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Sept. 17,.1946.
‘
" T,M,BA._L'
INJECTION NOZZLE
'
‘2,407,915
'
File'd Aug. 20, 1942'
A TTORNE Y5,
Patented Sept. 17, 19461
2,407,915
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,915
INJECTION NOZZLE
Thomas M. Ball, Detroit, Mich, assignor to
Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park, 'Micln, a
corporation of Delaware
Application August 20, 1942, Serial No. 455,401
1 Claim;
(Cl. 299—107.6)
1
2
This invention relates to an improved nozzle
for injecting liquid fuel into an internal combus
provision of fuel whirling passages in a device
tion engine.
More particularly the invention pertains to im
provements in the control and physical state of
the fuel stream at the location of ?nal discharge.
One of the main objects of the invention is to
of this kind through which fuel may flow when
the valve is closed as well as open, in combination
fuel whirling grooves through which fuel may
?ow only after the valve has been moved to its
open position by fuel pressure which results from
a supply of fuel to the constantly open passages
provide a combined. valve and fuel whirling mem
in excess of their capacity.
her in a fuel nozzle of this 1kind which accomo
Au illustrative embodiment of the invention is
dates only a small volume of after flow from 10 shown in the accompanying drawing, in which:
the nozzle following the valve closing action at
Fig. l is a vertical sectional View of a nozzle
the end of a discharge operation.
embodying the invention and showing the valve
A further object of the invention is to provide in
member thereof in closed position.
the movable valve element of a nozzle of this kind,
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view
fuel whirling grooves having an open side which 15 similar to Fig. 1 but showing the valve member
mates with a surface of the stationary nozzle
in open position.
structure when the valve is in open position in
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary transverse sectional
order to de?ne a con?ned channel and which
view taken on line 3—3 of Fig. 1.
separates from the stationary nozzle structure
Fig. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary side eleva
during closing action of the valve so as to freely 20 tional view of the movable valve element of the
accommodate rapid discharge of the small
nozzle shown in Fig, 1.
amount of residual fuel occupying the grooves at
Fig. 5 is an end view showing the valve n‘aern
the instant the valve starts to move toward its '
ber illustrated in Fig. 4, as viewed from line 5_-5
,
.
of Fig. 4.
A further object of the invention is to provide
Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional View taken on line
in addition to the foregoing grooves, fuel Whirl
5-6 of Fig. 5.
ing passages through the body of the movable
Fig. '7 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but showing a
valve element for augmenting the fuel discharge
modi?cation of the invention.
when the fuel requirement exceeds the capacity
In the form of the invention illustrated in
30 Figs. 1 to 6 of the drawing, the improved fuel
of the grooves.
Another obpect of the invention is to provide
nozzle includes a tubular casing It having an
fuel whirling passages of this kind which may be
end wall I I provided with a discharge ori?ce i2
relied upon to accommodate flow of the total
and an adjacent, inwardly facing conically con
fuel discharge requirement in the absence of the
caved side i 3. . The lower end portion of the case
fuel whirling grooves.
ing I8 is provided with external threads H! which
An additional object of the invention is the
are adapted to be received in a threaded opening
provision of fuel whirling passages of this kind
l5 formed in suitable structure iii of an internal
in a movable valve element of a nozzle which
combustion engine, such as the intake manifold
have inlet ends arranged to register with and be
or cylinder head thereof. Disposed in the ‘in
closed by a valve seat on a stationary part of the
terior of the casing it is a valve guide member
nozzle structure when the valve is closed.
ll which is provided on its lower extremity
ex»
Other objects of the invention are to provide in
ternal conical surface l8 that is adapted to mate
a fuel nozzle of this kind a movable valve ele
in liquid sealing relationship with the surface iii
ment which is normally spring urged to a closed
of the casing. The valve guide member l‘! is
position against a valve seat and opened against 45 ?rmly urged against the end of the casing by a
the spring action by the pressure of the‘fuel
tubular nipple it which engages the upper ex~
during discharge operations, to provide an abut
tremity of the guide and which has a shoulder
ment surface for arresting valve opening move
25 abutting a corresponding shoulder 22 of 'a ?t
ment and which thus relieves the spring of sus
ting member 23 which is threaded in the upper
taining the full force of the fuel pressure While 50 end portion of the casing l9. Formed on the
the valve is held open, and to provide an abut~
lower end of the guide member I‘! is a valve
ment surface of this kind which serves as the
seat 24 which faces the conical surface 53 of the
matting surface for the foregoing fuel whirling
casing N3.
,
grooves of the valve element.
A reciprocable' valve member 25 is shiftably
closed position.
A still further object of the invention is the
mounted in the valve guide member I‘! and pro
2,407,915
.4,
3
V
26 to be provided with both fuel whirling passages‘ _
vided with a head portion 26. The stem portion
of the valve 25 adjacent the head 26 is shiftably
guided by splines 25' formed in the valve guide
29 and grooves 33, it should be understood that
either of these fuel conducting means may be.
frusto-conical sides 21 and 28 which are formed
to mate with the valve seat 24 and casing surface
employed alone to advantage.
In the form of the invention illustrated in Fig.
7 the structure of the fuel nozzle is substantially
identical to that shown in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive,
l3, respectively. Intermediate the side surfaces
and corresponding parts are designated by the
member and between which are located fuel pas
sages 26'. The valve head portion has opposed Cl
same numerals. ‘The valve head portion 26
21 and 28 is a cylindrical portion 35 which has a
close ?tting engagement with a cylindrical bore 10 shown in Fig. '71, however, has fuel whirling pas
sages 29’ which are provided with‘ inlet ends that
36 formed at the extreme lower end of'the valve ‘
are located above the valve seat 24 of the valve
guide member. Fuel whirling passages 29 extend
guide member in order to facilitate the flow of
through the valve head portion 26 for conveying
fuel from one side of the valve head to the other
fuel from one side to the other thereof. ' These
passages are so inclined and disposed with re 15 while the valve is closed as well as while it is
open. Since in the operation of a fuel nozzle of
spect to the axis of the discharge ori?ce 12 as
this kind charges of liquid fuel are fed to the
to impart a whirling motion to the fuel injected
nozzle under pressure intermittently in accord
therefrom in order to produce turbulation as the
.ance with the ?ring order of the cylinder sup
fuel and air mixture is formed in the engine.
In the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 20 plied by the nozzle, the unobstructed passages 29’
are always in condition to pass the fuel to the
1 tot of the drawing, the upper inlet ends of
discharge ori?ce without delay due to valve open
the passages 29 register with and are adapted
ing requirements. When the quantity of fuel
to be closed by the valve seat 24 when the valve
fed under pressure to the inlet ends of the pas~
member is in its closed position, this member
being yieldably urged toward its closed position 25 sages 29’ exceeds the capacity of the latter the
i valve is opened to accommodate the flow of fue
by a spring 30 which bears between a shoulder
through the grooves 33.
3! on the valve guide member and a spring seat
Although but several speci?c embodiments of
32 ?xed to the upper end of the shiftablelvalve
the invention are herein shown and described, it
member 25., When the valve is moved by fuel
pressure to its open position, shown in Fig. 2, 30 will be understood that various changes in the
3 sequence of operations, steps and materials em-_
the inlet ends of the passages 29 are uncovered
ployed may be made without departing from the
and ?uid flows therethrough to the discharge
spirit of the invention.
'
ori?ce in a whirling course. When the valve is
I claim:
.
in open position the side 28 thereof engages the
A fuel nozzle comprising a hollow body portion
surface i3 of the end wall of the casing thus re 35
provided with a fuel discharge opening commu
lieving the spring ‘30 from bottoming up in order
nicating with the interior of said body portion,
to predetermine and limit the open position of
means for supplying fuel to the latter, a recipro_
the valve. The close ?tting relationship of the
cable valve member shiftably mounted in the in
cylindrical portion 35 of the valve and the cylin
drical bore 36 also produces a seal which pre 40 terior of said body portion having a head part
vents free flowing of fuel to the outlet l2 when > , provided with opposed faces, one adjacent and
the valve is only slightly open, thereby causing
the fuel to ?ow through the passages 29 during
this stage of operation.
Since the passages 29
are smaller than the grooves 33, the velocity of
the fuel discharge is maintained during initial
valve opening operation and until the quantity
of fuel ?owing past the valve is su?icient to
maintain normal discharge velocity through the
larger grooves 33, as for example when the valve
is fully open.
The whirling passages may alone be relied upon
the other remote from said discharge opening
and having a cylinder located between said faces,
' 'a fuel passageway extending through said valve
head having an open inlet end located in the
face of said head remote from said discharge
opening, the face of said head adjacent said dis
charge opening having a fuel whirling groove
therein provided with‘ an open end at the periph
50 ery of said cylinder, an abutmentesurface in said
to convey fuel from one side of the valve head
portion 2E>to the other, or supplementary inclined
fuel whirling grooves 33 may be provided in the 55
lower side surface 28 of the valve head portion
for augmenting the flow of fuel.‘ When a valve
head portion provided with grooves 33 is in open
position the contacting engagement between the
surfaces 28 and 13 of the valve and easing, re 60
spectively, closesthe open sides of the grooves,
thus forming fuel passages that are confined on
all sides. The inlet ends of the grooves 33 regis
ter with the cylindrical wall of the bore 36 of the
valve guide member when the valve is closed, 65
thereby obstructing the entrance of fuel into the
grooves. As the valve head moves upwardly
during valve closing movement’the lower side 28
thereof partsv contact with the surface I3 of the
casing and that fuel which is contained in the 70
grooves at this instant has an uncon?ned path
to the discharge ori?ce through which it rapidly
flows in place of dribbling therefrom in a man
ner objectionable to engine operation.
‘ '
While ‘Figs. 1 ,to 6 show the valve head portionv 75
body portion engageable in mating relationship
by the face of said valve head remote from said
discharge opening for closing the open inlet end
of said passageway and cutting off the flow of
fuel to said discharge outlet when said valve
member is closed, a second abutment surface in
said body portion engageable in mating relation
ship with the face of said valve head adjacent
said discharge outlet when said Valve member is
in open position for closing a side of said fuel
whirling groove, and a cylinder wall in said body
portion between said abutment surfaces for re
ceiving said cylinder of said valve head and clos
ing the end of said fuel whirling groove, the face
of said valve head remote from said outlet being
disengageable from said first mentioned abut
ment face upon initial opening movement of said
valve member for accommodating a preliminary
flow of fuel through said passageway. and said
cylinder being removed from within said cylinder
wall after a predetermined extent of opening
movement of said valve member for accommo
dating a subsequent ?ow of fuel through said fuel
whirling groove.
THOMAS M. BALL.
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