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Патент USA US2407928

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Sept. 17, 1946.
K. HAMILTON
2,497,926 „
PAPÉR YARN
Filed Feb. 7', 1945
ATTORNEY;
2,407,926
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,926
PAPER YARN
Kenneth Hamilton, Amsterdam, N. TY., assigner to
vMohawk vCarpet Mills, Inc., Amsterdam, N. Y.,
a corporation of New York
Application February 7, 1945, Serial No. >576,669
7 Claims. (C1. 5.7-154)
l
This-invention `relates'to strands which are
made by‘twisting a narrow strip of paper about
its ‘longitudinal axis andare variously referred
to -as-paper yarn, cord, twine, etc. More particu
larly, the invention is concerned with a novel
paper yarn having characteristics which make it
superior to `prior similar yarns for certain pur
poses, and with a method and apparatus by which
the new yarn may be readily produced at low
cost.
Paper yarn has been manufactured and used
fin‘theproduction‘of textile fabrics for some time,
and,- for some purposes, such yarn is generally
acceptable, `As made heretofore, the yarn is quite
stiff Vand wiry and it can thus be employed to
,
2
so that it is flexible, and it is `providedron its
outer surface with a thin flexible substantially
continuous film or coating that is impenetrable
by moisture. The coating serves to retain `the
moisture in the interior of the yarn,so that the
`yarn remains'ñexible indefinitely, while the coat
ing is in place. The coating serves the further
purpose of adding to the Wet strength of the
yarn, `so that the moist ñexible yarn, which .would
otherwise be too weak for satisfactory use in
weaving, may be readily woven into fabrics with
out being broken. The coating is: -preferably
made of a material whichis volatile at elevated
temperatures, and, when such amaterialïis used,
the coating remains in place under ordinary con
ditions but can bel driven ofi by heat,I so that the
yarn will then dry out and become stiñ', as‘de
advantage for the stuffer warps in pile fabrics
used >for floor coverings, in that the yarn gives
sired. The coating may advantageously bevmade
lbody to the fabric and stiffens it so that it will
of a material having lubricating qualities, and a
lie flat on the floor.V More recently, it has been
proposed, because of the shortage of more com 20 coating of sucha material enables the yarn to
pass readily through and around guides with
monly used rvmaterials, to employ paper yarn as
f outwear.
the weft or Afilling yarn in such fabrics but, for
The new yarn'may be made in various ways, as,
that purpose, the prior paper yarn has been found
for example, a strip of paper of thedesired width
quite unsatisfactory.
The difficulties >encountered in attempting to 25 and’weight may be formed into yarn by conven
`tional methods. The `yarn may then be treated
use the prior paper yarn for ñlling purposes in
to cause it to take up the moisture required `to
fabric production arise from the stiffness of the
make it flexible, after which it may be given the
yarn, as a result of which it can not readily be
coating which retains the moisture and increases
lbent sharply and is subject to kinking. When
inserted ina shed by a needle or a shuttle, the 30 ‘the wet strength of the yarn. Preferably, ‘how
ever, the paper is moistened prior to the forming
yarn overruns, so that loose loops are ‘formed at
and twisting operations and the coating is ap
the <edges of the fabric and the selvages are un
plied after the yarn has been partially formed
satisfactory. `Kinking of the yarn produces im
perfections in the fabric, as, for example, in pile
fabrics, a kink in the filling may cause separation
ofthe pile tufts, so that the pile appears to have
spaces from which the tufts are missing. The
and before the twisting is completed. By this
method, the number of operations in the produc
tion of the new yarn is reduced and a better prod
uct results, since during the completion of the
twisting, the coating material is distributed on
>prior yarn may be readily made flexible enough
the surface of the yarn to Vform a continuous
to avoid the diñiculties above mentioned by wet
ting it, but when that is done, the yarn becomes 40 `external layer.
For a better understanding of `the invention,
so weak that it breaks ‘frequently during the
weaving operation.
The present invention is, accordingly, directed
4reference may be made to the accompanying
in a fabric made on either a needle loom or a
to the method of the invention;
drawing, in which
y
Fig. 1 illustrates diagrammatically lapparatu
to the provision of a paper yarn, which‘is both
sufficiently flexible to permit its insertion as weft 45 used in the production of thenew yarn according
shuttle loom, and sufficiently strong to enable it
>to withstand the strains to which it is subjected
in weaving without being broken. The‘new yarn,
.
Fig. 2 is >a sectional View on the line 2-2 o
Fig. `1;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional View througha
once incorporated in a fabric, may be readily 50 ' part of the apparatus; and
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the new yarn on
4modified to give it the stiffness of prior paper
an enlarged scale, the yarn beingshown partly in
yarn >so that it will impart the desired stiffness
and body to the fabric.
-The new yarn differs from ordinary paper
'yarns'in-»that Vit contains moisture in its interior,
cross-section.
_
The new yarn is made of a strip lll of a suitable
paper, I,suchlas akraiTt-papeLandthe ,width ofpthe
2,407,926
3
strip and the weight of the paper stock are chosen
to give the yarn the desired size and strength. In
the production of the yarn, the strip is drawn
strand between the disc and the block of coating
from a roll I I and ñrst moistened. For this pur
material causes the later to rotate so that fresh
mal path of travel between the oriñce and guide
30 and is thus kept taut. The movement of the
pose, it may be passed beneath a guide I2 and 5 surfaces on the block are continuously brought
then over and in contact with a roller I3 par
into contact with the strand.
tially immersed in liquid I4 in a vessel I5. The
Beyond the coating device, the strip passes
liquid usedA Vis water to which preferably, a small
through guide 30 and thence to a conventional
amount, such as from 1% to 5%, of wool oil has
twisting and winding mechanism. As illustrated,
been added in emulsion form. The moistening 10 this mechanism includes a traveler 32 mounted
agent may also include a small amount of a pene
for free movement about a ring 33 which is
trant. In the moistening operation, the paper
mounted for vertical movement with reference
takes up about 25% of its weight in moisture and
to a spool 34 on spindle 35. For this purpose, ring
it becomes highly flexible but is weakened.
33 may be supported on vertical shafts 35 actu
'I‘he moistened strip passes Afrom the moisten 15 ated by cams to raise'and lower the ring in the
' ing device »through a condensing device, which
The spindle is supported for
` DI’ODBI‘ manner.
may appropriately take the for-m of a trumpet
rotation in suitable bearings (not shown) and is
I 5. This trumpet has a discharge oriñce I'I of
provided with a pulley 31 about which is trained
substantially less diameter than the width of the
a belt 38 for rotating the spindle and spool. In
strip and in its passage lthrough the trumpet, the 20 the operation of the mechanism, the drag of the
`strip is condensed and crushed together. The
traveler results in the twist being imparted to the
condensing of the strip may produce random folds
strip as it is wound on ithe spool. The twist runs
» extending generally lengthwise and, if desired,
backwardly from the traveler up to the guide 30
the strip may have its edges turned in, before it
and through the coating apparatus to the orifice
is fthreaded through the trumpet.
25 defined by rolls I8, I9. Between the orifice and
The condensed strip issuing from the trumpet
guide 30, the strip is only partially twisted and
-then passes between upper and lower compressing
the coal-ting material is thus applied before the
»twisting is completed.
rolls I8, I9. Roll I8 is formed with a circumfer
ential channel I8a and roll I9 is formed with a
In the finished yarn, the paper forming the
circumferential rib IBa which enters channel 30 interior of the yarn, as indicated at 39, contains
I8a. y The bottom of the channel and the periph
the moisture that the paper has picked up.
eral edge of the rib are shaped to define a circu
outer surface of the yarn is provided with a thin
coating 40 of material derived from the block 25
and it is found in practice, when paraffin is used,
lar oriñce through which lthe strip passes for fur
ther condensation.
Roll I9 is mounted on a
The
Vdriven shaft 20 in fixed bearings and roll I8 is
mounted for floating movement. A weighting
that the coatingv amounts to about 1% by weight
roll 2| _rests freely on roll I8 and serves to press
the coating to the partially twisted strip, the strip
it toward roll 20.
has crevices in its surface into which the coating
l
The condensed strip emerging from between
of the yarn. At the time of lthe application of
does - not always penetrate. However, as the
rolls I8, I9 is next given a coating of a material 40 twisting is completed, the surface areas on the
which is impenetrable by moisture, and thus
serves to retain the moisture inthe finished yarn
`as well as to strengthen the yarn. Various mate
rials are suitable for the purpose, =but it is de
sirable to use a material which is volatile at ele
partially twisted strip that have received the coat
ing are brought together, so that ,the layer of coat
ing material becomes substantially continuous
over the entire outer surface of Ythe yarn.
'
The application of the coating material servesv
t0 retain |the moisture that has »been picked up
vated temperatures, so that the coating can be
driven off by heat and the yarn will then dry out
and have the stiffness and strength of ordinary
paper yarn. Materials having lubricating quali
ties `are preferred, and waxy materials, and spe
cifically parafûn, are satisfactory.
IThe coating may be applied to the condensed
vby the paper and, because of the presence of the
moisture, the new yarn is highly flexible, so that
it can be readily used as filling in the weaving vof
fabrics. The new yarn will make sharp bends
strip in various ways, and one convenient appara
tus for fthe purpose includes a saucer-shaped disc
strength of ithe yarn substantially and tests indif
22 mounted on a shoulder 23 on `a stud 24 lbolted e ,
and can be easily conducted through guides, the f
needle eye, etc. The coating increases the wet
cate that the coated yarn is at least 15% stronger
than moist yarn made in the same manner but
without the coating. The coating serves an
to the end of a bracket 25. Disc 22 is _free t0
rotate on the shoulder and a block 26 of coating
other purpose, in that it acts as a lubricant, so
material is mounted on the stud for rotation and
that the yarn runs smoothly through and around »
forced toward the flat convex face of the disc by
guides without causing> wear thereof. Because
a light spring 2l. The spring is anchored at one 60 of its flexibility; increased wet strength, and the
endon the stud and ~at its other end bears against
a plate resting on the outer face of block 26. The
bracket 25 may be mounted in any appropriate
lubricating quality olf its surface, alighter weight
manner and, in the construction shown, itis at
quiredj-Í
of ,the new yarn may be used Ías filling inthe
weaving operation than would be otherwise re
"
„i
'Í
.
tached to an arm 29 formed withran opening at 65 _After the new yarn has beenñnished, it may
one end, in which is mounted a porcelain guide
be stored for indefinite periods’before use, and it
36. Arm 29 is pivoted at 3I on any suitable sup
retains its flexibility and strength during such
port and can be swung upwardly in a clockwise
storage. If the yarn were not provided with the
direction about its pivot.
,
The condensed strip issuing from between rolls 70
I8, I9 passes between the flat convex face _of disc
22 and the body of coating material. The center
of stud 24 is aligned with the oriñcejdefined by
rolls I8, I9, but the diameter of the stud is such
that the ~strand is forced slightly >out of its nor- f 75
coating, ¿the moisture on it would evaporate in
the course of time, and, as the yarn dried out, it
would- become f stili.v
The moisture`> originally
present would also be likely to ‘cause it to mildew
or to become locally weakened’beÍcause-of uneven
drying.v After` the yarn has been employed4 Va
fabric, it can" be readily made to becomestiif and ~
2,407,926
6
5
and being made of a material having lubricating
wiry, like ordinary paper yarn, by removal of the
coating. For this purpose, it is only necessary to
subject the fabric to heat which will volatilize
the coating and dry out the yarn. In the finish
ing of most pile fabrics, it is customary to apply
sizing to the back and then to pass the sized fab
ric through a dryer. In the heating incident to
the drying of the sizing in the usual way, the
coating is removed from the new yarn and the
paper is dried out so that the yarn assumes the
desired stiffness.
The production of the new yarn in accordance
with the methodv described Oilers various advan
qualities.
3. A yarn which comprises a strip of paper
containing a substantial quantity of water dis
tributed throughout the paper, the strip being
formed with random generally longitudinal folds
and twisted about its longitudinal axis, and a
thin substantially continuous coating of a waxy
material covering the outer surface of the twist
10 ed strip, the water within the paper making the
twisted coated strip flexible and the coating be
tages, in that the application of moisture and
the coating is carried on as an incident to the 15
ing impenetrable by water and preventing the
escape of the water from the paper and also add
ing to the wet strength of the twisted strip.
4. A yarn which comprises a strip of paper
plication of the coating to the partially twisted
containing a substantial quantity of water and
a less amount of oil, the water and oil being dis
tributed throughout the paper, and the strip be
strip insures that the finished yarn will have a
ing formed with random generally longitudinal
production of the yarn and requires only minor
additions to the usual equipment. Also, the ap
coating which is substantially continuous. It is 20 folds and twisted about its longitudinal axis, and
a substantially continuous coating impenetrable
to be understood, however, that the new yarn
by water and unaffected by the said oil covering
may be made by other methods and, also, that
the outer surface of the strip, the water and oil
conventional yarn may be converted to the new
within the paper making the twisted coated strip
yarn, if desired. Thus, the strip may be con
verted into yarn by ordinary methods and the 25 flexible and the coating both adding to the wet
strength of the twisted strip and preventing es
finished yarn may then be moistened and co'at
cape of moisture therefrom.
‘
ed in a separate operation. As the finished yarn
5. A yarn which comprises a strip of paper
is tightly twisted, it is difficult to impart to it
containing a substantial quantity of water of the
the desired moisture content, but this can be
done by passing the yarn through a bath for a 30 order of about 25% of the weight of the paper,
the water being distributed throughout the paper
sufficient length of time, or placing the yarn
and the strip being formed with random gener
packages in a moist atmosphere. After the yarn
ally longitudinal folds and twisted about its lon
has taken up sufficient moisture to make it flex
gitudinal axis, and a substantially continuous
ible, it may be coated, for example, by means of
the coating device disclosed. The molstening 35 flexible coating of a substance insoluble in water
and volatile at elevated temperatures covering
and coating carried on in operations independ
the outer surface of the twisted strip, the water
ent of the formation of the yarn involve the use
within the paper making the twisted coated strip
of additional equipment and labor, but, even so,
ilexible and the coating both adding to the Wet
the conversion of the ordinary stiff, wiry yarn to
the new yarn may be advantageous, particularly 40 strength of the twisted strip and preventing the
escape of water therefrom.
for the owner of a considerable stock of the con
6. A yarn which comprises a strip of' paper
ventional yarn.
containing a substantial quantity of water dis
I claim:
tributed throughout the paper, the strip being
1. A yarn which comprises a strip of paper
containing a substantial quantity of water dis 45 longitudinally folded and twisted about its lon
tributed throughout the paper, the strip being
formed with random generally longitudinal folds
gitudinal axis, and a substantially continuous
coating impenetrable by water covering the outer
surface of the twisted strip, the water within the
substantially continuous coating impenetrable by
paper making the twisted coated strip -flexible
water covering the outer surface of the twisted 50 and the coating both adding to the wet strength
of the twisted strip and preventing the escape of
strip, the water within the paper making the
twisted coated strip flexible and the coating both
water therefrom.
.
7. A yarn which comprises a strip of paper
adding to the wet strength of the twisted strip
and preventing the escape of water therefrom.
containing a substantial quantity of water dis
2. A yarn which comprises a strip of paper 55 tributed throughout the paper, the strip being
longitudinally folded and twisted about its longi
containing a substantial quantity of water dis
tributed throughout the paper, the strip being
tudinal axis, and a thin substantially continu
ous coating impenetrable by water covering the
formed with random generally longitudinal folds
and twisted about its longitudinal axis, and a
outer surface of the twisted strip, the water with
thin substantially continuous coating impene 60 in the paper making the twisted coated strip ilex
ible and the coating adding to the wet strength
trable by water covering the outer surface of the
twisted strip, the water within the paper making
of the twisted strip, preventing escape of the wa
ter from the paper, and being made of a material
the twisted coated strip flexible and the coating
adding to the wet strength of the twisted strip,
having lubricating qualities.
preventing escape of the water from the paper, 65
KENNETH HAMILTON.
and twisted about its longitudinal axis, and a
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