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Патент USA US2407952

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Sept 17, 1946.
E. D. DEL @AS1-@LLC Y ESPANOL 2,407,952
19AM STRUGTURE
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Sept. 117, 194e.
E, D. DEL CASTILLO Y ESPANOL 2,407,952
DAM STRUCTURE
Filed May 12, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Sept. 17,- 1946
2,407,952
UNITED STATES PATENT \ OFFICE '_ ,I
DAM STRUCTURE
Eugenio Diaz del Castillo y Español,
Buenos Aires., Argentina
Application May 12, 1943, Serial No. 486,717
In Argentina March 20, 1943
3 Claims.
lcl. erf-so)
2
The present invention relates to dams and more
particularly to dams composed of sections which
entrant angles I2 on the upstream side. It can
be seen that if the sections .III are so disposed
areÍ so- arranged relative to one another and to
relative to one another as to define a dam crown
line I3 of a broken character including line com
the ground, as to »prevent sliding and to reduce
the quantity of building material required to re» CII ponents I4, I5 and I6, each extending in a dif
ferent direction, said line components being
strain a water head of any given magnitude.
oblique in each case to the horizontal projection
The gravity type dam, which may ‘be defined
Il, Figure 1, o-f the lines I8 of maximum slope of
as a dam which does not depend on arch action
the hillside, see Figure 2, a dam will be obtained
to resist the forces imposed upon it, while'wídely
used, fis subject to the disadvantage that to pre~ 10 consisting of a plurality of prisms I0 more or less
`truncated depending upon the ground contour. i
vent sliding and bad distribution of the loads pro
The direction of flow of the Water of the stream
duced'by the weight of the dam itself and the
or river to be dammed is shown by an arrow in
water restrained thereby, it is necessary to employ
Figure 1. It is noted that the dam axis line I3
very large quantities of building material which
render the completed structure unduly costly 15 extends in an upstream direction from the cen
ter line of the stream so that the bases of the
from the lpoint of View of both labor time con
sections II), while having a general slope toward
sumed and material used.
the center of the stream Will, transversally to
It is therefore an object of this invention to
their axes, slope in the upstream direction.
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provide a dam which will mitigate the economic
disadvantages of theknown type gravity dam 20 To facilitate consideration of the foregoing, the
angles and slopes that must be taken into con
and which is characterized by a construction
sideration in the construction of a vdam in ac
which is adaptable to solid construction, buttress
cordance with this invention, have been set `forth
construction, multiple arch construction, or the
in Figures 1, 2 and 3 of the drawings. The angles
like.
Other objects and advantages of this invention 25 ,81, 182, ßs and .fn are defined between the slope of
the ground at the particular point and the verti
will be apparent from the following detailed de
cal. The angle a, see Figure 3, is the apex angle
scription of preferred embodiments thereof in
of the dam. -n is the angle defined 'between the
conjunction with the annexed drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary plan view of a dam 30 horizontal and the line of slope of the base of a
section I 9 transversally of its axis. 0 and @-11 are
constructed in accordance with this invention, the
dam sliding angles. The angles fy1, fyz, we, and 'v4
view being limited to the portion of the dam
are defined between the horizontal projections I1
which extends from the center line of the stream
of the line I8 of maximum slope and the axis
over one hillside;
lines I4, I5 and IE respectively of the dam sec
Figure 2 is an elevational view showing the up
tions. ry and 11 in Figures 4 and 5 refer to the same
stream face of the construction of Figure 1;
angles. The slope of the base 2| of each section
Figure 3 is a view in_cross section taken along
I0 transversally of its axis results in a narrower
the line 3-3 of Figure 1, reference planes for
base for the sections Iß since, in the absence of
certain mathematical considerations being ren
this slope, the cross section of the dam section at
dered in chain lines;
any point would be a right triangle, see the broken
Figure 4 is a perspective view of a modified type
line 22 of Figure 3, while, with the slope, the angle
of dam constructed in accordance with this in
between` the wetted face of the section and the
vention taken from a downstream direction; and
base thereof is always less than 90°. Hence, for
Figure 5 is a fragmentary view in perspective
,any given section apex angle a a narrower ‘section
of a dam section illustrating the application of
results from the construction of this invention.
this invention to buttress construction. i
The narrowness of the section resulting from
Referring now in greater detail to the draw
the inclination of the base transversally of its
ings and particularly to Figures 1 to 4 inclusive,
axis has the concomitant advantage that the
it will be noted that the dam of this invention is
composed of sections IIJ which are in the over-al1 50 height of the downstream face 23 of the section
is reduced. 'I‘he over-all gain in reduction in vol
form of truncated prisms. It can be seen that if
ume can Ibe appreciated by comparing the full line
the sections I0 are set in position across the valley
cross section of Figure 3 with the broken vline
which is to be dammed in such relation to each
other that angular open spaces II facing down
cross section which would result if the base of the
stream are provided at each of a plurality of re 55 section were not sloping transversely of its axis.
2,407,952
3
dam would lie at 24 and would deñne an angle 0
with a line 25 lying at right angles to the as
sumed base 22. The actual sliding angle of the
present dam is represented by @-11 and is defined
of the dam of the present invention must some
ibetween a line 26 representing the resolved forces
what exceed the over-all length of a conventional
acting on the dam and a line 21 at right angles
dam at the same site.
to the base 2l. It can be seen that 0_1; is always
It is apparent that the construction of the
smaller than 0 since the tendency of 0 to increase
present invention affordsv a high degree of stabil
with the dam of the present invention is more
ity against sliding due to the fact that the ground
affords horizontal reactions in an upstream direc 10 than compensated for by the increase of n. Ac
cordingly, the resistance to sliding of the present
tion which contribute to resisting the. thrust of
invention is great compared to a conventional
the water.
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dam.- In solid dams, the division of the dams into
At the bottom of the valley and in those zones
sections with some open spaces between sup
o-f the hillsides in which the slope- increases as
the ground rises, it is apparent that the angles 15 presses substantially all longitudinal reactions to
the ground. There remains to be considered
defined between the components of the line I3
the 'longitudinal stresses which may arise from
will, in general, be reentrant on the upstream side
the pressure of the water on those surfaces of
and, between the sections which are in contact
thedam which are in contact with the ground.
with each other at the wetted face, there will be
angular open spaces at l-i.r facing in a downstream 20 The importance of this pressure is different from
It is, of course, to be understood that the economy
of material apparent from Figure 3 is somewhat
reduced due to the fact that the over-all length
direction.
that', of the subpressures because it is much
easier ¿to eliminate it by efficient drainage, of
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Of .the spacesI l I, the most important, although
beit not always lthe largest, is the one at the
theground applied to surfaces of the terrain not
loaded by the dam. 'I'heangularspaoes arising
the‘most difficult and expensive part of the foun 25 in the construction of the dam of the vpresent in-l
vention facilitate drainage. In buttressor mul
dation. The joints between the sections lll will
tiple arch dams the ready elimination of longi
be beveled ~and made watertight by any known
fbottom of >the valley which affords economy in
tudinal pressures is even more clearly seen.
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It is apparent that the foregoing remarks apply
» In those areas where the slope of the hillside
' diminishes, the angles of the axis line i3 will pro 30 not only to masonry dams or the like, which have
means.
ject outwardly in an upstream direction as in
dicated .at 29 in FigureV 1..
a vertical o-r substantially vertical wetted face, but
also to dams of! the lbuttress type havingv a sub»
There will be virtual
stantially inclined wetted face, see Fig-ure 5. In
superposition of the ends of the sections of the
dam corresponding to a smaller resultant of the
the latter case, a further advantage results from
thrust of the water in these areas. These pro 35 the diminution of theweight of water required
for stability. Compensation for this diminution
jecting angles at 2d can., >oi' course, be replaced
by'curves. By selecting a correct axis line, bear
is afforded by the inclinationo-f the base of each
ing'in'mind the slopes of the hillsides in any par
section transversally of -its axis, see >angle n in
Figure 5.
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ticularV case, it is possible to obtain a minimum
What is claimed isf
over-all volume of building material whereby 40
1. A dam structure having a broken line axis
economies in construction are effected.
comprisinga plurality of» sections substantially in
The selectionv of an axis line can be utilized not
only as the basis for the. construction o-f a dam of
the over-al1 form o-f truncated prisms; the hori
zontal axes of said prisms beingoblique tothe
minimum structural volume, but also» may be
utilized for obtaining a greater inclination of the
bases of the sections so as to achieve improved
disposition of the stresses to which the dam is
subjected or an improved stability against slid
slope ofthe hillsides; the foundation base of- each
section being declivent, transversally- to the sec
ing. If, starting from; the Obliquity of the axis
foundation reactions opposite to- water pressure,
whichis'required for a damof minimum struc
tural volume, the axis Obliquity, i. e.: the angle
y, is increased, one will eventually arrive at an
axis obl-iquity where the‘greater over-all length
of the dam is compensated for by the lesser cross
sectionalarea of its component sections.
If the
Obliquity of the axis. line isvcontinued beyond‘this
horizontal projections» of the line of maximum
tion axis, toward upstream; whereby to affordV
stability against sliding, reduced foundation
Width, and downstream reduction of height and
accordingly diminution of the stresses; said- sec
tions being set in angular relationship v.with each
other, defining between-them at the Areentrant" up
> . stream angles of the dam angular open spaces
point, the structural volume of the‘darn will con
facing downstream, providing for- drainageand
freecontraction; ,and impervious‘joints atthe up
tinfue, `to increase.
stream contact of these sections.
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Referring again- to> Figure 3, itcan be seen that
theangle eis the sliding angle which would exist 'so
if the,V base 2! of the section »lddìd not `slope
transversally of itsaxis. In such a casethe line
representing the resolved Yforces- acting on the
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2. A dam as claimed in claimV l'having solid
sections.
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,.3.. A dam asfclaimed in claim l having sections
ofthe buttresstype.
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-EUGENIODLAZDEL eAsr-rrLLo-Y-EsPAÑon.
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