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Патент USA US2407853

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Sept. 17, 1946.
2,407,852
A. M. 0. SMITH
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REACTION MOTOR
Filed July 17
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2,407,852
" REACTION MOTOR '
Filed July 17, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet‘ 2‘
APQLLOI mo‘. SMITH
INVENTOR.
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Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,852
‘UNITED’, STATES PATENT OFFICE
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2,407,852
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REACTION MOTOR
Apollo M. 0. Smith, Bell, ‘Calif, assignor to
Aerojet Engineering Corporation, Azusa, (Jali?,
a corporation of Delaware
1
Application July 17, 1943, Serial No. 495,198
3 Claims. (Cl. Bile-35.6)
My invention pertains to jet propulsion and
more particularly to the application of jet PTO
pulsion systems utilizing liquid propellants to air
planes or other heavier-than-air craft.
‘
Jet propulsion systems for aircraft have here
tofore been proposed in which tanks of liquid
propellant fuel have been used for supplying the
combustion ‘chambers of the jet motors. For
example, separate tanks of liquid fuel and oxi
2
tion of a rotatable element in the preferred form
of my invention; and
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,
Fig‘. 4 is a schematic diagram of an airplane
utilizing two of my jet propulsion motors.
In the jet propulsion system, illustrated in Fig.
1 I have shown one preferred form of jet motor
5 of the type incorporating my invention. The
jet motor includes a combustion chamber 1 and
a pair of converging-diverging nozzles 9 and II
dizer have been provided, and a high pressure 10 providing communication between the interior of
has been supplied from a ‘separate pressure
the combustion chamber and the surrounding
source, such as a‘high pressure inert gas tank to
force these liquids into the‘motors against the
medium. This jet motor is mounted upon a ro
tatable shaft l3 having an axis A—A extending
pressure developed in the motors. Such systems ‘ in the direction in which it is desired to produce
have involved installationsof considerable weight, 15 a thrust reaction for driving an airplane or other
inasmuch as the tanks must i be built heavy
enough to withstand the pressure. Furthermore
the weight requirements have greatly limited the
permissible size of the tanks‘in the aircraft.
It is desirable to make the tanks of as light a
construction as possible in order that they may
be built larger to hold more fuel and thus operate
the motors longer. I have ‘accomplished this
lightening of the constructionin accordance with‘
my invention by removing the high pressure from
the propellant liquid tanks and developing the
vehicle upon which the jet motor is mounted.
Thrust is produced on the motor when combus
tion gases or other fluid escape through the
nozzles.
'
The axes of the nozzles are displaced from the
shaft axis ‘and are inclined slightly with respect
thereto. Both nozzles are directed in a generally
rearward direction normal to the line [5 joining
their centers‘and are inclined at a small angle in
opposite directions from the plane passing
through the shaft axis A-A and said line [5; The
nozzles are preferably of the same size and shape
correlated withthe jet motors; and these pumps
and are inclined at the same small angle. Thus
are used to develop the necessary pressure.
this motor is symmetrical about the shaft axis
The possibility of using pumps‘ for pumping 30 A-A.
pressure instead by a small light pumping system
propellants to a jet motor has heretofore been in
herently di?icult as jet motors bytheir veryvna
ture have not lent themselves to driving pumping
operations. In ‘accordance with a feature of my
As products of combustion are expelled through
said nozzles a reactive thrust T, Fig. 2, is pro
duced on the jet motor along the axis of each
nozzle. This thrust has a large axial component
invention I have overcome , thisprevious diffi
X and a small tangential component Y, the axial
culty by mounting the combustion chamber of
component X being parallel to the shaft aXis
the motor‘ for rotation and providing-the exhaust
A-—A and the tangential component Y being in a
jets from the chamberat such an angle as to ro
direction tangent to a circle passing through the
tate the chamber at the same time that‘the de
centers of the nozzles in a plane perpendicular
sired reaction thrust from the jets is being deliv 40 to ‘the shaft axis A—A. The tangential compo
ered. ‘The rotation of thefch'amber is used to
nent (Y) of thrust is greater than the loss of
drive the pumps which pump the propellants into
the chamber.
,
thrust (T—-X) in an axial direction as: long as
I have
- the angle of inclination a is less than 45°.
The foregoing and other features of the inven
found that suf?cient torque for driving propel
tion will be better understood from the following 45 lant transfer pumps may be obtained if the angle
detailed description and the accompanying draw
of inclination is so small, say less than about 15°,
ings of which:
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that the resultant diminution of axial thrust is
only a few percent.
Fig. 1‘ is an isometric view, partly in section
and partly schematic, of a jet propulsion system
The tangential components of‘thrust Y’ and
incorporating my invention;
‘
50 Y” produced by ?uids escaping from the two
Fig. 2‘ is avector diagram used to explain the
nozzles 9 and II respectively extend in opposite
relationship between " the axial and tangential
directions in the plane of said circle and tend to
components of thrust;
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rotate the jet motor in the same direction about
Fig. 3 is a diagram ‘used in explaining how the
the axis of the shaft, as illustrated in Fig. 3.
tangential components of thrust produce rota " Each of these'components of thrust preferably
2,407,852
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From the foregoing description it will be clear
that I have provided a lightweight, compact jet
propulsion system which is self-sustaining once
channel and the chamber, means for supplying
?uids which are combustible in the presence of
each other, into said channels, one of the ?uids
being supplied to one channel and the‘ other
?uid to the other channel, whereby the two
its operation is initiated and which may operate
for a long period of time.
I claim:
propellant ?uids passing through their respective
1. A rotating jet motor comprising: a combus
ori?ces meet in said chamber, and a plurality of
exhaust nozzles extending through the chamber’
tion chamber, a rotatable shaft having its rear
to allow the escape of gases resulting from com
end attached to- the chamber at a central posi
tion of the latter, the axis of rotation passing 10 bustion of the propellant ?uids from the cham
ber in the form of high velocity gas jets, the axes
through the chamber, a plurality of exhaust
of gas ?ow through said nozzles being radially
nozzles through the rear wall of the chamber, r offset from the axis of rotation and directed
dially offset from the axis of rotation, to allow
rearwardly almost parallel to the axis of rota~
the escape of gases from the chamber in the
form of high velocity gas jets, the axes of gas 15 tion to produce axial thrust but having anangle
of inclination in the tangential direction to pro
?ow through said nozzles being directed rear
duce a rotating force.
wardly almost in the direction of the axis of ro
3. A rotating jet motor comprising a rotatable
tation but having an angle of inclination in the '
shaft, a combustion chamber ?xed on the end
tangential direction to produce a rotating force,
said shaft having a plurality of ?uid conducting 20 of said shaft and arranged so that the axis of
rotation passes centrally through the chamber,
channels extending in the axial direction, means
a ?rst channel for ?uid ?ow extending axially
for supplying ?uids which are combustible in the
along the shaft, a ?rst set of injection ori?ces
presence of each other, into said channels, one of
providing communication. from the channel into
the ?uids being supplied to one channel and the
the chamber, a second ?uid flow channel extend
other ?uid to the other channel, means provid
ing axially along the shaft, a second set of in
ing communication from each channel into the
jection ori?ces providing communication between
chamber, said means comprising partition means
the second channel and the chamber, means for
between each channel and the chamber and ori
supplying ?uids which are combustible in the
?ce means through the partition means to the
presence of each other, one of said ?uids being
chamber, whereby the two propellant ?uids pass
supplied to one channel and the other ?uid to
ing through said ori?ces meet in said chamber,
the other channel, means providing communi
and upon combustion produce gases under pres
cation
from each channel into the chamber, said
sure which are ejected through the nozzles.
means comprising partition means between each
2. A rotating jet motor comprising a combus
channel and the chamber and ori?ce means
tion chamber, a rotatable shaft having its rear
through the partition means to the chamber,
end attached to the chamber at a central posi
whereby the two ?uids meet in said chamber and
tion of the latter, the axis of rotation passing
when combusted produce gases under high pres
through the chamber, a channel for ?uid ?ow
sure, an exhaust nozzle from said chamber to
extending axially through the shaft, means pro
40 allow the escape of gas from the chamber in the
viding communication from the rear end of the
form of a high velocity jet, said nozzle being lo
channel into the chamber, said means compris
cated at some radial ,distance from the axis of
ing a partition containing ?uid injection ori?ces
rotation, the axis of gas ?ow through the noz
between the rear end of the channel and the
zle being directed rearwardly nearly parallel to
chamber, a second ?uid ?ow channel attached to
the axis of rotation to produce axial thrust and
the shaft and extending axially along the shaft,
having an angle of inclination in the direction
means providing communication from the sec
tangential to the rotation of the chamber to pro
ond channel into the combustion chamber, said
duce a rotating force.
last-named means comprising a partition pro
vided with injection ori?ces between the second
,APOLLO M. 0. SMITH.
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