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Патент USA US2407950

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Sept. 17, 1946.
Filed Nov. 15, 1943
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sel?- 17, 1946.
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Sept. 17, 1946-
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Patented Sept. 17, 1946
Alfred A. Corcanges, Greenville, S. 0.
Application November 15, 1943, Serial No. 510,386‘
5 Claims. (01. 177-352)
the claims, do, therefore, not form a departure
This inventionrelates to a system for control
ling the operation of the lights on airports, air
dromes, runways, runway strips, marker beacons,
?eld boundaries and the like and in general to
lighting and signalling systems requiring a switch
from the invention. ,
Figure. 1 is a diagram for an automatic switch
to be turned on or off.
breaker, showing the relative positions and ar
rangement in general of the elements with wir
ing connection employed in this system,
The main object of the invention consists in
providing a control system for automatically op
erating the lights of the landing strips or run
ing ?eld with parallel runwaysandlighting con
trolled ‘according to the present system.
ways of airports, air?elds or airdromes by means
of radio signals sent‘or transmitted from an ap
proaching craft carrying a radio transmitter.
A further object of the invention consists in
providing a control system for automatically se
lecting landing strips or runways of an airport
or airdromes which are safest‘ for landing with
Figure 3 is an elevation and partial section
of the wind direction indicator or weather vane,
here represented as a so-called wind-stock or
sock with a clutch. or freezer.
Figure 4 is a horizontal section along the line
4-4 of Figure 3.
Figure 5 is a side elevation of the clutch or
regard to the prevailing direction of the wind
and to the direction of the incoming signal and
for automatically operating the lights for the il
lumination' of the selected runway or landing
freezer in Figure 3.
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic plan view of a land
Figure 6 is ahorizontal section along the line
E—Ei of Figure 3, and
Figure 7 is a plan view of a ?eld having in
tersecting runways in star-shape arrangement.
Throughout the drawings the same reference
numerals indicate the same details.
The system according to my invention is based
on a remote control operation exercised by radio
signals emitted from an aircraftapproaching an
air?eld, airport or airdrome which closes the cir
cuits for the lights illuminating one of the land
ing strips, runways or the like of the said ?eld
strip, said operation being initiated and carried
out from an approaching aircraft by means of
radio signals sent out from said craft.
A’ further object of the invention consists in
automatically indicating'the proper direction of
landing on the selected runway or landing strip
of an airport or airdrome, which is safest with
regard to the prevailing direction of the wind by
means of speci?c directive signal lights, operated
by the radio signal sent from the approaching
A still further object of the invention consists
in providing‘a radio control system for the auto
matic selection of landing strips or runways of
or port and on double automatic selective oper
ation controlled by a wind indicating instrument,
selecting‘ the landing strip or runway which is
safest with the prevailing direction of the wind,
and selecting‘the direction in which the landing
should take place on said landing strip or runway.
For the purpose of exercising the remote con
trol the aircraft may use the radio transmitter
airports or airdromes and for the automatic op
eration. of the illumination and the proper direc
tive signalling lights of the same, which may op
with which it is usually equipped and which per
mits, as a rule, to transmit spoken telephonic sig
the receiving arrangement, the latter,‘ however, 40 nals and telegraphic signals, using C. W, or cer
tain de?nite frequencies. This transmitter
being adjustable as regards the distance from
equipment may be used without change and it is
which it may be operated, either directionally or
merely necessary to instruct the ‘pilot or oper
in. all directions.
ator of the transmitter as to the nature of the
Further objects of the invention will be appar- ,
signals desired.
ent from the following detailed speci?cation de
The receiving arrangement is arranged on the
scribing and illustrating‘ a speci?c embodiment
ground and is a special arrangement adopted for
of the invention. It is, however, to be under
the speci?c purposes of the invention. It con
stood that the description, in speci?c terms is
erate with C.
signals, voice or tone signals
alike in accordance with the adjustment given to
notito be understood in a limitative sense.
tains a filter or ?lters for excluding undesirable
invention consists in the means and principles
frequencies and electronic means for producing
applied to‘ attain the above-mentioned objects,
and is disclosed in such’ terms that embodiments
of the invention other than those speci?cally de
scribed will be obviousto the expert skilled in this
quence relay. The latter is able to control the
energization of the circuits of the lights for the
landing strip illumination and of the directive
These modi?cations as far as included in
an. impulse capable of energizing a time or se
signal lamps.
The air?eld, airport or airdrome to be used in
connection with the system according to this in
installation merely by a de?nite signal on a de?
vention comprises a plurality of runways or land
nite frequency.
The output of the receiver 12a which picks up
ing strips pointing in different directions. One of
these strips has to be selected automatically upon
the frequency transmitted from the plane passes
therefore from terminals l2, l3 to filter 22 which
receipt of a signal and this selection has to be
made in accordance with the direction in which
the wind is blowing at the time at which a land
passes only a selected narrow band of frequencies
ing is to be made.
proved conventional connection'with said ?lter.
as well known in the art. This frequency or fre
quency band passes on to a tube IS in some ap
As a rule the number of landing strips or run 10 This connection includes a grid coupling con
denser l'l', a grid leak [8, a cathode by-pass re
ways is limited and each strip is assigned for
sistor 60 and a cathode by-pass condenser 6|, but
duty during landings effected in the event that
it is to be understood that any other conven
the wind is blowing from one of two sectors op
tional connection may be selected. The output
posing each other on the compass dial. There
fore in addition to the selection of the landing 15 of the tube passes through a choke coil 23 which
may or may not ‘be provided with a shunting con
strip itself a further selection has to be made as
denser E6. Leads 81 and 82 are battery connec
regards the direction in which the landing strip
is to be used.
According to the present invention this double
The condenser i9 couples the outputrof the
selection is carried out by means of a wind sock 20 tube to the diode or recti?er tube 5?. whose out
put circuit 83 includes the relay 2i].
or wind stock operating a selector switch which
Said relay is provided with contacts 63, 64 nor
completes the circuits of the illumination lights
mally open when the relay is deenergized.
and of directive signal lights on the landing strip
The contacts 63 and 64 control the circuit 84
which point in a direction nearest to the direc
tion in which the Wind sock or wind stock is 25 of a sequence relay 2| which may be a time re
lay, if desired. The contacts of this relay re
pointing and makes them ready for operation.
main closed when the relay has been energized,
The incoming signal will then operate the lights
either permanently until a further signal is re
whose operative circuits have been closed.
ceived or for a certain period of time. Relays of
In order to avoid confusion the wind sock or
wind stock has to be free to rotate the selector 30 this type are conventional constructions usually
switch in any direction as long as no airstrip has
been selected.
However, once a selection has
been made and the illumination and direction
lights are on, a further change is prevented by a
so-called wind stock freezer which uncouples the '
switch from the wind stock or arrests the latter
and therefore prevents further operation as soon
as current is ?owing through the illumination
provided with contacts operated by a cam which
is actuated by the relay armature.
The relay contacts El, 58 thus remain closed
after energization of the relay 2!. They control
a circuit B9, 10, part of which is shown in Figure
2 and which establishes a connection between
the source of power supply and the air?eld il
lumination installation.
This circuit may'contain a switch 5!, which
and directive light circuits.
It is ?nally necessary to reopen the illumina 40 may be a time controlled switch in the event that
the relay itself is'not time controlled. , Instead of
tion and directive signal light circuit after the
this switch or in parallel thereto a photocell con_
landing of the craft automatically in order to
trolled circuit may be inserted at the terminals
bring the air?eld into condition for further op
B, A which is not illustrated as it is again a
eration by remote control. This result may be
conventional installation. The runway may be '
obtained in various ways. The circuits may be
provided with one of those photocell switch ar
opened, for instance, by a time relay operating
rangements which serves to'operate garage doors
after the elapsing of a certain number of minutes, ,
or the like, with a photocell receiving a ray of
and the relay operated by the receiver may be of
such type as to perform the operation. A second 50 light. When the ray is intercepted by the in
coming plane, the switch 5| is opened and cuts
means consists in a photocell arrangement oper
the circuit thus extinguishing the runway illu
ated by a beam traversing the landing strip near
the ground and intercepted by the landing air
The wind indicator with freezer or clutch best
craft. A third means consists in using relays
which once energized will fall back upon receipt 55 seen in Figures 3 to 6 consists of a vane 24 pref
erably in the shape of a wind stock, wind sock
of a further impulse; In this case the pilot of the
or wind-T; is ?xed on an upright shaft 28 revo
craft has to send a further remote control sig
lubly mounted in a ?xed bearing 29 and adapted
nal, when the illumination of the landing strip
to operate the wind- switch 25. This switch 26
serves no further useful purpose, whereby it will
keeps the runways to properly lighted by lamps
cause the opening of the relay operated switch.
60 35 with respect to the prevailing wind and also
vAn arrangement embodying the above outlined
controls the red and green lights 32, 33, respec
system will now be described in detail.
tively at the ends of each runway 30, see Figures
Figure 1 illustrates the operation of the air
strip illumination and of the directive lights
2 and 7.
The wind stock freezer 25, Figure 3, is an elec
thereon by means of radio transmission from an 65 tromagnetic device or clutch which will lock the
incoming airplane.
vane 24 to keep the lights burning on one of the
The transmitter on the ‘airplane and the re
runways cr landing strips 30 as long as ‘the cur
ceiver‘on the‘ground are of purely conventional
rent or voltage is applied to it, that is, the lights
design and are therefore not shown in the draw
32, 33, 35 will remain on until the circuit is broken
ings. The transmitters on aircraft are equipped 70 by the relay 2|. The runways or landing strips
with various communication means operating on
30 will, therefore, remain lighted, regardless of
various frequencies, such as signals on selected
momentary wind ?uctuations. gThewindstock
frequencies, talking currents superposed on cer
freezer 25, Figure 3, can'be wired parallel, in se
tain short waves, and C. W.'communications. It
ries, parallel-series, or separately to operate-its
is, as a rule, desirable to operate the illumination
clutch or locking mechanism used in this system.
quency, the receiver on the airdrome will be op
‘ This clutch preferably consists as here shown
erated. It is ‘preferable to produce an audio beat
tone and to pass said‘ beat tone through the ?lter
to the tube It. The tube ampli?es the beat tone
whichwill appear across he choke 23 which forms
the load device for the tube l6‘. Choke 23 and
of three disks 25a, 25b and 250, of which the for
mer or top disk is ?rmly ?xed with both the vane
24 and its shaft 28, while the bottom disk 250
is ?xedly mounted as by screws and the like on
top of the bearing 29, and the middle disk 25b
condenser 66 are preferably tuned to resonance
is slidably mounted around the shaft 28. In or
der to prevent the middle disk from turning knee
links 2511 are provided between disks 25b and 250.
One of the disks, preferably the upper one 250.
is provided with a coil having many turns of wire
so that current ?owing through the coil will pro
duce a strong magnetic ?eld attracting the mid»
dle disk 25b. The wind stock or wind sock freezer
25a is an electromagnetic device or clutch which
will lock the vane 24 from changing the runway
lights when current is turned on. This electro~
magnetic device is a ?eld coil and operates in
the following manner shown on Figures 3 and 4.
The ?eld coil is attached to the shaft 28 and also
to the wind vane 24. When the current is ap
plied to this ?eld coil by wires 1 I, ‘I2 a powerful
magnetic ?eld is produced thus magnetizing the
top disk 25a of the wind stock freezer. Disk 25b
is attracted and disks 25a and 251) are locked by
the interengagement of the clutch teeth 25]‘, on
their adjacent surfaces. As long as the current
is on, the vane 24 will be stationary as it is locked
‘to the ?xed bearing '29 through the intermediary
of the parts 28, and 25a, 25b, 25c and 25d.
In Figure 2 is shown the arrangement of the
lighting arrangement for a plurality of runways
together with wiringconnections and wind indi
cating switch and Figure 7 a similar arrangement
for a star-group of airways. A number of illu
minating lights 35 are placed in parallel rows
along the sides of the runways and a red light 32
and a green light 33 provided at the ends of the
runways. Proper wiring 3'! in an electric circuit
with the beat note thus increasing the voltage
passed on to the diode recti?er tube 52. The pos
itive half cycles of the signal, for instance, flow
through relay 20, and close contacts 63, 64.
Thereby the circuit of the relay 2! is closed and
this relay operates, with its contacts remaining
closed after operation.
If the pilot does not want to land after hav
ing surveyed conditions, he sends a second im
pulse ‘which will again operate. relay 2! but will
separate the contacts now closed so that illumi
nation ceases again.
If the pilot however does not send a second sig
nal the lights will remain on until they are ex
tinguished either by one of the time controlled
devicesor by the photocell arrangement,
When the circuit 59, ‘it has been closed, the
D. C. circuit ‘supply for the lights will be con
nected (at ‘H, Ila) with the supply conductors
85, 86a of the ?oodlights and directive lights of
the runways and will therefore connect these
lights with the selector. Simultaneously also coil
25 of the windstock freezer is connected across
the supply wires (at III, 12). The previously de
scribed selective operation of the lights may
therefore take place.
It is to be understood that the invention as
here disclosed is not limited to the details here
described and shown, but that the same may be
varied widely without departing from the spirit
of the invention as de?ned by the subjoined
. Having described the invention, what is claimed
is here shown for the illuminating lights 35 of
each runway terminating with arcuate contact
as new is:
1.. In an automatic lighting system for air
strips 38 provided in a circle of the switch box
dromes and air?elds having a plurality of land_
26. ri‘he circuit is completed through a double or
ing strips provided with directive head lights at
diametrical arm 39 arranged with its contact
the end of each strip for indicating the desirable
ends over said strips 33 and ?xed on the revolv
and the undesirable direction of landing for the
ing shaft 28 carrying the wind indicator 24 and
time being, and further provided with illuminat
the magnetic disk 25a which connects with the
ing ?oodlights alongside the landing strips, a
arm 35! in the switch box 26.
radio reception system, for operation by wave
Similarly the red lights 32 and the green lights
33 connect by wires 40 and 4! with correspond 50 signals from a landing aircraft, a relay system,
relay contacts associated therewith closed for the
ing contact strips 42 and 43 arranged in another
duration of the landing operation when the relay
circle in the wind indicator switch '26 so as to be
system has been operated initially by a signal, a
able to make contact with end of the radial arm
wind indicator, comprising a windstock and an
44 preferably placed at right angles to the dia
metrical arm 39.
electrically operated windstock freezer, holding
The radially positioned runways in Figure '7 are
wired and lighted in similar manner. A manual
switch is indicated in the circuit at '50 which pro
vides the ground attendants with necessary emer
the windstock in its position for the duration of
the landing operation, means for operating said
freezer, a rotational double selector switch with
gency control of the installation and a master
arranged in a circle and two independent con
tactor arms co-operating with the two sets of
switch is likewise shown at 55 therein.
While the above description explains the use
of this invention primarily in connection with
landing operations ‘it will be clear that the same
arrangement may be used in connection with tak
ing off operations from an air?eld. Moreover the
usefulness of the system is not con?ned to illu
mination or signal systems in air?elds. The dc"
vice can be adapted to other uses in which a
simple or multiple pre-selective operation has to
be performed before the effective operation is
initiated by means of remote control.
two independently operated sets of contact strips
contacts, the latter being adapted to be con
nected with the windstock, permanent connec
tions between each of the contact strips of one
contact set of the selector with the illuminating
?oodlights of one landing strip and permanent
connections between one contact strip of the sec-,
ond set with one of the directive lights at each
end, and a current supply circuit for the con
‘i nections made by the contactor arms including
the contacts of the relay set closed for the du
ration of the landing operation.
When the pilot in the aircraft approaching the
landing ?eld operates his transmitter for a short
2. In an automatic lighting system for air_
dromes and air?elds having a plurality of land
time to emit signals of the predetermined fre
ing strips provided with directive head lights at
the ‘end of each strip for indicating‘the' desir
able and the undesirable direction of landing for
the time being, and further providedwith illu
minating ?oodlights alongside the landing strips,
a radio reception system, for Operation by wave
signals from a landing aircraft, a relay system,
relay contacts associated therewith closed for the
duration of the landing operation when the re
lay system has been operated initially by a sig
shaft, a ?xed clutch member, a coil mounted in
- operative relation to the ?rst named clutch mem
ber, links between the said ?xed member and the
axially movable member, for connecting the said
axially movable member with the ?xed member,
while permitting axial movement, the'energiza
tion of the coil causing engagement of the cou
pling member mounted on the shaft with the
axially movable member connected with the ?xed
nal, a wind indicator comprising a windstock 10
and an ‘electrically operated windstock freezer,
v5. In an automatic lighting system for air
holding the windstock in its position for the
dromes and air?elds having a plurality'of land
duration of the landing operation, means for op
ing strips, one of which is to be selected for
erating said freezer, a rotational double selector
landing purposes in accordance with prevailing
switch with two independently operated sets of 15 wind conditions, each of said strips being pro
contact strips arranged in a circle and two in
vided with illuminating lights alongside the strip
dependent contactor arms co-operating with the
and with directive lights at the end of the strip,
two sets of contacts, the latter being adapted to be
indicating the desirable and undesirable direc
connected with the windstock, operative circuits
tion of landing, operative circuits for these lights,
for the illuminating floodlights of each contact
a wind indicator and a selector switch, operated
strip, circuits including a contact strip of one
by the same, the latter selecting the circuits op
selector contact set, two separate further circuits
erating the illuminating lights and those oper
for each landing strip, each circuit including one
ating the directive lights, a means for energizing
of the directive lights at each end, to indicate
said selected circuits upon approach of an air
simultaneously the desirable and undesirable 25 craft, comprising a radio reception apparatus, '
landing direction, a further circuit including the
means arranged on the aircraft for transmitting
means for operating the Windstock freezer ar
a short signal to the reception apparatus, a relay
ranged in parallel to the aforesaid circuits and a
systern'connected with the latter, consisting in
controlled current supply for all the circuits in
cluding the relay vcontacts closed for the dura
tion of the landing operation.
3.. In 'a'system of the type described as speci
?ed in claim 2, a windstock freezer operating
-means, including a coil, a clutch consisting of
members attached to the wind indicator and ?xed
members, the latter being in operational relation
to the coil and moved into engagement with the
member connected with the wind indicator under
theinfluence of the energization of the coil.
4. In a system of the type described as speci?ed
in claim 2, a wind indicator comprising a rotat
able shaft, and a wind vane, a magnetizable
clutch member on said shaft, a further magne
tizable clutch member, axially movable along said
a relay energized by the signal and in a relay
30 remaining operated after energization for a pre
determined period of time, an operative circuit
for the 'latter controlled by the ?rst named re¢
lay, relay contacts associated with the relay re
maining operated after energization, a circuit
controlled by said relayv contacts, a windstock
freezer, electrical means for operating the same,
an operative circuit therefor, said circuit being
directly connected'with the circuit operated by
the above outlined relay contacts, and a power
supply circuit for all the circuits above mentioned
controlled by the circuit'associated with said re
lay contacts.
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