Патент USA US2407887код для вставки
Patented Sept. 17, 1946 2,407,882 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE'.` 2,407,882 GENERATOR ‘Villis S. Hutchinson, St. Paul, Minn., and Eric R. Woodward, New York, N. Y., assignors to The Mathieson Alkali Works, Inc., New York, N. Y., acorporation of Virginia Application May 27, 1944, Serial No. 537,752 5 Claims. (Cl. 23-281) 1 This invention relates generally to gas gen~ erators and more particularly to an improved gas generator especially adapted for use in the gen eration of explosive gases. It is, however, also applicable to the generation of non-explosive gases. 2 In our improved generator, this hazard is guard ed against by providing, contiguous to the reac tion chamber, an enlarged discharge chamber partitioned from the reaction chamber by a rela tively thin disc of metal, for instance silver, or a plastic material, of suñicient strength to With The invention provides means whereby the stand normal operating pressures but which, probability of disastrous results of an explosion should an explosion occur, will be ruptured and within the generator is avoided or substantially permit the contents of the reaction zone, includ minimized. ing chlorine and chlorine dioxide gases, to dis Our improved gas generator is particularly ap charge into the discharge chamber. plicable to the generation of chlorine dioxide by The port leading from the reaction chamber to the reaction of chlorine gas with a chlorite and the discharge chambensealed by said disc, is Will be described herein with particular reference with advantage of such cross-sectional areal that, to such operation. It Will be understood, how 15 upon rupture of the disc, free and substantially ever, that the utility of the invention is not lim unrestricted communication with the discharge ited to such use but that the invention in its chamber is established, so as to minimize back broader aspect is generally applicable to the gen pressures in the reaction chamber. eration of gases by the reaction of a gas or gase The discharge chamber is with advantage pro ous mixture with solids or liquids, especially with 20 vided with a gas vent, also of relatively large solids of relatively small particle size. cross-sectional area, leading off to the atmos In the United States Patent No. 2,309,457 there phere for the safe discharge of gases from the is described an improved process for generating discharge chamber. Advantageously, the dis chlorine dioxide which comprises passing chlo charge chamber is also provided With a drain rine gas, in admixture with air or other diluent through which the discharged salts may be flushed gas, in Contact with a solid chlorite, for instance with Water to a suitable place of disposal. sodium chloríte or calcium chlorite. By the care Likewise, in the event of explosion, there is ful control of the chlorine-air mixture passed to danger of salts within the reaction chamber being the reaction zone, effluent gases of safe chlorine blown through the effluent gas line into the dis 30 tribution system. In order to avoid the blowing dioxide concentrations may be obtained. A diiiiculty experienced in the generation and of these salts out through the distribution lines, handling of chlorine dioxide has been the ex-the effluent gas line may lead from the reaction plosion hazard. It is generally necessary, in order chamber to an enlarged expansion chamber to avoid explosion hazards, to generate and han wherein any solid particles entrained `by the efn dle chlorine dioxide in a rather high state of di fluent gases are separated therefrom by reason lution with air or some other inert gaseous me of the decreased velocity of the gases. dium. For instance, the handling of chlorine Our invention will be more fully described and dioxide in concentrations such that the partial specifically illustrated by reference to the 'ac pressure ci the chlorine dioxide is equal to about companying drawing which represents a vertical ’70 millimeters of mercury or higher is usually un» safe. Should the concentration be permitted to equal or exceed this amount, explosion is likely to occur. cross-sectional view of an especially advanta geous embodiment of our invention adapted to the generation of chlorine dioxide by reacting chlorine with a solid chlorite. Should the concentration of chlorine dioxide In the drawing, a reaction chamber I, formed generated in the reaction zone in an operation of 45 by a vertically elongated cylinder 2, is shown this type reach that at which an explosion re mounted on and extending upwardly from a rec sults, the heat of reaction is so great that the tangular base 3 which forms a discharge cham chlorite is rapidly converted to chlorate at a tem ber 4. The cylinder 2 and rectangular base 3, perature which is apt to be above the melting may, for instance, be constructed of iron or steel. point of the chlorate, i. e., 248° C. As this hot 50 However, where the apparatus is to be used with chlorate is an active oxidizing agent, it Wil1 set lire to any organic matter with which it may come in contact. It is therefore important, in the case of explosion, that this hot fused chlorate be con ñned. ` corrosive gases, such as chlorine and chlorine , dioxide, the parts exposed to the corrosive gases should be constructed of corrosion-resistant ma terials, for instance glass, stoneware or corrosion 55 resistant plastics or metals. 5 2,407,882 6 charge chamber is centrally positioned below the spaced from the lower end of the reaction cham ber, inlet 'means associated with the lower por tion of the reaction chamber below said support, reaction chamber. Though this arrangement has distinct advantages, the reaction chamber may be otherwise placed, for instance to the side of outlet means associated with the upper portion but below the reaction chamber, without depart Ul of the reaction chamber, a vented discharge ing from the scope of our present invention. chamber centrally positioned below the reaction Where the reaction chamber is to be charged chamber, and a gas-impervious disc intermediate with a reactant in the liquid form, the perforated the chambers sufficiently strong to withstand a support i3 may be omitted and a suitable head predetermined operating pressure in the reaction connected to the gas-inlet l5 used for dispersing 10 chamber ‘but rupturable at pressures exceeding the incoming gas uniformly through the liquid. such predetermined pressure to provide a pas Also, a pipe connection may -be provided at the sage-way between the chambers. lower end of chamber I for draining and recharg 4. A gas generator as claimed in claim 3 in ing the reaction chamber. which the passage-way between «the reaction We claim: chamber andthe discharge chamber, normally 1. A gas generator comprising a reaction cham closed by the rupturable disc, is of substantially ber, a vented discharge chamber below the re the same horizontal cross-sectional area as the action chamber, and a gas-impervious disc inter reaction chamber. mediate the chambers suiîüciently strong to with 5. A gas generator comprising a vertically dis stand a predetermined operating pressure in the posed reaction chamber, a perforated support reaction chamber but rupturable at pressures ex spaced from the lower end of the reaction cham ceeding such predetermined pressure to provide ber, an inlet line associated with the lower por a passage-way between the chambers. tion of the reaction chamber below said. support, 2. A gas generator comprising a reaction cham an outlet line associated with the upper portion ber, inlet means associated with the lower por 25 of the reaction chamber, an expansion cham tion of the reaction chamber, outlet means asso ber in the outlet line, a vented discharge cham ciated with the upper portion of the reaction ber centrally positioned below the reaction cham chamber, a vented discharge chamber centrally Iber and a gas-impervious disc intermediate the positioned below the reaction chamber, and a reaction chamber and the discharge chamber gas-impervious disc intermediate the chambers 30 suiiiciently strong to withstand a predetermined su?icîently strong to withstand a predetermined operating pressure in the reaction chamber but operating pressure in the reaction chamber b-ut ruptura-ble at pressures exceeding such predeter-rupturable at pressures exceeding such predeter mined pressure to provide a passage-way between mined pressure to: provide a passage-way between the reaction and discharge chambers. the chambers. 3. A gas generator comprising a vertically dis posed reaction chamber, a perforated support 35 WILLIS S. HUTCHINSON. ERIC R. WOODWARD.