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Sept; 17, 1946.
Filed June 30, 1943
Piatented Sept. ‘17, 1946
Reginald Taylor and George Thomas Baker,
Liverpool, England, assignors, by mesne assign-l
ments, to Automatic Electric Laboratories, Inc.,
Chicago, 111., a corporation of Delaware
Application June 30, 1943, Serial No. 492,832
In Great Britain August 20, 1942
11 Claims.
The present invention relates to electrical sig
naling systems such as automatic telephone sys
tems in which trains of impulses are utilised to
effect the setting of automatic switches or the
like and is particularly concerned with arrange
ments for overcoming the e?ects of distortion in
the break-make ratio of impulses comprising in
(Cl. 179—16)
of distorted impulses are received on a “speed tim
ing” impulse responding circuit including an elec
tro-mechanical impulse storage and regenerating
device, so that received impulse trains are re
transmitted in a form corrected as regards ratio
and at the nominal speed for the system con
Such an arrangement does more than is really
terruptions in a normally closed circuit. Such
distortion as is Well known is due to the e?ect
necessary for satisfactory selector operation, since
of the inductive and capacitative properties of the 10 it is only the impulse ratio which is distorted dur
line on the responding relay and may become very
ing transmission, the speed of impulsing being
serious where long lines or a number of impulse
unaffected. The present invention provides an
repetitions are involved.
impulse responding circuit which, in accordance
The chief object of the invention is to provide
with the impulsing speed concerned, will produce
a simple and reliable arrangement for correct 15 a suitable outgoing impulse ratio which will be
ing for the effects of distortion and enabling the
acceptable to the receiving apparatus involved.
ratio of received impulses to be restored to its
According to one feature of the invention, in an
original or even a more desirable value.
electrical signaling system employing trains of
The invention may be of particular value in
impulses comprising interruptions in a. control
connection with systems employing to some ex 20 circuit, an impulse repeater is provided in which
tent at least switches having circuit arrange
incoming impulses are repeated without storage
ments of the type disclosed in our application
at the speed at which they arrive but with a
ratio of break to make substantially independent
S. No. 434,762 ?led Mar. 14, 1942. It is shown that
such switches need no longer be dependent upon
of this speed and of the ratio of the incoming
the usual break to make ratio of received im
pulses, but rather upon the period which elapses
According to-another feature of the invention,
between corresponding points in successive im
in an electrical signaling system employing trains _
pulses so that the only limit is that the actual
of impulses comprising interruptions in a, control
speed of impulsing must not be so slow that the
circuit, an impulse repeater is provided in which
period between similar points in successive im 30 the length of the ?rst repeated interruption is
pulses exceeds a predetermined amount. When
?xed and the length of subsequent interruptions
such period is exceeded, a switching operation is
is adjusted dependent on the speed of the incom
arranged to take place characteristic either of
ing impulses but regardless of their ratio of break
the end of an impulse train or of the release
to make.
of the connection depending upon the ?nal con 35
A further feature of the invention is that in an
dition of the control circuit. Such a method of
electrical signaling system employing trains of
impulsing is sometimes referred to as “speed tim
impulses comprising interruptions in a control
ing.” The “speed timing” impulse responding cir-.
circuit, an impulse repeater is provided in which
cuit thus provides a means of response to incom
incoming impulses are repeated without storage
ing impulses which operates equally well no mat
ter how badly they are degraded due to the re
40 at the speed at which they arrive but with a
ratio of’ break to make which progressively ap
proaches a predetermined value for successive
impulses of a train.
The invention will be better understood from
In order that advantage can be taken of such 45 the following description of one method of carry
active nature of the line and its terminations or
to the number of stages of ‘impulse repetition
arrangements on existing automatic telephone
ing it into e?ect, which should be taken in con
junction with the accompanying drawing com
plOying “speed timing” selectors into ordinary
prising Figs. 1-3. These all show the invention
networks of existing types, it is necessary to pro
applied to an outgoing impulse repeating relay
vide means for remaking received distorted im 50 set at a tandem automatic telephone exchange,
networks or for interworking from networks em
pulses so that they can be passed on in a form
access to the relay set being had over one 01' more
acceptable to existing equipment. '
ranks of tandem selector switches operated over
One means, particularly applicable to long dis
a junction line from a calling automatic exchange,
tance dialling, is disclosed in our application S.
while the relay set itself connects with an out
No. 446,900 ?led June 13, 1942, in which trains 55 going junction from the tandem exchange to a
distant automatic exchange. Fig. 1 shows the
complete circuits of the relay set in question,
‘while Figs. 2 and 3 are fragments only showing
will be suitably reduced from the 55 m. s. value‘.
The second output make period which will be
greater than the ?rst output make period owing
to the reduction of the break period will then
alternative circuit connections involving a so
determine the length of the third output break
called stabilising condenser QY which functions
period and so on. In this manner the output
to reduce the oscillatory nature of the output im
break and make periods are so adjusted as to give’
pulse ratio control exerted by the circuit of Fig. 1.
at. all speeds a break/make ratio which will be
Before proceeding with the detailed circuit de
acceptable to the selector switches.
scription the principle of operation will be dealt‘
Referring now to Fig. l, the incoming left-hand
with generally and it may be pointed out that the 10
negative, positive and P leads extend from levels
circuit arrangement entirely ignores the ratio of
of the tandem exchange selectors, while the right
incoming impulses, and functions on the basis
hand negative and positive leads connect with
of their speed alone to give a suitable output ratio
an outgoing junction to the distant automatic
which will be acceptable to any selector in the
It is assumed that the telephone networks em
The‘, various timing functions involved in the
operation of the circuit are performed by con
ploy selector switches of the decimal step-by-step
two-motion type employing the well-known, A, ‘B’
and C impulse responding relay triad and re
denser/resistance timing circuits each ‘of which
after a predetermined charging period builds up
a suiiicient potential across its condenser to strike
sponsive to impulses at a nominal speed of ten
impulses per second and of a nominal break to
a gas discharge tube connected in circuitthere- ,
with and so to energise a relay to perform the
make ratio of 2-1.
The switches are readily responsive to impulses
required controlling function. The tube NTA,
preferably a neon tube, and associated condenser
QX perform the timing function in connection
with the “ratio replacement” feature of the relay
having a speed range of from 8—l2 I. P. S. pro
viding there is no serious ratio distortion, the
transmitted break and make periods over this
range of speeds being as follows,
set, while neon tube NTB in association with con
denser QW performs the “speed timing” func
Break period Make period
tion so .as to enable the appropriate circuit
30 changes to be made at the end of each train of
Preferably the neon tubes are arranged to
strike at a voltage of the order of .150 volts and
this voltage is built up across the condensers
which are connected to .the exchange battery
of 50 volts by_ connecting in series therewith a
high voltage supply HV, at a potential of 150
volts, via a suitable adjustable resistance. The
supply HV isgshcwn separately in various parts
In an impulse repeating relay set adapted to
function in accordance with the presentinven
tion, until the ?rst impulse has been received it
is impossible to determine the impulse speed con
cerned, and hence to avoid storage, the length
of the?rst output break impulse is set to a ?xed 40 of the circuit as different batteries (in the same
manner as is the ordinary 50 volt exchange bat
value regardless of speed. A suitable value for the
tery supply), and its negative pole is connected
predetermined ?rst break period is 55 m. s. which
is satisfactory both to the magnets and also to
the B and C relays which, since they are already
energised when impulsing starts have a good L'
margin on the ?rst impulse'and generally tend
to- fail only on the last of a long train of say
9 or‘ 10v impulses.
On the ?rst release of the relay set impulse re
sponding A relay, a 55 m. 5. break period is deliv
eredin the output circuit regardless of the length
of time the A'relay stays down. After the 55 m. s.
period the remainder of the ?rst impulse is then
measured, that is to say, until the A relay once
again releases at the commencement of the break It"
to earth so that a charging voltage of 200 volts
is available from the two batteries in‘series.
When the relay set is taken into use, relay A
operates and at contacts at brings up relay B
which locks over contacts hi and at contactsbZ
prepares a circuit for the outgoing pulsing relay
PU, at contacts 174 applies guard earth to them
coming P lead, at contacts 125 connects a loop
comprising“ the supervisory relays Dand I across
the outgoing negative and positive conductors in
order to seize the distant automatic equipment,
and at contacts b3 completes a charging circuit
for condenser QX v'ia thepotentiometer arrange
ment comprising adjustable resistances YY and
YZ. The values of thes'eresistancesare such‘that
condenser QX will be charged to avoltage some
what lower than the striking voltage ofgthe neon
If this output make period is 28 m. s., thus cor
responding to the 55 m. s. break which obtains Gt) tube NTA, say about 100 volts, and the'circuit is
now ready to receive trains of impulses.
at a speed of 12 I. P. S., the second output break
When relay A releases in response tothe break
period can also be 55 m. s. with a resultant make
period of the ?rst impulse received, relay PU rap
period of 28 m. s. and these Values can remain
idly operates, locks over contacts pul and at con
unchanged throughout the train. If the ?rst out
_ tacts 1M6 opens the outgoing seizing loop so as'to
put make period exceeds 28 m. s. thereby indicat
repeat the break period of the impulse to the dis
ing-that the speed is of a. value less than 12 I. P. S.,
tant automatic exchange. At contacts pus it
a suitable increase in the second output .break
completes a charging circuit for condenser QX
period- will be made. The second output make
period of the second impulse, this period con
stituting the make period of the ?rst output im
Via the variable resistance YXjand at contacts
complete second impulse time and the second 70 pueit operates relay C to prepare forth‘e charg
ing of the “speed timing” condenser QW Via var
break period will thereupon determine the length
for the third break period and so on. Similarly,
iable resistance YW and contacts 02, the charg
in the unlikely event of the make period being
ing of this condenser being prevented at present
less than 28 m. s., thereby indicating a speed ex
by the connection of the low resistance shunt
ceeding 12 I. P. S., the second output break period 75 thereon via contacts pu4 and resistance YA.
period comprising the difference between the
Contacts zmZ connect neon tube NTA and relay E.
across condenser QX, while the remaining con
volts will therefore be greater so that the break.
period of the nextiimpulse will be lengthened.
In the unlikely event of, the released period of
tacts pal are only required in the modi?cations ‘
shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
Relay C in Operating, at
relay PU being too short to correspond to a 55 .
contacts cl disconnects the original potentiom
m. s., breakperiod, thereby indicating an impulse
eter circuit, looks at contacts 03 and at contacts
04 short-circuits the supervisory relays D and I
to provide an impedance-free impulse repeating
loop to the distant exchange.
On the operation of relay PU condenser QX 10
speed of greater than 12 I. P. S., condenser. QX
Will have insuflicient time to discharge back to
its original 100-volt value and the period required
to charge up to the tube striking value will be
shortened, thus giving a corresponding reduction
will start charging up and it is arranged that it
will reach the striking voltage of neon tube NTA
in the break period of the second impulse.
in 55 m. s.
Tube NTA then strikes and brings
In the above described manner the break and
make periods of the output impulse for each re
ceived impulse is adjusted so as to give a suitable
up relay E which at contacts el releases relay PU
regardless of whether the impulse responding 15 ratio on all speeds so as to produce the most
relay A is still normal or not, and completes a
satisfactory operation of the selector switches.‘
locking circuit for itself if relay A is ‘still normal.
It should be mentioned that in some circum-.v
Relay PU in releasing, at contacts pu3 completes
stances it may not be essential to maintain in the
a discharge path for condenser QX via resistance
output the nominal 2-1 break to make ratio at all
YZ, at contacts Ipu? closes the loop to the distant 20 impulsing speeds as in order to secure the most‘
exchange so as to terminate the break portion of
satisfactory operation of the selector switches it '
the outgoing impulse and at contacts p114 re
may be desirable to effect slight alterations in
moves the shunt from across condenser QW so
as to initiate the charging of this condenser. Re
lay C, it will be seen, remains looked over con
tacts er2 and 03 independently of relay PU and
further consideration of the operation of the
“speed timing” circuit for controlling relay C and
involving tube NTB and condenser QW will be
deferred until the operation of the “ratio replace
ment” circuit has been completed.
As previously mentioned, relay PU in restoring
the outgoing ratio over the speed range.
Considering now the operation of the speed
timing circuit involving condenser QW and tube‘
NTB, this functions by determining whether the
actual length'of each impulse is greater or less
1 than a ?xed predetermined period which is ap
proximately equal to the length of the longest
impulse which can be tolerated, namely, a 143
m. s. impulse which corresponds to the minimum
dial speed of 7 I. P. S.
at contacts pu3 completes a discharge circuit for
If the predetermined value is exceeded without
condenser QX,'while at contacts 1W2 it opens the
a further impulse arriving, it is an indication
operating circuit for relay E. The latter relay is
either that the impulse train has ?nished or that
maintained operated for so long as relay A re
the calling party has hung up prematurely. In
mains normal over contacts cl, b2 and al and
the former case the timing circuit on coming
this arrangement ensures that relay PU shall not
into operation and bringing up relay ER releases
re-operate until the next release of relay A.
relay C at contacts e72 and re-introduces the
The voltage to which condenser QX discharges 40 supervisory relays .D and I across the outgoing
is dependent on the time relay PU is normal, i. e.
leads at contacts 6T3, while in the latter case
until the beginning of the break period of the
since the A relay will be normal, relay B will
second received impulse at which time relay PU
also be released at contacts erl and will restore
is re-operated, and at contacts p143 reconnects
the relay set to normal.
condenser QX up to the charging circuit via re 45
If impulses follow one another within the pre
sistance YX. If this released period of relay PU,
determined time period, the next impulse will
which determines the make period of the ?rst
reset the timing device by discharging condenser
outgoing impulse, is just the correct length to
QW'and the timing operation will recommence.
correspond to a 55 m. s. break, i. e. if it is no
This re-setting operation is repeated for each
longer than the 28 m. 5. make period which‘ ob
impulse of a train until the last impulse of the
tains at 12 LP. S., it is arranged that condenser
train has been received when the tube NTB is
QX will have discharged to the same value,
able to strike and operate relay ER as described
namely 100 volts, as at the commencement of the
?rst break. Hence the second output break will
In the arrangement described in the previously ‘
also be 55 m. s. with a resultant make of 28 m. s. 55
mentioned speci?cation No. 434,762 the timing
as determined by the di?erence between the
complete impulse length of 83 m. s. and the out
put break period of 55 m. s. and these values will
remain unchanged throughout the train.
If, therefore, impulses are received at a speed
of 12 I. P. S., thenregardless of their ratio they
are repeated with a replaced break to make ratio
circuit is adapted to effect a switching operation
after 143 m. s. measured from the beginning
of the break period of the ?rst impulse of a train
period. In the present instance, instead of using
of 2-1 (55 m. s. break, 28 m. s. make) corre
one 143 m. s. timing circuit to compare the period
(neglecting the magnet operating time), the ar
rangements being that it will be reset if a suc
ceeding break is received within this 143 m. s.
sponding to the nominal 2-1 ratio at which they
extending between, say, the beginning of one
were transmitted at the distant sending end, and 65 break period to the same point in the‘ next, it .
which is most suitable for the satisfactory oper
is more convenient to make use of the two avail
ation of the distant automatic exchange selectors.
able timing circuits acting in conjunction.
If the length of time relay PU is released ex
Relay PU in operating to initiate the break
ceeds 28 m. 5., thereby indicating that the length
period of the ?rst outgoing impulse brings up
of the complete impulse is greater than 83 m. s. 70 relay C to prepare for the charging up of the
and hence that the impulsing speed is less than
speed timing condenser QW. After the lapse of
12 I. P. S., condenser QX when discharged via re
the 55m. s. ?rst output break period which
sistance YZ will drop below its original voltage
remains ?xed regardless of the speed in ques
of 100 volts and the time required for charging
tion, relay PU releases and initiates the charging
it up again to the tube striking voltage of 150 7.5 up of ‘condenser QW. In the worst case, i. e. at
the minimum speed of impulsing of 7 I. P. S. .
period will be 45' m. sand condenser'QX will
relay PU will not again operate till 143—55=88
dischargeto a value lower than 100 volts. 7 If the
m. 5. later andv condenser QW is therefore ar
2-1 break/make output ratio is also to be mail“
ranged to reach the striking voltage of neon tube
tained'at this speed, the next charging time re- 7
' quired by condenser QX to reach the tube NTA
striking value must then be 66% m. s. to pro
NTB in a time not less than 88 m. s. so as to pro- .
vide an overall timing period of 143 m._ s. In the
case of an impulse train at any impulsing speed
duce the appropriate second output break period
for 10 I. P. S. Under this condition condenser
above the minimum of '7 I. P. S.,- relay PU will
QX will subsequently only have 331/3 m. s. dis- '
operate to initiate the break period of the next
impulse before the lapse of 143 m. s. from its 10 charge time during the second output make peri
od. It will then reach a voltage somewhere
?rst operation and hence condenser QW will
between the 100 volt Value and the value to which
be discharged without the tube striking. At the
it discharged in the 45 m. s. first make, and
end of the second output break period as deter
mined by the impulsing speed concerned, relay
clearly the third charging periodwill not there
‘ PU in releasing will initiate the timing of a 15 fore be as great as 662/3 m. -s. so that the third
second 88 m. s. period and so on until the end
output break period will lie somewhere between
of the impulse train.
At the end of the train relay PU will fail to
re-operate and condenser QW will therefore reach
55 and 662/3 m. s. and so on.
The correction afforded by- the scheme as
shown in Fig. 1 is thus oscillatory in nature and
' the striking voltage of tube NTB 88 m. s. after 20 is particularly marked if the maximum correction
is placed on the second output impulse as above
the end of the last output break period and tube
described by way of example. The introduction
NTB will ?ash andv will bring up relay ER. Re
of condenser QY into the “ratio replacement”
lay ER in operating opens the locking circuit of
circuit in the manner shown in Fig. 2 is found to
relay 0, and at contacts er3 connects resistance
YBacross the outgoing speaking conductors. On 25 produce a marked stabilisation eilect with the
result that the outgoing impulse ratio settles
release of relay C the supervisory relays D and I
down to the calculated suitable value almost ‘im
in parallel with resistance YB are introduced
across the outgoing speaking conductors, resist
Referring now to Fig. 2, it will be. seen that
ance YB serving to obviate any danger of release
of the distant battery feeding relay due to the 30 condenser QY is initially charged up to the same
100-volt value as condenser QX. When relay PU
initial high impedance of the supervisory re
lays. When the voltage on condenser QW falls . operates to connect condenser QX to the charg
ing circuit at contacts pu3, the circuit for con
denser QY is disconnected at contacts 10141. When
condenser QX is to be discharged after having
?ashed the tube NTA and having brought up relay
resistance YB is disconnected from the outgoing
E, with the resultant release of ‘relay PU, it
speaking conductors.
initially rapidly shares out its 150 volt striking
Further received impulse trains are dealt with
voltage/with the 100 volt charge on condenser
as before described and after the last train has
been received the relay set functions in known 40 QY and both condensers then proceed to dis»
charge via resistance YZ. On the next operation
manner, relay D which is polarised by recti?ers
below the “holding” voltage of tube NTB, this
tube will de-ionise and relay ER will commence
to release slowly. On the release of relay ER,
' MBA and MR3 serving to extend the called
of relay PU in response to the next release of re
lay A,‘the discharge of both condensers is termi
party’s supervision signals back to the calling side
nated and condenser QX commences to re-charge'
of the circuit by reversing the connections of
45 When condenser QX is to be discharged, it will
relay A tothe speaking conductors.
initially share out its 150 volt charge with what
If the subscriber should hang up during dial
ling, a break simulating an impulse will be re
ceived so that when relay E operates after the
ever charge has remained on condenser QY after
the last discharge and both condensers will then '
condenser QX charging period relay PU will be
released and relay E will remain locked to the
proceed to discharge through resistanceYZ'as
before. Similar remarks apply to each succeed
earthed back contacts al so that relay PU cannot
be re-operated. 88 m. s. after the release of relay
PU tube NTB will ?ash to bring up relay ER
ing impulse of the train.
which as before opens the locking circuit of
relayC. In this instance however since the A
relay is not now operated, and since the alterna
tive holding circuit for relay B is opened by con
tacts erl, relay B will now release and will release
relay E and initiate release of the connection.
The best relative values of condenser QY and
QX can be determined by calculation of the con
denser charge and discharge times and voltages
under simple conditions and such calculation
shows the marked improvement which can be
effected by the'introduction of the stabilising ‘con
An alternative method of stabilising is shown
Returning again to the “ratio replacement” 60 in Fig. 3 where it will be seen that before con~
denser QX proceeds to discharge via resistance
timing circuit, since the 55 m. s. ?xed first output
YZ it'shares out its striking voltage of 150 volts
break period corresponds to the break period of
with whatever voltage condenser QY has accumu
a 12 I. P. S. break impulse at the nominal 2-1
lated via variable resistance YV during the
break/make ratio, and since it is desirable that
, at a speed of 12 I. P. S. the output impulses shall 65 chargingtime of condenser QX.
It' should be pointed out that the ‘.'‘ratio' re
have this ratio to secure the most satisfactory
placement” circuit is completely independent of
operation of the selectors, it follows that if the
incoming junction resistance values so that it is
resultant ?rst output make period is 28 m. s.
unnecessary for the circuit to be associated with
corresponding to an i'mpulsing speed of 12 I. P. S.
it is necessary to make condenser QX discharge 70 any particular junction line. Moreover, since it
entirely ignores the ratio of the incoming im~
from 150 volts to say 100 volts in 28 m. s. thus
pulses it will function to give the desired output
providing a 55 m. s. second break 'period and
so on as described;
If however, the received impulses are at a
as long as any impulses are received, no matter
how badly they are degraded, provided relay .A
speed of say :10 I. P; 6., the ?rst output make 75 closes its back contact sufficiently long'to operate
relay PU and opens it sufficiently long to release
relay E.
charge tube for preventing further operations in
case the time between received break impulses
What we claim as new and desire to secure
exceeds a predetermined time.
7. In a signaling system, an impulse repeater
having an input circuit over which impulsesof
varying speed and break to make ratio are re
by Letters Patent is:
1. In a signaling system, a repeater responsive
to received make and break impulses over an
incoming circuit for repeating the same over an
outgoing circuit, a relay in the repeater operated
by the ?rst interruption of the incoming circuit,
a second relay responsive to the operation of the 10
?rst relay to open the outgoing circuit, a con
denser, a gas discharge tube, means for charging
the condenser to the striking voltage of the tube,
and means responsive to the striking of the tube
to terminate the operation of the second relay 15
and thereby close the outgoing circuit.
2. In a signaling system, an impulse repeater
controlled over an incoming circuit by break and
make impulses to repeat similar impulses in an
outgoing circuit, a relay in said repeater re 20
sponsive to a break in the incoming circuit, a
ceived, relay means in said ‘repeater responsive
to said received impulses for repeating corre
sponding impulses over an output circuit with
out storage and at the same speed as received,
and timing means comprising an aperiodic cir
cuit and a gaseous discharge tube associated with
said relay means for causing the break to make
ratio of the repeated impulses to have a desired
value which is substantially independent of the
speed or ratio of the received impulses.
8. In a signaling system, an impulse repeater
having an input circuit over which impulses of
varying speed and break to make ratio are re
ceived, relay means in said repeater responsive
to said received impulses for repeating corre
sponding impulses over an output circuit with
out storage and at the same speed as received,
and timing means associated with said relay
means for causing the ?rst repeated break im
pulse to have a ?xed length and for varying the
second relay operated by the ?rst relay to control
the outgoing circuit, a condenser, a gas discharge
tube, said condenser connected in a charging cir
cuit by the operation of said second relay and 25
continuing to charge until it reaches the striking
voltage of said tube, and means operated when
length of subsequently repeated break impulses
the tube strikes for causing restoration of the
in accordance with the speed of the received im
second relay.
3. A system as claimed in claim 2 in which
said second relay closes a discharge circuit for
said condenser for a time dependent on the next
interruption of said incoming circuit, the amount
of discharge controlling the time of operation of
said second relay upon its next energization.
4. In an impulse repeater, a line relay respon
sive to received impulses consisting of breaks and
makes of an incoming circuit, an outgoing cir
cuit, a relay controlled by the line relay for open
ing the outgoing circuit when the line relay is de
energized, a condenser having a preliminary
charge and connected for an additional charge
by said second relay to time the break of the
outgoing circuit, means for discharging said con
denser to different points responsive to subse
9. In a signaling system, an impulse repeater,
a circuit over which impulses of varying speed
and break to make ratio are at times received,
relay means in said repeater responsive to said
received impulses for repeating corresponding
35 impulses over a further circuit without storage
and at the same speed as received, a ?rst timing
means associated with said relay means for caus
ing the break to make ratio of the repeated im
pulses to have a desired value which is substan
40 tially independent of the speed or ratio of the re
ceived impulses, and a second timing means as
sociated with said relay means for terminating
impulsing conditions a predetermined time in
terval after the last impulse of a series.
10. A signaling system as claimed in claim 9 in
quent received impulses to thereby determine the
which each of said timing means comprises an
time of break of the outgoing circuit upon the
aperiodic circuit and a gaseous discharge tube.
next operation of said second relay.
11. In a signaling system, a ?rst circuit over
5. A system as claimed in claim 2 including a
which impulses are at times transmitted, a gas
second condenser and a gas discharge tube for 50 discharge tube, means associated with said ?rst
timing the released time of said second relay, and
circuit for initiating an impulse over a further
means for terminating impulsing conditions if
circuit and for initiating the ?ow of an aperiodic
said second relay is released for more than a pre
current in a circuit connected to said tube in re
sponse to the receipt of an impulse over said
determined time.
6. In an impulse repeater, a line relay respon
sive to received break and make impulses, a sec
ond relay controlled by each deenergization of
the line relay to repeat a break impulse,-a con
denser and a gas discharge tube for timing the
break of each repeated impulse in accordance 60
with the time between received break impulses,
and a second condenser and a second gas dis
?rst circuit, said aperiodic current causing the
tube to ?re a predetermined time interval there
after, and said means being operated when said
tube ?res to terminate the impulse over said
further circuit.
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