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Sept. 17, 1946. 2,407,852 A. M. 0. SMITH ' REACTION MOTOR Filed July 17 2v sheets-sheet 1 mmv 9. av, ‘IH.! ‘ i ‘ nm \ rm1‘ 1%“kIn. . .||.| 3m .50m \. mm2. % \ m.5.6,. 9.‘a v tow m¢. . mm L.\\\\\/, I»/>. m \ ,w . mm .,J , ‘av/l.» O A / / HMm#6 .1Wmn.“ V .‘ . w H _ Sept-17,1946. _ A. M. 0. 5mm / ‘ 2,407,852 " REACTION MOTOR ' Filed July 17, 1943 2 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2‘ APQLLOI mo‘. SMITH INVENTOR. ', -_ I Patented Sept. 17, 1946 2,407,852 ‘UNITED’, STATES PATENT OFFICE _ ' _ , in 2,407,852 a I i REACTION MOTOR Apollo M. 0. Smith, Bell, ‘Calif, assignor to Aerojet Engineering Corporation, Azusa, (Jali?, a corporation of Delaware 1 Application July 17, 1943, Serial No. 495,198 3 Claims. (Cl. Bile-35.6) My invention pertains to jet propulsion and more particularly to the application of jet PTO pulsion systems utilizing liquid propellants to air planes or other heavier-than-air craft. ‘ Jet propulsion systems for aircraft have here tofore been proposed in which tanks of liquid propellant fuel have been used for supplying the combustion ‘chambers of the jet motors. For example, separate tanks of liquid fuel and oxi 2 tion of a rotatable element in the preferred form of my invention; and ‘ , Fig‘. 4 is a schematic diagram of an airplane utilizing two of my jet propulsion motors. In the jet propulsion system, illustrated in Fig. 1 I have shown one preferred form of jet motor 5 of the type incorporating my invention. The jet motor includes a combustion chamber 1 and a pair of converging-diverging nozzles 9 and II dizer have been provided, and a high pressure 10 providing communication between the interior of has been supplied from a ‘separate pressure the combustion chamber and the surrounding source, such as a‘high pressure inert gas tank to force these liquids into the‘motors against the medium. This jet motor is mounted upon a ro tatable shaft l3 having an axis A—A extending pressure developed in the motors. Such systems ‘ in the direction in which it is desired to produce have involved installationsof considerable weight, 15 a thrust reaction for driving an airplane or other inasmuch as the tanks must i be built heavy enough to withstand the pressure. Furthermore the weight requirements have greatly limited the permissible size of the tanks‘in the aircraft. It is desirable to make the tanks of as light a construction as possible in order that they may be built larger to hold more fuel and thus operate the motors longer. I have ‘accomplished this lightening of the constructionin accordance with‘ my invention by removing the high pressure from the propellant liquid tanks and developing the vehicle upon which the jet motor is mounted. Thrust is produced on the motor when combus tion gases or other fluid escape through the nozzles. ' The axes of the nozzles are displaced from the shaft axis ‘and are inclined slightly with respect thereto. Both nozzles are directed in a generally rearward direction normal to the line [5 joining their centers‘and are inclined at a small angle in opposite directions from the plane passing through the shaft axis A-A and said line [5; The nozzles are preferably of the same size and shape correlated withthe jet motors; and these pumps and are inclined at the same small angle. Thus are used to develop the necessary pressure. this motor is symmetrical about the shaft axis The possibility of using pumps‘ for pumping 30 A-A. pressure instead by a small light pumping system propellants to a jet motor has heretofore been in herently di?icult as jet motors bytheir veryvna ture have not lent themselves to driving pumping operations. In ‘accordance with a feature of my As products of combustion are expelled through said nozzles a reactive thrust T, Fig. 2, is pro duced on the jet motor along the axis of each nozzle. This thrust has a large axial component invention I have overcome , thisprevious diffi X and a small tangential component Y, the axial culty by mounting the combustion chamber of component X being parallel to the shaft aXis the motor‘ for rotation and providing-the exhaust A-—A and the tangential component Y being in a jets from the chamberat such an angle as to ro direction tangent to a circle passing through the tate the chamber at the same time that‘the de centers of the nozzles in a plane perpendicular sired reaction thrust from the jets is being deliv 40 to ‘the shaft axis A—A. The tangential compo ered. ‘The rotation of thefch'amber is used to nent (Y) of thrust is greater than the loss of drive the pumps which pump the propellants into the chamber. , thrust (T—-X) in an axial direction as: long as I have - the angle of inclination a is less than 45°. The foregoing and other features of the inven found that suf?cient torque for driving propel tion will be better understood from the following 45 lant transfer pumps may be obtained if the angle detailed description and the accompanying draw of inclination is so small, say less than about 15°, ings of which: ' " that the resultant diminution of axial thrust is only a few percent. Fig. 1‘ is an isometric view, partly in section and partly schematic, of a jet propulsion system The tangential components of‘thrust Y’ and incorporating my invention; ‘ 50 Y” produced by ?uids escaping from the two Fig. 2‘ is avector diagram used to explain the nozzles 9 and II respectively extend in opposite relationship between " the axial and tangential directions in the plane of said circle and tend to components of thrust; ‘ I _‘ rotate the jet motor in the same direction about Fig. 3 is a diagram ‘used in explaining how the the axis of the shaft, as illustrated in Fig. 3. tangential components of thrust produce rota " Each of these'components of thrust preferably 2,407,852 5 From the foregoing description it will be clear that I have provided a lightweight, compact jet propulsion system which is self-sustaining once channel and the chamber, means for supplying ?uids which are combustible in the presence of each other, into said channels, one of the ?uids being supplied to one channel and the‘ other ?uid to the other channel, whereby the two its operation is initiated and which may operate for a long period of time. I claim: propellant ?uids passing through their respective 1. A rotating jet motor comprising: a combus ori?ces meet in said chamber, and a plurality of exhaust nozzles extending through the chamber’ tion chamber, a rotatable shaft having its rear to allow the escape of gases resulting from com end attached to- the chamber at a central posi tion of the latter, the axis of rotation passing 10 bustion of the propellant ?uids from the cham ber in the form of high velocity gas jets, the axes through the chamber, a plurality of exhaust of gas ?ow through said nozzles being radially nozzles through the rear wall of the chamber, r offset from the axis of rotation and directed dially offset from the axis of rotation, to allow rearwardly almost parallel to the axis of rota~ the escape of gases from the chamber in the form of high velocity gas jets, the axes of gas 15 tion to produce axial thrust but having anangle of inclination in the tangential direction to pro ?ow through said nozzles being directed rear duce a rotating force. wardly almost in the direction of the axis of ro 3. A rotating jet motor comprising a rotatable tation but having an angle of inclination in the ' shaft, a combustion chamber ?xed on the end tangential direction to produce a rotating force, said shaft having a plurality of ?uid conducting 20 of said shaft and arranged so that the axis of rotation passes centrally through the chamber, channels extending in the axial direction, means a ?rst channel for ?uid ?ow extending axially for supplying ?uids which are combustible in the along the shaft, a ?rst set of injection ori?ces presence of each other, into said channels, one of providing communication. from the channel into the ?uids being supplied to one channel and the the chamber, a second ?uid flow channel extend other ?uid to the other channel, means provid ing axially along the shaft, a second set of in ing communication from each channel into the jection ori?ces providing communication between chamber, said means comprising partition means the second channel and the chamber, means for between each channel and the chamber and ori supplying ?uids which are combustible in the ?ce means through the partition means to the presence of each other, one of said ?uids being chamber, whereby the two propellant ?uids pass supplied to one channel and the other ?uid to ing through said ori?ces meet in said chamber, the other channel, means providing communi and upon combustion produce gases under pres cation from each channel into the chamber, said sure which are ejected through the nozzles. means comprising partition means between each 2. A rotating jet motor comprising a combus channel and the chamber and ori?ce means tion chamber, a rotatable shaft having its rear through the partition means to the chamber, end attached to the chamber at a central posi whereby the two ?uids meet in said chamber and tion of the latter, the axis of rotation passing when combusted produce gases under high pres through the chamber, a channel for ?uid ?ow sure, an exhaust nozzle from said chamber to extending axially through the shaft, means pro 40 allow the escape of gas from the chamber in the viding communication from the rear end of the form of a high velocity jet, said nozzle being lo channel into the chamber, said means compris cated at some radial ,distance from the axis of ing a partition containing ?uid injection ori?ces rotation, the axis of gas ?ow through the noz between the rear end of the channel and the zle being directed rearwardly nearly parallel to chamber, a second ?uid ?ow channel attached to the axis of rotation to produce axial thrust and the shaft and extending axially along the shaft, having an angle of inclination in the direction means providing communication from the sec tangential to the rotation of the chamber to pro ond channel into the combustion chamber, said duce a rotating force. last-named means comprising a partition pro vided with injection ori?ces between the second ,APOLLO M. 0. SMITH.