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Патент USA US2407832

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Sept» 17, 1946-'
lA. N. GUs‘rAvsoN
2,407,831
VOTING MACHINE
Filed Deo'. 24, 1942
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Sept. 17, 1946.
,Q_ N_ GUSTAV5ON
2,4079831
VOTING MACHINE
Filed Dec. 24, 1942
V
5_ Sheets-Sheet 2
Sept. 17, 1946.
A. N. G_USTAVSQN
'
2,407,831
VOTING MACHINE
Filed Dec. 24, 1942
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3 Sheets-5h86?Í 3
2,407,831
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,831
VOTING MACHINE
Alvin N. Gustavson, Bemus Point, N. Y., assigner
to Automatic Voting> Machine Corporation,
Jamestown, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application December 24, 1942, Serial No. 470,046
4 Claims. (Cl. 235-54)
2
1
means by which a voter, with an alternative vot
This invention relates to an improvement in
voting machines Vand more particularly to a
structure by which to adapt a voting machine to
control certain kinds of voting such for example
as cumulative voting for general assembly.
In its present form the invention comprises a
mechanism that is adapted to be mounted as a
ing privilege, automatically restricts himself to
the selected privilege.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will be more fully understood from a considera
tion of the following specification when taken in
conjunction with the accompanying drawings,
and in which
unit in a voting machine and may be removed or
left as a permanent part of the voting machine
as found necessary. A voting machine to which
Figure 1 is a front elevational View of a portion
of the keyboard of a voting machine that is ar
ranged for voting on candidates for representa
the invention is particularly adaptable includes
a multiplicity of indicator operable interlocking
straps. Any desired group of these straps may
be connected with and controlled by the mech
tives in general assembly;
Figure 2 is a fragmentary view from the rear
of a voting machine showing the conventional
anism of the unit for the purpose of both' en
interlocking straps and main grouping channel;
abling and requiring a voter to ballot in accord
ance with given voting laws.
through the main grouping channel, parts being
In certain areas provision is made for cumu
lative voting such as voting for representatives
compensatcrs.
Figure 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view
broken away to show both ñxed and adjustable
Figure 4 is an enlarged view showing the cumu
lative mechanism attached to the main grouping
in general assembly. The voter, by law, is given
three votes with respect to the candidates for
representatives to general assembly and may dis
channel;
one and a single vote for another or one for each
of three candidates. Provision is also made for
a voter to split his ticket and cast one or two
votes for a candidate or candidates in another
party.
The election law further provides that
a voter may split his three votes for two candi
.
mechanism,- the adjustable compensator being
sires among the candidates of his own party or
among the candidates of his own and other
parties. That is, he may cast all three votes for
a single candidate in his own party, two votes for
.
Figure 5 is a perspective view of the cumulative
tribute these three votes in any manner he de
indicated in dotted lines;
.Figure 6 is a perspective view of an adjustable
'
compensator;
‘
Figure '7 is a fragmentary perspective View of
the vcumulative mechanism, showing the con
nection of the'mechanism with the interlocking
straps through the use of grouping straps;
Figure 8 is a rear elevational view of the mech'
anism with parts in the position assumed when
dates by voting one and one-half votes for each
a voter has indicated a one and one-half vote
of the two selected.
preference for a single candidate;
In the patent to A. N. Gustavson, No. 2,217,980,
dated October 15, 1940, there is shown a device
for cumulative voting which, while capable of
controlling such voting, nevertheless requires the
’
Figure 9 is a vertical sectional view showing the
position of the parts of the cumulative mecha
nisrn being taken substantially as suggested by
the line 9-9 of Figure 8;
Figure 10 is a further rear elevational view of
appearance of each candidate’s name in four 40
the mechanism, the parts thereof assuming this
places on the ballot label. In certain election
position when a single vote h'as been cast for a
districts this has been considered as being highly
candidate; and
confusing to a voter and has in some instances
Figure 11 is a vertical sectional view of the
resulted in voters failing to cast votes in a man
ner intended. The present invention not only un Ul mechanism and straps, being taken substantially
as suggested at line ll-I l of Figure l0.
makes possible voting in the manner set out
Referring particularly to the drawings, the rei
above but also eliminates the necessity for multi
erence numeral I0 is employed to generally des
ple appearance of each candidate’s name on the
ignate a portion of a voting machine keyboard.
ballot label and this therefore constitutes one of
50 This keyboard is of standard structure and is
the objects of the invention;
shown with several rows of horizontal indicators.
Another object of the invention is to provide
Each indicator Il, through a mechanism well
automatically operable means for controlling the
known in the art, is capable of registering a vote
voting within a single group in the main grouping
on a suitable counter subsequent'J to being moved
or interlocking channel.
from a generally horizontal position to a down
A further object of the invention is to provide
2,407,831
3
wardly directed position with one end of the indi
4
nine compensators 24 into the grouping channel.
cator overlying a part of the ballot label I2, a
Each compensator takes up a space equal to the
sing‘e indicator being so positioned in Figure l
enlarged portion I1 of one strap. Provision must
to illustrate this position. In Fig, 1 the voting
additionally be made in the grouping channel for
machine is shown set up for one major and two Cr limiting to two the number of straps that may be
minor political parties, this illustration being for
raised in the event a voter chooses to split his
the sole purpose of disclosing the applicability of
the present invention to multiple cumulative vot
ing. ln general the major party, due to its re
spective strength, has more candidates for repre
sentatives >togeneral assembly than the minor
parties and thus the major party X shows candi
dates A, B and C, whereas the minor parties Y
and Z show respectively two candida-tes` and one
candidate. It will be noted that> each candidate’s
name appears only once but embraces four of the
indicators II. Also there is a number one be
neath each of three of the indicators Il and a
number one and one-half under the correspond
ing fourth indicator for each candidate. With
this arrangement, a votor has the privilege of
moving into voted position, three single indicators
for any one of the candidates or may make any
division of these three, such` as for three separate
candidates or two for one and one for another.
If the voter prefers to cast his total of three votes
for only two candidates, he may manipulate the
vote to one and one-half for each of two candi
dates.
An additional compensator, movable as
required into and out of operating position with
respect to the grouping channel is provided, the
operation of which is set forth in connection with
the description of the cumulative mechanism.
The cumulative mechanism by which a voter
can cast three votes for representatives in general
assembly is generally indicated by the reference
numeral 26. The mechanism includes an upright
portion 21, the lower edge of which is formed
with a »base or mounting Vflange 28 that termi
nates short of the ends of the portion 21. At the
ends are horizontal ilanges 29 which terminate
in laterally spaced upstanding lugs 3l and 32.
The lugs serve not only to engage the under edge
of one of the grouping channel plates I9 but to
properly space the mechanism with respect to
said channel. Suitable spacing studs 33 on the
portion 21 abut the channel plate IB and also
serve as a means of properly spacing the mecha
indicator II appearing over the numeral one and
nism. Elements such as the struckout ilanges 34
one-half in the ballot label of the preferred candi
provide pivota1 support for hooks 36 which, in
date and another indicator in a corresponding
the present showing, project through openings
position for another preferred candidate.
31 formed by the struckout ñanges 34. One end
As is well known, each of the indicators in a
of each hook is pivotally joined to a clamping
voting machine of the type disclosed is connected
screw 38 that projects through a support 39 on
with and serves to actuate an interlocking strap.
the portion 21. The upper end of the screw is
All such straps except for length are substan
\ threaded to receive a nut 4I. When the mecha
tially identical and designated by the numeral I3.
nism is mounted as shown in the drawings, rota
If the voting machine is of 'a size to provide nine
tion of nuts 4i tilts hooks 36 downwardly caus
horizontal or party rows then there will be nine
ing them to engage the lower edges of openings
straps I 3, in close proximity and representing one
42 formed in the outermost plate I9 of the group
vertical row of indicators. Each of "these straps, 40 ing channel.
adjacent its lower end, is formed with a ledge or
A pair of end ilanges 43 serve as a support for
shoulder I4, and the lower end of the strap is
a pair of parallel shafts 44 and 46. These shafts
formed with a neck I6k which terminates in an
preferably extend the full length of the mecha
enlarged portion I1; The neck and enlarged por~
nism and for convenience of assembly may be
tion I6 and I1 project into a main grouping
squaredsubstantially as shown. Mounted on the
channel I3 which forms a. conventional part of
upper shaft 44 between the supporting franges 43
the voting machine and includes a pair of spaced
are arms 41. Pairs of these arms are connected
apart plates I9, having inwardly opening chan
by rods 48. Each rod has several reduced diam
nels 2I. These channels receive the enlarged
eter areas 49 for a purpose hereinafter brought
ends of rollers 22. For convenience the space
out». An additional arm 5I is mounted on the
between each pair of rollers accommodates the 50 shaft 44» and one of the rods 48 projects there
neck portions I6 of two of the straps I3, the en
through. This last mentioned arm is formed
larged portions I1 being oifset in opposite direc
with an opening 52 through which the iinger 53
tions. When one of the indicators I I on the face
of a cam arm 54 is engaged. Armsl 41 and 5I
of the machine is manipulated, the correspond
rotate as one with shaft 44.
ing strap I3 is raised. causing the enlarged por
tion I1 thereof to move upwardly between and
laterally spread apart the rollers. To control the
number of straps that may -be raised in'this man
ner, grouping pins 23 and compensator 24 are
provided. The grouping pins serve to generally
limit the lateral movability of rollers 22.whereas
the compensator provides additional> limitations
to the movability of the rollers and of course thus
controls the number of wedge portions I1 of straps
I3 that may be moved between these` rollers with
in a group of any given size.
In the present illustration of the invention, two
grouping pins 23 are positioned to take in twelve
vertical rows of indicators. In such a group the
rollers are normally` of such size and number as
would permit only twelve of the straps I3 to be
raised. However, the major politica] party has
only three candidates and therefore this group
must be additionally limited by the insertion of
The lower shaft 45 is fitted with arms 55 which
are also arranged in pairs, each pair being con
nected by a rod 58, having at least one reduced
diameter area 59. One of theI arms 56 is formed
with an opening 6I through which the finger 62
of a further cam arm 63 projects. The cam arms
54 and 63 are preferably mounted at opposite ends
of the portion 21 and disposed for vertical pivotal
movement about studs 64. Mounted o-n the por
tion 21 are links 66 and 61. One end of each link
is supported for pivotal movement on a stud 63.
The other end of each of these links is ñtted with
a pin 69 which projects through a suitable slot
1l in the portion 21. Between the arms 54 and
63, the portion 21 also supports a sliding link 12,
movement thereof being limited by a pin and slot
structure 13 and 14. Inclined surfaces 1S on the
lower corners of the link 12 are engageable by
pins 69 of the links 36. The arms 54 and 63 are
also provided with inclined surfaces 11, these sur
2,407,831
5
faces under certain circumstances of operation
of the mechanism being engaged by pins 69.
As shown in the Gustavson patent referred to
above, the cumulative mechanism is connected
with the interlocking straps I3 through the use
of grouping straps 'I8 which at one end have
spaced- parts connected by a lug 19. The parts
continue parallel for a short distance and then
bend inwardly, being joined to form a connect-l
ing link 8i, the lower end of which terminates 10
6
ments` and rest upon the grouping channel.
Thus, when arms 56 are rotated, compensator 86
moves upwardly into position between a pair of
rollers and the grouping channel and the voter
has been caused, by casting one vote, to use up
two-thirds of the available space as limited by
the heretofore mentioned grouping pins and iixed
compensator. He can therefore move only one
more indicator of the one and one-half type into
voted position.
Due to arrangement of links 6B and 12, and the
cam arms 54 and 63, it is possible for a voter in
the midst of his selection to change from one
type to the other, that is, he may have started
rows of indicators on the voting machine. The 15 voting in a group where he is entitled to cast one,
two or three votes for one to three candidates,
hook 82 oi each of such group of straps is en
and prefer to 'select only two candidates and cast
gaged with one of the areas 49 or 59 of the rods 48
two votes. By returning the first actuated indi
or 58, and the lug 'I9 rests upon the conventional
cators to inoperative position, he may actuate
ledges or shoulders I4 of the interlocking
20 the one and one-half vote indicators and the
straps I3.
cumulative mechanism will shift from the show
Having described the structure of the mecha
in a hook 82. The straps 'i8 are of a size to en
close a vertical group of interlocking straps I3,
this group, as heretofore brought out, being of a
size corresponding to the number of horizontal
ing in Figure 10 to that of Figure 8.
By means of the present structure, it is pos
sible to adapt the main grouping channel not
tion is set forth. It is assumed that a voter be
longing to one of the parties such as X, is about 25 only for cumulative voting but for any other
type of alternative voting through the provision
to vote and in that part of the voting machine
nism andits connection through the interlocking
straps with the voting indicators II, the opera
of the lockout group feature together with an
set aside for cumulative voting, he has a choice
automatically operable compensator.
of three candidates A, B and C. As already set
Although applicant has shown and described
forth, the law sanctions this voter casting three
ballots in any combination he may see ñt. If he 30 only one mechanism and arrangement for the
control of group voting and particularly for the
desires to cast one, two or three ballots for any of
control of cumulative voting for representatives
the three candidates in the party row X, he
in general assembly, it will be apparent that
moves the corresponding indicators il into voted
variations of the structure may be made and are
position. On the movement of the iirst indicator
contemplated in so far as such variations are in
a corresponding interlocking strap I3 is raised
the
spirit and scope of the annexed claims.
and through the group strap 'I8 and hook 82 rod
Having thus set forth my invention what I
48 is elevated. This movement of rod 48 causes
claim as new and for which I desire protection
arm 54 to swing upwardly, incline surface 'I'I
by Letters Patent is:
thereof contacting pin 69 and swinging link 61
1. In a voting machine, a plurality of inter
toward the left, as viewed in Figure l0, sliding 40
locking straps, an interlock common to all of
link ‘I2 so that it will contact pin 59 of the other
said straps and including means for limiting to
link 65 rotating said other link in a manner to
a predetermined maximum the number of straps
secure arm B3 in lowered position. It is of course
that may be actuatedfpivotally movable mem
understood that grouping pins 23 and compen
bers, means engaged with and segregating said
sators 24, provide that only a maximum of three 45
straps rinto a plurality of groups, said means
serving to connect said groups with said mem
bers, other means connecting said members, said
vote a one, two or three distribution, it is imma
other means being operable by any of said mem
terial whether he indicates a second or third
vote but he cannot indicate a vote in the amount 50 bers to render another member and any straps
connected thereto inoperative, and an adjustable
of one and one-half under these circumstances.
compensator
for said interlock, said compensator
This is due to the fact that the one and one-half
being connected lwith one of said members and
vote indicators for the candidates are connected
movable thereby to decrease the maximum num- _
with rods 58. Since these rods are mounted on a
ber of straps that may be actuated.
55
common shaft 46 and are held in lowered posi
2. In a voting machine, a plurality of inter
tion by the secured arm 63, none of the one and
locking straps, an interlock common to all of
one-half vote straps may be raised.
said straps having grouping pins and compen
If avoter, however, prefers to cast his three votes
sators for limiting to a predetermined maximum
for two candidates, then he moves one of the
the number of straps that may be actuated, piv
one and one-half Vote indicators into operative
otally movable members, means engaged with
position and such movement elevates all of the
and segregating said straps into a plurality of
rods 58 together with arm 63. Links 66 and 'I2
groups, said means serving to connect said
together with arm 54 now assume the position
-groups with said members, means connecting
shown in Figure 8. Under these circumstances
said members in a manner to permit operation
65
it is clear that arm 54 is secured against move
of only one of `said members at a time, an ad
ment and thus all of the single vote straps joined
justable compensator for said interlock, said
with rods 48 are prevented movement into voted
compensator being connected with and movable
position. With this selection a voter should only
by one of said members to further limit the max
actuate two indicators and not three as he was
imum number of strap-s that may be actuated.
entitled to actuate under his other selection in
3. In a voting machine, a plurality of inter
voting. One of the arms 56 has an extension 83
locking straps, an interlock common to all of
and a pin 84 that provides support for the hooked
said straps having grouping pins and compen
end 85 of an adjustable compensator 86. Suit
sators for limiting to a predetermined maximum
able guides B1 for the compensator 86 may be pro
vided and in the present disclosure are split ele 75 the number of straps that may be actuated, a
straps I3 and their corresponding indicators II
may be actuated.
Since the voter has chosen to
7
2,407,831
pair of pivotally movable members, hook-like
elements engaged with and segregating said
straps into a plurality of groups, said elements
serving to connect said groups with said mem
bers, means connecting said members in a man
ner to render either of said members inoperative,
and the straps connected therewith, upon oper-v
ation of the other of said members, an adjustable
8
a predetermined maximum the number of straps
that may be actuated, pivotally movable mem»
bers, means engaged with and segregating said
straps into a plurality of groups, said means serv
ing to connect said groups with said members,
other means connecting said members, said other
means being operable by any one of said members
to render another member and any straps con~
compensator for said interlock, said compen
nected thereto inoperative, and further means
sator being connected with and movable by one 10 actuated by operation of one of said members.
of said members to change the capacity of said
said further means being operable on said inter
interlock to control actuation of the straps.
lock to change its capacity to control actuation
4. In a voting machine, a plurality of inter~
of the straps from said predetermined maximum
locking straps, an interlock common to all oi"
number.
said straps and including means for limiting to 15
ALVIN N. GUSTAVSON.
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