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Sept; 17, 1946.
' 2,407,829
Filed July 12, 1944
. (Yak/7 1?. Garden
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
John R. Gorder, Bismarck, N. Dak.
Application July 12, 1944, Serial No. 544,546
2 Claims. (Cl. 240-411)
This invention relates to headlights, search
lights, signal and beacon lights and other light
emanating devices using sources of light, pro
plained ‘with reference to the accompanying
drawing, in which:
Figure l is a side elevational sectional view of
a re?ector lamp according to the invention.
Figure 2 is a front view of the same.
Figure 3 is a diagram illustrating the method
vided with a re?ector, which are producing more
or less concentrated light beams and it has par
ticular reference to devices or lamps of the type
speci?ed in which the beam produced by the
employed for producing light beams sharply lim
ited by a plane.
lamp has to be delimited in at least one direction
Referring ?rst to Figure 3 it is assumed that
by a sharply de?ned predetermined surface or in
which the beam has to be limited to a sector of 10 the surface within the lamp casing delimiting
a predetermined angle and position.
the projected beam sharply is above a horizontal
plane Ill-l0 while the beam produced by the ‘
Lights of the type mentioned are used for vari
arrangement occupies a sector or angle below
ous purposes, for instance as headlights for auto
mobiles or locomotives in order to avoid the glare
the horizontal plane,
temporarily interfering with the visual powers of 15 The source of light for the beam is a conven
tional bulb enclosed ?lament I surrounded as
other drivers or as pharos or beacon lights in
closely as possible by a small re?ector 2, This
which a rotating beam has to produce an exactly
small re?ector is only slightly larger than the
timed sequence of lighted and dark intervals visi
bulb-enclosed ?lament itself and because of its
ble from great distances, Many other arrange
ments employ similar devices and the present in 20 proximity thereto it may be permitted to operate
at a dull red heat. However, a de?nite tempera
vention is mainly concerned with the principle
ture limit has to be kept in order that the small
or general arrangement by means of which such
re?ector may not become a source of light itself
a sharply delimited light beam may be produced
within the closed structure. As a rule, the pre
while the speci?c use to which the arrangement
25 scribed temperature limit can be maintained
' is put is not one of its primary objects.
without difficulty as the ?ow of heat to other
The main object of the invention, therefore,
parts of the structure is unrestricted.
resides in an arrangement producing a light
The opening 3 of the small re?ector is so
beam with at least one sharply de?ned limiting
‘chosen that the light emanating through said
surface which causes a break in the light inten
opening will fall on the lamp re?ector 4‘ but will
sity characteristic. On one side of said surface
be kept from falling on any other surface of the
constant or approximately constant or slightly
increasing values of the light intensity will pre
vail while on the other side of the said surface
the intensity will have fallen to a zero value.
A further object of the invention consists in
a re?ector lamp which is‘ provided with an
opaque front wall with a small opening only
through which,_however, a light beam with the
above described light intensity characteristic
lamp. When properly designed the small re?ec
tor 2 also increases the ef?ciency of the ?lament
arrangement to a certain extent.
The lamp which, in the example shown, has
the shape of a headlight, such as used on vehicles,
forms a closed casing, which consists of an opaque
front wall 5 with an opening 6 in its center, said
opening being disposed in operative correlation
passes occupying a substantial angle of space on 40 to the aforesaid re?ector 4 forming that part of
the rear wall which is abovethe horizontal plane
Ill-Ill and of a part 1 to the rear wall which is
With these and other objects in View, the in
the horizontal plane and has a non-re?ect
vention consists in the arrangement, relative
ing or light-absorbing surface. The two parts 4
location, combination and cooperation of com 45 and ‘I may comprise a continuous body and may
ponent parts as described in detail below and.
be made of one piece or in separate sections or
illustrated in the accompanying drawing. It is,
segments and welded or otherwise secured to
however, to be understood that the speci?cation
gether. The difference between them consists
illustrating one example is intended in ?rst line
merely in the different ways in which their inner
to show the principles involved and the general 50 surfaces are treated. While the inner surface of
one side of the delimiting surface. ~
arrangement employed rather than special
the re?ector 4 is highly polished or carries a
means used and that the invention, as will be
highly polished layer or is otherwise prepared to
apparent from the annexed claims, resides in the
said principle or general arrangement.
obtain as perfect a re?ection as possible the inner
surface of the part 1 as well as that of the front
The method and means employed are best ex
55 wall 5 are made light absorbing and non-re?ect
ing and are prepared accordingly. As shown in
Figure 1, the opaque or non-re?ecting front wall
5 having the semi-circular lens segment 8 dis
posed therein is detachably secured to the bowl
portion including the inner re?ecting surface 4
such as described, which are suitable for head
lights or the like to make the projections of the
distances between the light source I, re?ector
radius point 0 and the beam opening 6 on the
plane ill-l0 much shorter than the indicated
distances of the two ?rst named points from said
and the non-re?ecting inner surface ‘I.
As stated above and as shown the source ‘of
light is arranged opposite the lamp re?ector 4
and the light beam which is emitted from the
plane. The source of light is thus arranged in
proximity to the front wall, its distance from the
re?ecting surface is greatest, the position which
opening 3 of the small re?ector '2 is so limited 10 the re?ecting surface assumes and the angle of
the re?ected beam is such that a good concentra
that it will just cover the lamp reflector 4, as is
tion" is obtained near the lens and the efficiency
indicated by the light rays (1, b, c,'d, of which the
?rst and the last mentioned ray represent the
two rays which are farthest apart. These rays
fall on the two ends k, l of the re?ecting surface
4, the end It being coincident with the horizontal
plane Iil—lil whose inner portion is within the
body shell and coincident with the top of the
front wall opening 6. Assuming that the lamp
of the lamp is therefore high.
It is, however, clear that specific other purposes
will call for variations in the arrangement de
scribed which will still be within the scope of the
I claim:
1. In a beam projecting lamp of the type speci
re?ector surface It is formed in cross section by 20 ?ed and adapted to produce a light beam directed
the segment of a circle having its ‘center at 0
and con?ned to one side of and limited by the
plane of ‘a predetermined bordering surface, a
then the lines pl, p2, 103, M will be lines which
are perpendicular to the re?ecting surface within
closed lamp casing having a front ‘wall, the inner
the plane of the cross section and which con
‘ surface‘ of which is light absorbent and non
verged at the point 0 and thus determine the . re?ective and provided with an opening for the
angle of re?ection within this plane.
The re
emission of the beam, a source of light within the
casing, located at a lower corner thereof and ad
lines c, J‘, g, h, whose inclination towards pl, p2,
jacent the lower edge of the front wall, a small
p3, p4, represents the angle of re?ection which
re?ector surrounding said source of light in close
is equal to the angle of incidence represented by so proximity thereto and directing the light rays
?ected rays will, therefore, be represented by the
_' the above mentioned lines and the lines a, b, c, d.
therefrom through a restricted opening in said
If the lower limitof the re?ecting surface at k
re?ector, a curvilinear re?ecting surface within
said casing, located on an upper rear portion of
the casing and formed from a radius point within
is arranged within the same plane which passes
the highest point of the opening 6 or the upper
edge of the lens 8 ?lling said opening and which 35 the casing located adjacent the lower front wall
forms the limiting surface in the horizontal plane
portion and between the source of light and the
lil—l{l then it is impossible that any light ray,
beam opening of the front wall, the upper edge
be it even a ray due to stray re?ection, may issue
in a direction which is upwardly inclined with
of the re?ector terminating at an upper forward
surface is a spherical segment which is limited
by the plane lt-I? as shown. As a consequence
effectively below and lengthwise of the aforesaid
plane which is coincident with the top boundary
of this arrangement the exit opening 6 must be
semi-circular, as shown in Figure 2", with the
straight edge 9 forming the upper limit of the
of the beam opening.
corner of the casing and contiguous to the upper
respect to the said plane Ill-I0. A perfectly and 40 edge of the front wall and its lower edge termi
sharply de?ned limiting surface is thus obtained.
nating substantially coincident with a transverse
The above described effect is attained by having
plane which is coincident itself with the top
the radius point 0 located between the source of
boundary of the beam opening of the front wall,
light I and the front well opening 6 and adjacent
the lower remaining portion of the casing between
a part of the intermediate wall.
said re?ecting portion and the source of light
When considering the entire lamp and not only
having its inner face made light absorbent and
its cross section it will be clear that conditions
non-re?ective, whereby a beam is projected from
will be the same everywhere, when the re?ecting
the beam opening of the front wall and confined
opening. Through this edge the plane Ill-l9 is
The angle between the rays 6’ and h’ which are
the two rays farthest apart issuing from the exit
2. A beam projecting lamp as set forth in claim
1, wherein the beam opening in the front Wall of
the casing is covered by a lens of a form adapted
. to diverge the projected beam in substantial elon- '
gation with its top boundary surface ?attened
and approximately in the aforesaid transverse
plane which is coincident with the topboundary
opening 6 and which is, therefore, the angle oc
cupied by the pencil of rays may be varied ac
of the beam opening of the front Wall of the cas
cording to the effect which is desired and which 60 ing and the remaining circumferential boundary
is, of course, dependent on the use to which the
of the beam being de?nitely controlled and .re
arrangement is to be put.
stricted below said top boundary of the beam;
It has been found expedient in constructions
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