana
Substitute for application Serial No. 430,785,
February 13, 1942. This application November
19, 1945, Serial No. 629,552
2 Claims. (C1. 73-347 )
My invention relates to electrica1 indicating
systems and more particularly to electrical indi
rate indication of the operating‘ temperature of
that particular unit, and which further includes
cating systems for indicating remotely. quanti
means responsive to each of the other units and
tively the manifestation of a physical condition
effective whenever the temperature of the asso
ciated unit exceeds a predetermined amount‘ to
or a variable factor.
Heretofore there have been provided electrical
indicating systems for continuously and accu
rately indicating at a remote point the quantity
produce an indication on the instrument that at
least one of the units has exceeded a safe or pre
determined temperature.
It is therefore an object of my invention to pro
type of such system may employ a source of 10 vide a new and improved indicating system for
remotely indicating a variable factor or condition
power subject to voltage variations and in order “
of a variable factor or a physical condition. One
to provide continuous accurate indication unin~
?uenced by the variations of the voltage source,
and for indicating whenever said factor or any
a series of ‘impulses corresponding to the condi
kind exceed a predetermined amount.
tion or variable factor to be indicated are trans
one of a number of other variable factors of like
It is another object of my invention to provide’
an improved remote indicating system to show
mitted to an indicating instrument which is re
the general relative operating temperature of a
sponsive to the cumulative effect of the trans
mitted impulses. Compensation for variations in
device and to indicate whenever any one of a
plurality of units of said device have a tempera
the voltage in the power source are accomplished
by modifying the character of the transmitted 20 ture exceeding a predetermined amount.
impulses. An indicating system of the type which
Still. another object of my invention is to pro
vide an improved remote indicating system for a
is responsive to the cumulative effect of the trans
mitted impulses is shown and described in United
multi-unit device which will give an indication
‘whenever a predetermined temperature has been
States Letters 'Patent No. 2,022,4511 for Electric
exceeded by any one of the units.
indicating instrument, granted upon the applica
tion of Theodore J. Smulski to The 'Anderson
Other and further objects of my invention will
Company, assignee of the present invention.
become more readily apparent by reference to the
following description taken in connection with
It has been found in internal combustion en
gines having a plurality of cylinder blocks that,
the accompanying drawing, wherein:
‘ .
even though a common cooling system or radiator 30
Figure l is a fragmentary, largely schematic
is provided, one of the blocks may exceed a safe
representation of the devices and the circuit
temperature. For example in an internal com
bustion engine of the V-type it has been common
comprising my electrical indicating system; and
' to connect the water jackets of the two cylinder
blocks to a common radiator and to provide
temperature responsive units used in my system.
Referring more particularly to Figure l of the
forced circulation of the cooling ?uid. In one of
the motor blocks there has been placed a temper
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional View of one of the
drawing there is shown a source of power or volt
age such as battery [0, one side of which is con
ature responsive devicev for transmitting current
nected to the ground I I. The source of voltage l0
may comprise a storage battery in a vehicle and,
to an indicating instrument located on the dash
board Or instrument panel of the motor or ve -40 as is well known, this voltage source is subject to
hicle. This provides an indication of the general
variations in voltage. The other side of the
source of electrical power it! is connected through
operating temperature ‘of. the'motor, but it is not
su?iciently sensitive to respond to an. abnormal
a‘ switch 12 to an indicating instrument l3 which
condition occurring in the other motor block. In
is of the cumulative responsive type shown and
accordance with my invention I provide means in I45 described in the above mentioned Patent No.
one of the motor blocks for providing an indica
2,022,441. This instrument is provided with a
tion of the temperature during normal operation
dial [4 having indications thereon for coopera
tion with an indicating hand l5. The indicating
and means in the other cylinder block Which will
be responsive to any abnormal condition to pro
hand I5 is actuated through a member [6 by a
vide an indication on the same instrument. In a
bimetallic element l1 suitably mounted ‘at [8
broader view, I provide a system which is ap
plicable to any multi-unit device and which in
cludes means responsive to one of the units to
give a relative indication of theoperating tem
perature of all of the units, and to give an accur 55
upon the frame or case of the‘ instrument [3. An
electrical heating element I9 is provided for
heating the ‘bimetallic element l1, and this heat
ing element is connected'in series between the
switch 12 and a temperature responsive device 2|.
The temperature device 2| is shown located in
an opening provided in a water cooled motor
block 22.
The temperature responsive device 2|
consists of a, casing which is secured in a suitable
opening in the motor block 22, and Within the
casing there‘ are provided a bimetallic element 23
higher indication. If the electrical circuit is in
terrupted by the opening of the switch l2, no
power is received by the heating coil IQ of the in
dicating instrument so that the bimetallic ele
5 ment cools to move from the warped position
shown in the drawing to a substantially straight
position thereby moving the hand Hi to the high
suitably insulated and supported ‘within the cas
ing 2!, a contact 24 supported adjacent the end
of and by the bimetallic element 23, a cooperat
est indication on the scale 14. If while the switch
I2 is closed, the heat responsive device 21 reaches \
ing contact 25 mounted upon a suitable adjust 10 a temperature beyond a predetermined amount
able support and conductor 26 which ispositioned
which has been considered the limit to which the
by an adjustable screw 2'! mounted in a ?xed
motor block 22 may be safely heated, the bime
support 28. The adjustable screw 21 mounted in
tallic element 23 will open the contacts 24 and
the ?xed support 23 is provided vfor adjustment of
25 thereby causing ‘an indication to be produced
the position of the lower contact 25 so as to ac
on the instrument I73 showing that in one of the
curately predetermine the temperature at which
the bimetallic element 23 will open the contacts
units of the motor the safe predetermined tem
perature has been exceeded.
From the circuit arrangement shown and de
24 and 25. The contact 25 is positioned so as to
cause interruption of the electrical circuit when
ever the temperature of the cooling medium with
scribed it will be noticed that the bimetallic ele
ment 23 of the heat responsive unit 2| serves as
a conductor for the impulses being transmitted
through-the circuit. This produces an operation
in the block 22 exceeds a predetermined amount.
The lower contact 25 and the supporting con
ductor 25 are electrically connected to a heating
, which is deemed tobe desirable.~ ‘If it is assumed
‘element 3| surrounding a bimetallic element 32
that an abnormal condition is developing in'the
supported within a temperature responsive cas 25 motor unit 22, the temperaturethereof is rapidly
ing 33 which is supported within a suitable open
increasing. Due to the heat-ing'effectof the cur
ingin the water jacket in the other motor block
rent passingthrough the bimetallic element 23
34. The temperature responsive device 33' has the
of the heat responsive device v2i, the contacts 24
heating coil 3i for the bimetallic element 32 con
and 2-3 will be opened at a temperature which is
nected to an electrical contact 35 mounted on the 30 slightly below, by a few degrees; the temperature
end of the bimetallic element 32'. The electrical
which should not be exceeded for any length of
contact 35 is arranged to cooperate with an elec
time in order to prevent damage to the operation
trical contact 36 adjustably supported by a screw
of the motor. Since the temperature of that unit
3'! from a ?xed support member 33. The adjust
of the motor is increasing, more and more-‘heat
able contact 33 is connected to ground 33 through 35 is being transmitted to the’ temperature respon
the‘adjustable screw‘ 3? and the’ support v'38. It
sive device 2! so that the bimetallic element 23
therefore becomes apparent that there is pro
will continue ‘to remain in a‘ position where the ‘
vided a‘ series circuit which may be traced from
contacts 24 and 23 will remain open thereby‘ pre
the ground H through battery Iii, switch 12,
venting an operating condition for a period
heating'coillii of the instrument l3, bimetallic
element 23; contacts 24, 25; an'd‘the conductor 26
40 wherein these contacts might open and close sev
eral times while the‘t'emperature of the’ motor
unit is passing through‘ the‘ upper limit :of ‘the
of vthe heat responsive-casing 2| and through the
heating coil 31, the contacts 35 and 33 to the
ground 39 in ‘the heat responsive casing‘ or de
predetermined safe temperature.
Thus the
switch contacts 24j'and 25 will not have a period
"of' operation which might‘ be in step with the
The indicating instrument I3 is of the type
which has the indicating hand t5 positioned ad
jacent the highest temperatureon thescale when
opening and closing of the contacts 35 and 36 of
the unit 33 thereby delaying the indication of
the abnormal condition on the instrument l3
ever a minimum amount of current or no current
since this instrument is responsive to the‘cumu
'at-all is- being ‘received by the heating coil 13 of 50 lative effect of current transmitted through the
the indicating instrument. The elements‘ within
circuit. While for purposes‘ of illustration Fig
the heat responsive (device 33' in the oneunit 34
ure 1 shows but one unit 2! responsive to a tem
of a motor or other device operates to transmit
perature in excess of'a predetermined amount, it
'a series of impulses through theelements of the
of course will be apparent that in a multieunit
heat responsive device 2| to the indicating in 55 device’ having more't'hantwo units, a plurality of
strument IS. The action of the bimetallic ele
series connected devices corresponding todevice
ment 32 of the transmitting device 33 is such
'21 will’ be employed. Each‘ unit except one Will
that the contacts 35 and 33 are alternately
have a device corresponding to device 21 and "the I
opened and closed'at a relatively high rate so as
remaining unit will‘ be provided with a tempera
to transmit impulsesyvarying in frequency and; 60 ture' responsive device correspondingito ‘thede
in“ duration. Irrespective of the condition of the
vice 33 which provides a continuous accurate in
source of power HJ'thev transmitting‘ device 33 re
dication of the operating.temperature-of that
quires that for each temperature‘ or each condi
unit andalso provides‘ a relativeyindication of the
titon-of the variable factor to be indicated there
operation of all units so long as there-is noja‘bnor
must be supplied a certain ‘amount of heat to the 65 mal operation of "any ‘one-of the ‘individual units.
bimetallicelement 32. As the amount of heat re
ceived byv the transmitting'device 33 from the
Thus the aggregate power “transmitted by ‘ a‘ se
surrounding medium or ‘from the'motor‘ block 34
ries of impulses by‘ the "temperature responsive
device. 33 will ‘vary ‘inversely with respect to'in
increases, less electrical power is required to ‘pro
creases in the ‘temperature or variable "factortto
duce'periodical opening and closing of the con 70 be indicated. Since the indicating'instrument i3
tacts 35 and 33‘ so that a decreased‘arnount of
is one which in respect to‘the, aggregate powerife
power is received by the heating-coil l9 located
about or adjacent to the bimetallic element il'
50f ‘the ‘indicating instrument l3. When- this oc
curs the indicating hand-I5 is movedltoward a 75
‘ceived in the form‘ of current impulses to ‘produce
an indication of decreased value upon'an increase
in the aggregate- powerr-eceived-it ‘is apparent
that‘ when a
amount-of power or no
power is received by the instrument that the in
ing the outer tubular casing 4|. .That portion of
the support. frame 28 between the tubular rivet
49 and the adjustable screw2'l is preferably pro
dication is a maximum value. This maximum
value is equal to or'in the vicinity of the tem
perature value above which it is unsafe to con
tinue the operation of the motor.
vided with an apertured portion so that about
each of the outer sides of the channel-like frame
28 there may be provided resilient means for
‘In Figure 2 there is shown a cross-sectional
frictionallypositioning the supporting member
view of a temperature responsive device‘such as
28 within the tubular casing 4|. The sides of
2| ‘shown in Figure 1. This device comprises a
the channelportions of the supporting member
tubular casing 4| suitably soldered or secured to
‘a'support member 42 which‘ is provided at one 10 28. are bridged by the bridge portion 55. By
means of clamping portions‘ 55' and 51 resilient
end with threads for cooperation with the
members 58 are provided on each side of the sup
threads in the opening of the motor. block, and at
port 28 to maintain in position this support wan
the other end with a suitable surface which may
in the case 4|.
be gripped by a wrench or tool to insure that the
While the temperature responsive device 33 f0
temperature responsive device is properly mount
transmitting current impulses to the instrument
‘ed in the motor block so as to prevent leakage of
has been shown rather schematically in Figure 1,
the cooling medium. Theinside of the supporte
it of course will readily become apparent that
ing member 42. .is suitably recessed ‘ so. as. to
the actual physical structure. will have a degree
receive a block of insulating material 43 which
is positioned against a suitable packing ring 44 20 of resemblance to the structure of the tempera
ture responsive device 2| which is shown in de
and, retained in position by a washer 45 and a
tail in Figure ‘2.
. ‘ ‘
retaining ring 45. The insulating member 43
While for the purpose of simplicity in illustra
completely closes the passage to ‘the interior of
tion and to facilitate the description of the oper
the-tubular member 4|, and provides means for
conducting current'to and from the interior by 25 ation of my invention, there has been shown the
application of my invention to a water cooled
the electrical conductors 4'! and 43. These ‘elec
motor having two cylinder blocks, it of course
,trical conductors 41 and 43 extend throughthe
will be apparent that my invention may be ap
insulating material 33 so as to appear in spaced
plied to any other devicesYhaving the same‘or a
relation on the inside of the tubular portion 4!.
greater number of units in which it is desired
to obtain an indication of the operating temper:
_, Within the tubular portion 4| there is pro
vided an assembly which includes bimetallic ele
ature of one of the units and an indication when:
ment 23 having adjacent one end thereof elec
ever a predetermined temperature is exceeded in
any of the'other units. For example the inven
trical contact 24 which cooperates with an elec
trical contact 25 supported by the electrical con
ductor 26. The conductor 26 and the contact 25 35 tion is applicable to a multi-cylinder air cooled
engine in which case a device corresponding to
the temperature responsive device 33 is provided
jacent the end of the frame 28 by an insulating
for one of the cylinders, and a plurality of de
member 53. The adjustable screw 2? permits the
vices corresponding to the device 2| are provided
contact 25 to be adjusted so as to determine ac
are insulated from the adjustable screw 2‘! ad
curately the temperature at which‘ the bimetallic 40 for the remaining cylinders.
All of these de—‘
vices are then‘ connected in series with the source
element 23 will open the contacts 24 and 25. At
one end of the frame 28 there is provided a tubu
lar rivet or other ‘suitable fastening means 49
‘of power and the indicating instrument. Under
which together with suitable insulating washers
accurate indication of the operating temperature
normal conditions the one device 33 will give an
‘and collars serves to maintain the proper rela p. Ui of its cylinder, and a general indication of the
normal operating temperature of all of the cyle
tion between the bimetallic element 23, the con
inders. Upon abnormal operation of any other
‘ductor 25 and the support frame 28. ' From this
cylinder in excess of a safe temperature its device
it will appear that ‘the conductor 23 extends be
2| will interrupt the circuit to produce an indi
yond the fastening means‘ 49‘ so that one end
cation on the instrument telling the observer that
thereof is in contact with the electrical conductor
41. Electrical conductor 5| is connected by the
an abnormal condition exists.
fastening means 49 to the bimetallic element 23,
It therefore will become apparent that I am not
‘to be limited by the speci?c disclosure or descrip
tion since‘ it is apparent that modifications may
and this’ electrical conductor 5| is suitably sep
arated and insulated‘ from the conductor 26' by
an insulating member 52. The electrical conductor 5l-is in electrical contact with the con
ductor 4B. The extremities of the electrical con
ductors 2B and 5| which are separated by the
insulating member 52 are preferably of such con
?guration as to provide resilient means for con
tacting their respective electrical conductors 41
and 48.
Adjacent the far end of me tubular member
be made in the instruments. in the number of
instrumentalities employed, and in the circuit
arrangement without departing from the spirit
and scope of my invention as set forth in the
appended claims.
I claim:
1. In an indicator system for showing oper
ating conditions in connection with an internal
combustion engine having a water cooling system
4| and abutting the end of the supporting frame
comprising an electrical transmission circuit, in—
28 there is provided an insulating member 53 6 5 cluding parts for its operation, a sender extend
having an opening or aperture 54 therein. The
ing into the water cooling system adjacent one
end of the bimetallic element 23 is in the form
cylinder, the sender being continuously respon
of a projection which extends into the aperture
sive to the temperature of its environment and
54 of the insulating member 53 so that when a
including a housing threadedly connected to the
predetermined temperature has been exceeded to 70 block of said engine, an insulated take-off ter
cause the bimetallic element to open the contacts
minal carried by said housing, a bimetallic ele
24 and 25, this element 23 will be limited in its
ment supported at one end in said housing, a
movement by the engagement of the extremity
contact carried by the movable opposite end of
thereof with the upper edge of the aperture 54
the element, a stationary contact insulated from
to prevent the bimetallic element from contact 75 said element electrically connected to said hous
' ing and engine, a heating element associated
including a housing connected, to the block of
said engine, an insulated take-off terminal ,car
ried by said housing, a bimetallic element sup
with and in?uencing ptheaction of said bimetallic
element vconnected to 'said movable contact and
portedyat one-end in said housing, a contact car
ried by the movable opposite end of the element,
a stationary contact insulated from said element
V to saidv take-.oif terminal, .a receiver including .a ,
movable indicator and a :dial for continuously
indicating the temperatureof ‘the, sender environ
ment, a bimetallic member actable onsaid indi
electrically connected to said housing and engine,
a heating element associated with and in?uencing
the action of said bimetallic element connected
ing member being connected to one side of a 10 to said movable contact and to saidtakB-O?
source .of electrical potential, said sender and
terminal, a receiver including ‘a movable indi
receiver being of ‘the wattage ‘integrator type-in
cator and a dial for continuously indicating the
which the wattages converted to heat by the
temperature of the sender environment, :a :bi
cator'and a heating member associated with :and '
in?uencing the action‘ of said element, said heat
receiver and sender bear a constant ratio to one
metallic member 'actable on said indicator and a
another regardless/of variation of source voltage 15 heating member associated withand in?uencing
or of resistance in series with the sender and
the action of said element, said heating, member
receiver, and such wattages diminish progres
being connected to one'side of a source .of elec
sively as adangerous- environmental temperature
trical potential, said sender and receiver being
is approached, and‘ ?nally when the dangerous
of the wattage ‘integrator type in which the watt
temperature is reached, substantially disappear 20 ages converted to heat by the-receiver and sender
because of the maintenance by the sender of
substantially a continuous open condition of the
circuit, and a thermo-responsive switch extended
into the water cooling system adjacent a second
cylinder, said switch including a housing thread 25
series with the sender and receiver,‘.and such
wattages diminish progressively as a dangerous
environmental temperature is approached,_and
edly connected to the engine block, a pair of
bear a constant ratio to one another regardless
of variation of source voltage or of resistance in
insulated terminals supported by said housing,
reached, substantially disappear because of the
one of said terminals ‘being electrically connected
maintenance by the sender of substantially a
to the heating‘ member associated with the re
continuous open condition of the circuit,» and a
ceiver and vthe other terminal being electrically 30 thermo-responsive switch extending into the
connected ‘to the 'take-o? terminal associated
cooling system at another location spaced from
with the sender, a member ‘having one end nor
said cylinder, said switch including ‘a housing, a 1
mally engaging "said ‘other terminal of said pair
pair of insulated terminals supported'by ‘said
of ‘terminals and a contact'carried by its other
housing, one of said terminals being ‘electrically
end, and a bimetallic element ‘having oneend 35 connected to ‘the heating member ‘associated with
electrically connected to the said one terminal
the‘ receiver and the other terminal being "elec
and a contact adjacent its other'end engageable
with the contact of said member, said switch
vbeing constructed and arranged to remain nor
trically connected to the take-off ‘terminal .asso
ciated with the sender, a member ‘having one ‘end
normally engaging said other terminal of said
mally closed and being normally without effect 40 pair of terminals and a contact carried by its
upon ‘the receiver indication, but to open when a
other end, and a bimetallic element having one
dangerous temperature occurs in its environ
end electrically connected to the said one ter
ment, 'so that the same indication will be imme
minal and a contact adjacent its other end en
diately ‘given by the receiver in response to a
gageable with the contact of said member, said
dangerous condition in the environment of the
switch ‘being constructed and arranged to remain
‘switch as is given in, response to a dangerous
normally closed and being normally without
condition in the environment of the sender.
e?ect upon the receiver indication, but to open
'2. In an indicator system for showing oper
when a dangerous temperature occurs in its en
ating conditions in connection with an internal ‘
vironment, so that the same indication will be
combustion engine, having a?uid cooling system
immediately given by the receiver in response
comprising an electrical transmission circuit, in
cluding parts for its operation, a sender extend
ing into the fluid cooling system adjacent one
‘to a dangerous condition in the environment of
cylinder, the sender being continuously respon~_
s'ive to the temperature of its environment and
‘the, switch as is given in response to .a dangerous
' .conditionin the environment of the sender.
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