Sept. 17,.1946. ‘ " T,M,BA._L' INJECTION NOZZLE ' ‘2,407,915 ' File'd Aug. 20, 1942' A TTORNE Y5, Patented Sept. 17, 19461 2,407,915 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,915 INJECTION NOZZLE Thomas M. Ball, Detroit, Mich, assignor to Chrysler Corporation, Highland Park, 'Micln, a corporation of Delaware Application August 20, 1942, Serial No. 455,401 1 Claim; (Cl. 299—107.6) 1 2 This invention relates to an improved nozzle for injecting liquid fuel into an internal combus provision of fuel whirling passages in a device tion engine. More particularly the invention pertains to im provements in the control and physical state of the fuel stream at the location of ?nal discharge. One of the main objects of the invention is to of this kind through which fuel may flow when the valve is closed as well as open, in combination fuel whirling grooves through which fuel may ?ow only after the valve has been moved to its open position by fuel pressure which results from a supply of fuel to the constantly open passages provide a combined. valve and fuel whirling mem in excess of their capacity. her in a fuel nozzle of this 1kind which accomo Au illustrative embodiment of the invention is dates only a small volume of after flow from 10 shown in the accompanying drawing, in which: the nozzle following the valve closing action at Fig. l is a vertical sectional View of a nozzle the end of a discharge operation. embodying the invention and showing the valve A further object of the invention is to provide in member thereof in closed position. the movable valve element of a nozzle of this kind, Fig. 2 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view fuel whirling grooves having an open side which 15 similar to Fig. 1 but showing the valve member mates with a surface of the stationary nozzle in open position. structure when the valve is in open position in Fig. 3 is a fragmentary transverse sectional order to de?ne a con?ned channel and which view taken on line 3—3 of Fig. 1. separates from the stationary nozzle structure Fig. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary side eleva during closing action of the valve so as to freely 20 tional view of the movable valve element of the accommodate rapid discharge of the small nozzle shown in Fig, 1. amount of residual fuel occupying the grooves at Fig. 5 is an end view showing the valve n‘aern the instant the valve starts to move toward its ' ber illustrated in Fig. 4, as viewed from line 5_-5 , . of Fig. 4. A further object of the invention is to provide Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional View taken on line in addition to the foregoing grooves, fuel Whirl 5-6 of Fig. 5. ing passages through the body of the movable Fig. '7 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but showing a valve element for augmenting the fuel discharge modi?cation of the invention. when the fuel requirement exceeds the capacity In the form of the invention illustrated in 30 Figs. 1 to 6 of the drawing, the improved fuel of the grooves. Another obpect of the invention is to provide nozzle includes a tubular casing It having an fuel whirling passages of this kind which may be end wall I I provided with a discharge ori?ce i2 relied upon to accommodate flow of the total and an adjacent, inwardly facing conically con fuel discharge requirement in the absence of the caved side i 3. . The lower end portion of the case fuel whirling grooves. ing I8 is provided with external threads H! which An additional object of the invention is the are adapted to be received in a threaded opening provision of fuel whirling passages of this kind l5 formed in suitable structure iii of an internal in a movable valve element of a nozzle which combustion engine, such as the intake manifold have inlet ends arranged to register with and be or cylinder head thereof. Disposed in the ‘in closed by a valve seat on a stationary part of the terior of the casing it is a valve guide member nozzle structure when the valve is closed. ll which is provided on its lower extremity ex» Other objects of the invention are to provide in ternal conical surface l8 that is adapted to mate a fuel nozzle of this kind a movable valve ele in liquid sealing relationship with the surface iii ment which is normally spring urged to a closed of the casing. The valve guide member l‘! is position against a valve seat and opened against 45 ?rmly urged against the end of the casing by a the spring action by the pressure of the‘fuel tubular nipple it which engages the upper ex~ during discharge operations, to provide an abut tremity of the guide and which has a shoulder ment surface for arresting valve opening move 25 abutting a corresponding shoulder 22 of 'a ?t ment and which thus relieves the spring of sus ting member 23 which is threaded in the upper taining the full force of the fuel pressure While 50 end portion of the casing l9. Formed on the the valve is held open, and to provide an abut~ lower end of the guide member I‘! is a valve ment surface of this kind which serves as the seat 24 which faces the conical surface 53 of the matting surface for the foregoing fuel whirling casing N3. , grooves of the valve element. A reciprocable' valve member 25 is shiftably closed position. A still further object of the invention is the mounted in the valve guide member I‘! and pro 2,407,915 .4, 3 V 26 to be provided with both fuel whirling passages‘ _ vided with a head portion 26. The stem portion of the valve 25 adjacent the head 26 is shiftably guided by splines 25' formed in the valve guide 29 and grooves 33, it should be understood that either of these fuel conducting means may be. frusto-conical sides 21 and 28 which are formed to mate with the valve seat 24 and casing surface employed alone to advantage. In the form of the invention illustrated in Fig. 7 the structure of the fuel nozzle is substantially identical to that shown in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, l3, respectively. Intermediate the side surfaces and corresponding parts are designated by the member and between which are located fuel pas sages 26'. The valve head portion has opposed Cl same numerals. ‘The valve head portion 26 21 and 28 is a cylindrical portion 35 which has a close ?tting engagement with a cylindrical bore 10 shown in Fig. '71, however, has fuel whirling pas sages 29’ which are provided with‘ inlet ends that 36 formed at the extreme lower end of'the valve ‘ are located above the valve seat 24 of the valve guide member. Fuel whirling passages 29 extend guide member in order to facilitate the flow of through the valve head portion 26 for conveying fuel from one side of the valve head to the other fuel from one side to the other thereof. ' These passages are so inclined and disposed with re 15 while the valve is closed as well as while it is open. Since in the operation of a fuel nozzle of spect to the axis of the discharge ori?ce 12 as this kind charges of liquid fuel are fed to the to impart a whirling motion to the fuel injected nozzle under pressure intermittently in accord therefrom in order to produce turbulation as the .ance with the ?ring order of the cylinder sup fuel and air mixture is formed in the engine. In the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 20 plied by the nozzle, the unobstructed passages 29’ are always in condition to pass the fuel to the 1 tot of the drawing, the upper inlet ends of discharge ori?ce without delay due to valve open the passages 29 register with and are adapted ing requirements. When the quantity of fuel to be closed by the valve seat 24 when the valve fed under pressure to the inlet ends of the pas~ member is in its closed position, this member being yieldably urged toward its closed position 25 sages 29’ exceeds the capacity of the latter the i valve is opened to accommodate the flow of fue by a spring 30 which bears between a shoulder through the grooves 33. 3! on the valve guide member and a spring seat Although but several speci?c embodiments of 32 ?xed to the upper end of the shiftablelvalve the invention are herein shown and described, it member 25., When the valve is moved by fuel pressure to its open position, shown in Fig. 2, 30 will be understood that various changes in the 3 sequence of operations, steps and materials em-_ the inlet ends of the passages 29 are uncovered ployed may be made without departing from the and ?uid flows therethrough to the discharge spirit of the invention. ' ori?ce in a whirling course. When the valve is I claim: . in open position the side 28 thereof engages the A fuel nozzle comprising a hollow body portion surface i3 of the end wall of the casing thus re 35 provided with a fuel discharge opening commu lieving the spring ‘30 from bottoming up in order nicating with the interior of said body portion, to predetermine and limit the open position of means for supplying fuel to the latter, a recipro_ the valve. The close ?tting relationship of the cable valve member shiftably mounted in the in cylindrical portion 35 of the valve and the cylin drical bore 36 also produces a seal which pre 40 terior of said body portion having a head part vents free flowing of fuel to the outlet l2 when > , provided with opposed faces, one adjacent and the valve is only slightly open, thereby causing the fuel to ?ow through the passages 29 during this stage of operation. Since the passages 29 are smaller than the grooves 33, the velocity of the fuel discharge is maintained during initial valve opening operation and until the quantity of fuel ?owing past the valve is su?icient to maintain normal discharge velocity through the larger grooves 33, as for example when the valve is fully open. The whirling passages may alone be relied upon the other remote from said discharge opening and having a cylinder located between said faces, ' 'a fuel passageway extending through said valve head having an open inlet end located in the face of said head remote from said discharge opening, the face of said head adjacent said dis charge opening having a fuel whirling groove therein provided with‘ an open end at the periph 50 ery of said cylinder, an abutmentesurface in said to convey fuel from one side of the valve head portion 2E>to the other, or supplementary inclined fuel whirling grooves 33 may be provided in the 55 lower side surface 28 of the valve head portion for augmenting the flow of fuel.‘ When a valve head portion provided with grooves 33 is in open position the contacting engagement between the surfaces 28 and 13 of the valve and easing, re 60 spectively, closesthe open sides of the grooves, thus forming fuel passages that are confined on all sides. The inlet ends of the grooves 33 regis ter with the cylindrical wall of the bore 36 of the valve guide member when the valve is closed, 65 thereby obstructing the entrance of fuel into the grooves. As the valve head moves upwardly during valve closing movement’the lower side 28 thereof partsv contact with the surface I3 of the casing and that fuel which is contained in the 70 grooves at this instant has an uncon?ned path to the discharge ori?ce through which it rapidly flows in place of dribbling therefrom in a man ner objectionable to engine operation. ‘ ' While ‘Figs. 1 ,to 6 show the valve head portionv 75 body portion engageable in mating relationship by the face of said valve head remote from said discharge opening for closing the open inlet end of said passageway and cutting off the flow of fuel to said discharge outlet when said valve member is closed, a second abutment surface in said body portion engageable in mating relation ship with the face of said valve head adjacent said discharge outlet when said Valve member is in open position for closing a side of said fuel whirling groove, and a cylinder wall in said body portion between said abutment surfaces for re ceiving said cylinder of said valve head and clos ing the end of said fuel whirling groove, the face of said valve head remote from said outlet being disengageable from said first mentioned abut ment face upon initial opening movement of said valve member for accommodating a preliminary flow of fuel through said passageway. and said cylinder being removed from within said cylinder wall after a predetermined extent of opening movement of said valve member for accommo dating a subsequent ?ow of fuel through said fuel whirling groove. THOMAS M. BALL.