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Патент USA US2407887

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Patented Sept. 17, 1946
2,407,882
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE'.`
2,407,882
GENERATOR
‘Villis S. Hutchinson, St. Paul, Minn., and Eric R.
Woodward, New York, N. Y., assignors to The
Mathieson Alkali Works, Inc., New York, N. Y.,
acorporation of Virginia
Application May 27, 1944, Serial No. 537,752
5 Claims.
(Cl. 23-281)
1
This invention relates generally to gas gen~
erators and more particularly to an improved gas
generator especially adapted for use in the gen
eration of explosive gases. It is, however, also
applicable to the generation of non-explosive
gases.
2
In our improved generator, this hazard is guard
ed against by providing, contiguous to the reac
tion chamber, an enlarged discharge chamber
partitioned from the reaction chamber by a rela
tively thin disc of metal, for instance silver, or a
plastic material, of suñicient strength to With
The invention provides means whereby the
stand normal operating pressures but which,
probability of disastrous results of an explosion
should an explosion occur, will be ruptured and
within the generator is avoided or substantially
permit the contents of the reaction zone, includ
minimized.
ing chlorine and chlorine dioxide gases, to dis
Our improved gas generator is particularly ap
charge into the discharge chamber.
plicable to the generation of chlorine dioxide by
The port leading from the reaction chamber to
the reaction of chlorine gas with a chlorite and
the discharge chambensealed by said disc, is
Will be described herein with particular reference
with advantage of such cross-sectional areal that,
to such operation. It Will be understood, how 15 upon rupture of the disc, free and substantially
ever, that the utility of the invention is not lim
unrestricted communication with the discharge
ited to such use but that the invention in its
chamber is established, so as to minimize back
broader aspect is generally applicable to the gen
pressures in the reaction chamber.
eration of gases by the reaction of a gas or gase
The discharge chamber is with advantage pro
ous mixture with solids or liquids, especially with 20 vided with a gas vent, also of relatively large
solids of relatively small particle size.
cross-sectional area, leading off to the atmos
In the United States Patent No. 2,309,457 there
phere for the safe discharge of gases from the
is described an improved process for generating
discharge chamber. Advantageously, the dis
chlorine dioxide which comprises passing chlo
charge chamber is also provided With a drain
rine gas, in admixture with air or other diluent
through which the discharged salts may be flushed
gas, in Contact with a solid chlorite, for instance
with Water to a suitable place of disposal.
sodium chloríte or calcium chlorite. By the care
Likewise, in the event of explosion, there is
ful control of the chlorine-air mixture passed to
danger of salts within the reaction chamber being
the reaction zone, effluent gases of safe chlorine
blown through the effluent gas line into the dis
30 tribution system. In order to avoid the blowing
dioxide concentrations may be obtained.
A diiiiculty experienced in the generation and
of these salts out through the distribution lines,
handling of chlorine dioxide has been the ex-the effluent gas line may lead from the reaction
plosion hazard. It is generally necessary, in order
chamber to an enlarged expansion chamber
to avoid explosion hazards, to generate and han
wherein any solid particles entrained `by the efn
dle chlorine dioxide in a rather high state of di
fluent gases are separated therefrom by reason
lution with air or some other inert gaseous me
of the decreased velocity of the gases.
dium. For instance, the handling of chlorine
Our invention will be more fully described and
dioxide in concentrations such that the partial
specifically illustrated by reference to the 'ac
pressure ci the chlorine dioxide is equal to about
companying drawing which represents a vertical
’70 millimeters of mercury or higher is usually un»
safe. Should the concentration be permitted to
equal or exceed this amount, explosion is likely
to occur.
cross-sectional view of an especially advanta
geous embodiment of our invention adapted to
the generation of chlorine dioxide by reacting
chlorine with a solid chlorite.
Should the concentration of chlorine dioxide
In the drawing, a reaction chamber I, formed
generated in the reaction zone in an operation of 45 by a vertically elongated cylinder 2, is shown
this type reach that at which an explosion re
mounted on and extending upwardly from a rec
sults, the heat of reaction is so great that the
tangular base 3 which forms a discharge cham
chlorite is rapidly converted to chlorate at a tem
ber 4. The cylinder 2 and rectangular base 3,
perature which is apt to be above the melting
may, for instance, be constructed of iron or steel.
point of the chlorate, i. e., 248° C. As this hot 50 However, where the apparatus is to be used with
chlorate is an active oxidizing agent, it Wil1 set
lire to any organic matter with which it may come
in contact. It is therefore important, in the case
of explosion, that this hot fused chlorate be con
ñned.
`
corrosive gases, such as chlorine and chlorine ,
dioxide, the parts exposed to the corrosive gases
should be constructed of corrosion-resistant ma
terials, for instance glass, stoneware or corrosion
55 resistant plastics or metals.
5
2,407,882
6
charge chamber is centrally positioned below the
spaced from the lower end of the reaction cham
ber, inlet 'means associated with the lower por
tion of the reaction chamber below said support,
reaction chamber. Though this arrangement has
distinct advantages, the reaction chamber may
be otherwise placed, for instance to the side of
outlet means associated with the upper portion
but below the reaction chamber, without depart Ul of the reaction chamber, a vented discharge
ing from the scope of our present invention.
chamber centrally positioned below the reaction
Where the reaction chamber is to be charged
chamber, and a gas-impervious disc intermediate
with a reactant in the liquid form, the perforated
the chambers sufficiently strong to withstand a
support i3 may be omitted and a suitable head
predetermined operating pressure in the reaction
connected to the gas-inlet l5 used for dispersing 10 chamber ‘but rupturable at pressures exceeding
the incoming gas uniformly through the liquid.
such predetermined pressure to provide a pas
Also, a pipe connection may -be provided at the
sage-way between the chambers.
lower end of chamber I for draining and recharg
4. A gas generator as claimed in claim 3 in
ing the reaction chamber.
which the passage-way between «the reaction
We claim:
chamber andthe discharge chamber, normally
1. A gas generator comprising a reaction cham
closed by the rupturable disc, is of substantially
ber, a vented discharge chamber below the re
the same horizontal cross-sectional area as the
action chamber, and a gas-impervious disc inter
reaction chamber.
mediate the chambers suiîüciently strong to with
5. A gas generator comprising a vertically dis
stand a predetermined operating pressure in the
posed reaction chamber, a perforated support
reaction chamber but rupturable at pressures ex
spaced from the lower end of the reaction cham
ceeding such predetermined pressure to provide
ber, an inlet line associated with the lower por
a passage-way between the chambers.
tion of the reaction chamber below said. support,
2. A gas generator comprising a reaction cham
an outlet line associated with the upper portion
ber, inlet means associated with the lower por 25 of the reaction chamber, an expansion cham
tion of the reaction chamber, outlet means asso
ber in the outlet line, a vented discharge cham
ciated with the upper portion of the reaction
ber centrally positioned below the reaction cham
chamber, a vented discharge chamber centrally
Iber and a gas-impervious disc intermediate the
positioned below the reaction chamber, and a
reaction chamber and the discharge chamber
gas-impervious disc intermediate the chambers 30 suiiiciently strong to withstand a predetermined
su?icîently strong to withstand a predetermined
operating pressure in the reaction chamber but
operating pressure in the reaction chamber b-ut
ruptura-ble at pressures exceeding such predeter-rupturable at pressures exceeding such predeter
mined pressure to provide a passage-way between
mined pressure to: provide a passage-way between
the reaction and discharge chambers.
the chambers.
3. A gas generator comprising a vertically dis
posed reaction chamber, a perforated support
35
WILLIS S. HUTCHINSON.
ERIC R. WOODWARD.
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