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Патент USA US2407966

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Sept. 17, 1946. '
Filed June 25, 1943
2 SheetslSheet 1
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Sept. 17, 1946.
Filed June 25, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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A R TH UR HUL. u-Rro E.
Patented Sept. 17, 1946
Arthur Hull-Rydc, Bayside, N. Y., assignor of one
fourth to Arthur Wilde, Bayside, and one-half
to Martin V. Groves, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Application June 25, 1943, Serial No. 492,281
7 Claims. (01. sol-‘54.6)
My invention relates to compound hydraulic’
brake compressors or thelike, and more particu~
larly to a valve structure for controlling the op
eration of said compressor or for controlling the
pressure between a low pressure side and a high
pressure side.
Since the invention has been usefully employed
in compound hydraulic brake compressors, some
times called compound master cylinders, it will
ing” or successiverapid actuating impulses with- V
out losing. pressure.
Further objects and advantages of the inven
tion will more fully appearlfrom the following
I description taken in connectionwith theaccom
panying drawings Which show, by way of exam;
ple, present preferred embodiments of --the in
The invention consists in the novel features,
be described in such an embodiment by way of
arrangement, and combination .Of parts .embodl-V
ied by way of example inthe mechanism here
after described as illustrative of the present pre
ferred forms of the invention, and the'invention
will be more particularly pointed out in the ap
In structures of this character, the operation
comprises in general two stages; the ?rst stage
representing the low pressure stage and the sec
ond stage the high pressure stage. In passing
from one stage to the other, the operation is
controlled by a high pressure or unloading valve
pended claims.
Referring to the drawings: ‘
Fig. 1 is a longitudinalsectional view illus
which comes into operation at a predetermined
trating‘the compressor unit embodying the in
pressure. It is desirable in such structures to
vention; and
have this valve operate in such a way that the
Fig.‘ 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional View,
“carry-over” from one stage to the other he ef
on an enlarged scale, of a part of the unit dis
fected with a smooth action so that the change
closed in Fig.‘ 1, illustrating a modi?cation there
from simple to compound action may be brought
about without any noticeable surge in the system.
Since the invention relates more particularly
This is particularly important where the corn 25 to a valve mechanism and arrangement, only
such portions of ‘the ‘remaining structure of the
pressor is utilized to deliver an ultimate rela
tively high pressure.
compressorrunit will be described ‘as necessary to
' Additionally, in compressors or compound mas
ter cylinders of the type disclosed, the valve serves
as a hydraulic coupling between the primary and
secondary pistons causing them to move to?
gether as one unit during the ?rst or low pres
sure stage and permitting relative movement be
tween said pistons during" the second or high
pressure stage; and in such a structure, it is
likewise desirable that‘the coupling and uncou
pling of the two pistons be e?ected smoothly and
Without appreciable jerk.
. The present invention is in the general nature
or‘ an improvement over that disclosed in the co
pending application of Martin V, Groves, Serial
No, 463,165, ?led October 2%, 1942, now Patent
No. 2,343,901, for “Compound hydraulic com
pressors’); both as to structure and operation.
An object of the present invention is to pro
vide an improved highlpressure or unloading
valve structure providing a smooth change-over
from low pressure to high pressure.
show the full and complete relationship of the
Referring more particularly to Fig. 1,,a pri
mary cylinder is designated as l, and positioned
therein for reciprocal movement is a ,primary
piston 2 provided with spaced apart heads com
prising sealing cups 3 andA. The piston is some
what reduced in diameter intermediate the cups
3 and 4 to provide an annular chamber 5 which
is in constant communication with the reservoir
E through a port 7. The reservoir 6 is provided
with a further port 8 which is in communica
tion with the space 9 provided in the cylinder I
forward of the head 3 when the piston is intre
tracted position, as indicated in the drawings.
The space 9 provides a pressure chamber adapted
to be. placed in communication, as by an outlet
It, with the pressure line,.such as a brake sys
tem, and egress and ingress is controlled by suit
able cheek valvemechanism designated in its
entirety as It, A‘plurality of ports l2 provide
Another object of the invention is to provide
passage of ?uid from the annular chamber 5 to
an improved valve structure which responds '*
quickly without undue jerk or surge and which
the pressure chambers to provide for bleeding
will positively remain open at all pressures above
that at which it is designed to open.
Another object‘ of the invention is to provide
a simpli?ed valve mechanism permitting “rock- ;
the ‘system, and the sealing cup 3 prevents re
verse passage of the fluid. from the chamber 9
into the chamber 5. The valve ! I is held in place
by a spring l3 which is seated on a spring plate
13', resting in a shoulder‘provided in the cylin
der l, and having suitable openings for the pas
instead of being vented to atmosphere directly,
the port 39 may, if desired, be vented to the
reservoir 5 and thus avoid possible leakage of
any ?uid which may escape from the bore 28 past
the plunger 29 into the chamber 38. The ?uid
be on the exterior of the unit, such as on the
chamber 3'! is placed in communication with the
brake pedal or actuating rod.
bore 28 by means of a passage 49, one end of
The primary piston 2 is provided with an axial
which is in communication with the cylinder
bore [4 which serves as a‘ secondary cylinder with
chamber 31 and the other with the bore 28 by
in which is provided a secondary piston l5 pro
vided with a head comprising a sealing cup l6. 10 way of the passage 32. It is to be noted that the
passage 49 is of relatively smaller size than the
The secondary piston I5 is provided with an
passages 32—-3l and ports 38-4‘! and of suf
axial bore I5’ in which is seated the rear end of
?ciently small diameter to restrict the sudden
a retractile spring I‘! whose forward end is in
passage of the ?uid required to move the valve
engagement with an annulus cup l8 which is
seated against the forward head of secondary 15 from its closed to, its open positions. With a
sage of ?uid ‘from the chamber 9 to the valve II.
In the present embodiment, the primary piston 2
is retracted by a spring (not shown) which may
given strength of spring 33, by enlarging the
cylinder Hi, i. e. on the primary piston 2. V A prim
diameter of the passage 49, the valve would open
ing valve, designated in its entirety as I9, is dis
at alower than normal pressure on'a fast brake
posed within the cup [8 for controlling the pas
. application; and, conversely, by reducing the di
sage of fluid between the high pressure cylinder
[4 and the reservoir 6 by way of passages 20, the 20 ameter of passage 49, the valve would open‘ at a
higher than normal pressure. The correct size of
annular space 5 and the opening 1. The prim
ing valve 19 is a one-Way valve serving to take
?uid from the reservoir 6 upon retractile move
ment of the secondary piston I5 and to close
upon forward actuation of said piston.
this passage is such that it offers suflicient re
striction to the passage of ?uid from the bore
28 into the chamber 31 to enable the valve to
25 open at substantially the same pressure on fast
The secondary piston is somewhat reduced in
as on slow application. The spring 33 must be
diameter rearwardly of its forward end so as to
of sufficient strength to return ?uid through the
provide aspace 2! which is in communication
passage 49.
with'the'space 5 through a series of ports 22. To
It will be seen from the foregoing that the
the rear of the sealing cup 4 and within the cyl 30 forward head of the plunger 29 and the rear
inder. I, there is provided a chamber 23, which
of the piston 35 are subjected to the same degree
for. purposes of convenience will be referred to
of ?uid pressure. However, since the piston 35
as the primary chamber.. Between this chamber
has a greater area than the head of plunger 29,
23 and the space 2|, there is provided a check
there will be a pressure di?erential urging the
valve designated as 24, so constructed and ar 35 plunger 29 forwardly, and at a. predetermined
ranged that in the retracted position of the parts
pressure the spring 33 will be overcome and the
as indicated in Fig. 1, the valve is open, placing
plunger moved to the end of its forward stroke,
the space 2| and chamber 23 in communication;
as limited by engagement of piston 35 with the
and during the actuation of the compressor, the
bottom of its cylinder 33. This will place the
valve is closed so as to prevent passage of ?uid
valve parts 21-39 in register and the valve will be
from thevchamber 23 into the space 2!. The
fully open and the compound pressure actuation
chamber 23 extends rearwardly into a reduced
then takes place. The pressure at which this
bore 25, forming a rearward extension of the
takes place, therefore, is determined by the dif
cylinder I, and in communication, by way of a
ference in area between the plunger 29 and the
port 21, with an axially extending cylindrical 45 piston 35 and the resistance of the spring 33.
bore 28 in communication withthe secondarycyl
One feature of this structure is that the chamber
inder [4 by way of the bore l5’. The ?ow of ?uid
38 is never exposed to substantial pressure. Once
between the small cylinder l4 (i. e., high pressure
the valve is open, it can not close until the pres
side) and the large cylinder 23 (i. e., low
sure has dropped to or below the point at which
pressure side) is controlled by the structure to 50 differential in pressure on the plunger 29 and
be more particularly described following.
piston 35 caused the valve to open, i. e., as soon
A valve plunger 29 is slidably disposed in the
as this differential is less than the force exerted
bore. 28 with a relatively ?uid-tight lit; and is
by the spring 33, the valve will be closed and not ,
provided‘with an annular port groove 30 in com
Once the valve opens and the prede
munication with the bore 28 by means of radial 55
termined pressure is maintained in bore 28 (and
passages 3! and an axial passage 32. The plunger
cylinder I4), the passage 49 becomes inoperative
29 is resiliently held outwardly, so that the ports
does not affect the speed at which the brakes
21--30 are out of register, by means of a helical
can be applied since ?uid for this purpose passes
compression spring 33 disposed between the inner
through the passage '32Vand ports 39-21 which
end of the plunger 29 and an annular shoulder
may be of substantial diameter.
34 provided between the bore 28 and bore I 5’.
In this position the valve is closed. Means to
' Modi?cation
open the valve will now be described.
it is necessary to have several
.The outer end of the plunger 29 is provided
with a piston head 35 of larger diameter than 65 very rapid applications in quick succession, it may
be desirable to avoid a restricted flow of ?uid
the forward end of the plunger 29 and bore
from the chamber 31 back into bore 28, to thereby
28, and the piston head 35 is disposed in a coop
permit a given size spring 33 to more quickly
erating cylinder 36, formed as an enlarged con
return the valve to closed position. The in
tinuation of the bore 28'. In the closed posi
tion of the valve, the piston 35 separates the 70 ability of a quick return of valves for like pur
poses to closed position has proven a great dif
cylinder 36 into a closed rear ?uid chamber 31
?culty heretofore in installations where quick
and a forward chamber 38 which is vented by
successive applications are of importance. In
means of a port 39 to atmosphere. It is impor
Fig. 2 I have shown a modi?ed valve ‘plunger
tant that this chamber 38 be vented to a pressure
lower than that of the low pressure side; but 75, which readily provides this desirable quick return,
without detracting from the other valuable fea
tures of the’ invention.
It will be understood that the modi?ed valve
rep-laces that of Fig. 1, and only such parts of
and when the member 29 has reached the for
ward position of its stroke, the port 30 comes
into register with the outlet port 21, thereby
permitting the high pressure ?uid from the cylin
the entire device will be illustrated as may be
der Hi to pass through the bore 15', the bore 28,
useful in understanding the modi?ed valve struc
ture. The structure of Fig. 2 which is identical
with Fig. 1. will be identi?ed by the same numerals
through the passages 32 and Si , outwardly
through the ports 39-2‘! into the annular cham
ber 25 and primary cylinder 23. At this time,
used in Fig. 1 for like parts with an added a
the valve 23 is closed, due to the pressure on the
1O rear of said valve which was released from open
Referring more particularly to Fig. 2: The valve
position by the forward movement of piston 15.
plunger is designated as 50 and is provided with
The pressure is thereby compounded by being
a. port 5! adapted to be placed in communication
displacedfrom the small or secondary cylinder
with the high pressure side (as 28a) by means
l 5 into the large or primary cylinder 23, to there
of radial passages 52 and an axial passage 53; the 15 by continue to move forward under compound
port 5! being adapted for cooperation with the
?uid pressure the piston 2 which as above de
port 21a. The passage 53 is somewhat larger
scribed displaces ?uid from the chamber 9 out
than (the corresponding passage 32 of Fig. l and
through the opening l9. As previously pointed
terminates in a passage 54, somewhat larger than
out, the restricted passage to into the chamber
the corresponding passage 49 of Fig. l, for com
El controls and limits the volume of ?uid passed
mtmication with the chamber Sla in which a pis
into the chamber 3? so that the valve is caused
ton head 55 is adapted to be positioned. Adja
to gradually open under the differential of pres
cent the passage 54, the passage 53 is provided
sure between the small piston head of the plunger
with a conical valve seat 59 for a cooperating
29 and the larger piston head 35, the differential
valve head 5'5 resiliently held thereagainst by
thus created being sufficient to overcome the re
means of a light helical compression spring 58
sistance of the spring 33.
whose forward end is seated on a screw ring 59
axially held, as by screw threads, within the pas
sage 53. The valve head 5‘! is provided with a
restricted passage 69‘ which corresponds in size
and function to the passage til of Fig. 1.
It will be seen that with the valve 5'! held on
its seat 55 the passage 69 restricts the flow of
?uid in a direction from the bore 28a into the
When the pressure in the secondary cylinder M
which is exerted through the bore 28 on the
plunger 29 is relieved by removing manual actu
ating pressure from the end M of the piston l5,
the pressure of ?uid in the chamber 31 is re
moved and the spring 33 returns the plunger 29
to the vrear. It is noted that in the embodiment
of Fig. 1, the restricted passage Ii? also serves as
chamber Sta; while in a reverse direction of flow 35 a check on the return or ?uid from the chamber
37 to the bore 29. However, where it is neces
sary for a much quicker return of the valve to
a more rapid ?ow of ?uid from the chamber 31a
closed position, such as where rapid successive
into the bore 28a.
actuation is necessary, the modi?cation shown
in Fig. 2 may be utilized, and in such event when
the valve head 5'! moves against its spring 58
to raise from its seat 56 and thereby provide for
the pressure is reduced to or below the predeter
mined pressure, the valve head 51 moves to the
the primary piston 2 being held in retracted po
left compressing the light spring 58 and the ?ow
sition by suitable means (not shown), and the
of fluid is not restricted by the small opening 66
secondary piston being held in retracted posi 45 but there is provided a much freer passage
tion by the spring I1, and the valve plunger 29
through the valve sea 55 and past the open
being held in closed position by its spring 33;
valve member 5'5, thence through the large bore
the outlet opening it being attached to the ?uid
'53 into the bore 23a.
line of the device or devices to be actuated, and
Upon the return movement of the piston l5,
the entire system being supplied with the requi
the valve 24 is opened permitting ?uid to pass
site ?uid, the device operates in the following
from the primary cylinder chamber 23 past the
manner: Manual pressure is exerted upon the
valve 24 through the passages 2i into the annu
outer end ill of the secondary piston l5, as by
lar passage 5 and out through the opening 1 into
means of suitable connections thereto, prefer
the reservoir 6. Likewise as the spring ll re
ably including .the ball or swivel connector 42.
tracts the piston l5, the one-way priming valve
At this time, fluid is trapped within the secondary
i9 is pulled from its seat by suction in the cylin
cylinder M between the piston 55 and the prim
der l4 permitting ?uid to pass through the pas
ing valve l9 which is closed, thereby coupling the
sage 29 from the annular chamber 5 which, as
piston IE to the piston 2 for unitary movement.
above described, is in communication with the
As the piston 2 is advanced, the ring 3 closes the
reservoir .6 by way of the opening 7.
port 8 to the reservoir 6 and ?uid is displaced
In either of the embodiments of Fig. l or 2, the
from the chamber 9 through the plate l3’ and the
venting of the space 38 in front of the piston 35,
valve I I outwardly through the outlet l0 into the
as by means of the-port 39, permits a more accu
main line of the device or devices to be actuated.
rate calibration of the valve than would be the
Upon predetermined pressure being attained in 65 case if the pressure moving the plunger 29 to the
the chamber 9, the corresponding pressure is of
open position of the valve had to work against the
course present in the secondary cylinder [4, and
pressure in the annular space 25 or other opera
as this predetermined pressure is exerted also
tive pressure chambers of the system.
within the bore 28, it is communicated through
Having thus described my invention with par
the passage 32 and the restricted passage 40 into 70 ticularitywith reference to preferred forms, and
the closed cylinder chamber 3?, which being of a
having described and referred to certain modifi
larger area than the opposite end of the plunger
cations, it will be obvious to those skilled in the
29 causes the plunger 29 to move forward against
art, after understanding my invention, that vari
the spring 33 thereby compressing the same—
ous changes and other modi?cations may be
With the parts in the position shown in Fig. 1,
the chamber 38 being vented through a, por-t‘39-
made-therein without departing from the spirit
the reverse direction; whereby upon a predeter
mined pressure‘ being reached in said inlet bore
appended claims to cover such changes and mod
said piston is moved forward against said spring
i?cations as are within the scope of the invention.
means under control of said restricted opening
What I claim is:
and said valve is opened to thereby place said
1. A movable valve structure comprising a
inlet bore and outlet port in communication, and
valve body ‘having a high pressure inlet bore pro
upon the pressure in said inlet bore falling below
vided with an outlet port, a valve carried by said
said predetermined value said piston is relatively
body and movably disposed in said bore to open
more freely returned rearwardly by said spring
and close said port responsive to predetermined
?uid pressure exerted on said valve, a valve pis 10 means and said valve is relatively rapidly closed
thereby disconnecting said inlet bore and outlet
ton movable with said valve and disposed within
a hollow cylinder provided on said body, spring
4. A valve structure comprising a pressure
means urging said valve to closed position and
chamber having an outlet port, a reciprocable
said piston rearwardly in said cylinder, said pis
ton‘ dividing said cylinder into a front compart 15 valve member for opening and closing said port,
resilient means for yieldably holding said valve
ment and a rear compartment which constitutes
member in closed position, a piston for driving
a ?uid chamber, said valve being provided with a
continuously open restricted ?uid passage from
said valve member to open position against said
said highpressure inlet bore to said ?uid cham
resilient means, a cylinder within which said pis
her to move said Valve to open position against
ton is disposed and providing therewith a closed
and scope of my invention, and I aim in the
said resilient means upon predetermined pressure
cylinder chamber on one side of said piston for
being reached in said high pressure bore, means
actuation of said piston, said cylinder on the
providing an enlarged ?uid passage'in the reverse
opposite side of said piston being provided with
direction from said ?uid chamber to said high
a relief port, said piston and valve being provided
pressure bore to release said resilient means upon 25 with a passage in communication with said pres
the pressure in said high pressure bore falling
sure chamber and said cylinder chamber, and
below a predetermined value, and means for
valve means in said passage providing when closed
venting said front compartment.
a continuously open restricted ?uid passage
2. A valve structure having outlet and inlet
therethrough into said cylinder chamber and pro
chambers, valve means interconnecting said 30 viding when open relatively free passage there
chambers comprising a body providing a hollow
through from said cylinder chamber into said
cylinder closed at one end and a bore smaller
than that of the cylinder extending from the oth- 7
pressure chamber.
5. A valve structure comprising a pressure cyl
er end of said cylinder and in communication with
inder having an outlet port and an inlet opening,
said inlet chamber, said body also providing a ?rst 35 a larger cylinder in series with said pressure cyl
port extending outwardly from said small bore
inder, a reciprocable valve member comprising
and in communication with said outlet chamber,
a piston disposed in said pressure cylinder and a
a valve plunger having a, piston head in said
larger piston disposed in said larger cylinder and
cylinder and a relatively smaller head in said
providing therewith a closed cylinder chamber
bore, said plunger being provided with a restrict 40 on one side of said larger piston for actuation of
ed passage interconnecting said‘cylinder and inlet
said valve member, said larger cylinder on the
chamber and with a second port in communica
opposite side ‘of said larger piston being provided
tion with said restricted passage and positioned
with a relief port, said valve member being pro
for cooperative registration with‘ said ?rst port,
vided with a ?uid passage having one end in
resilient means urging said plunger outwardly to 45 communication with said pressure cylinder and
disconnect said ports for closing the ?uid pas~
the other end being of smaller cross~sectional
sage between said inlet and outlet chambers, said
area and in communication with said closed cyl
plunger being movable inwardly against said re
inder chamber, said valve member also being pro
silient means by a predetermined fluid pressure
vided with a valve port disposed for cooperation
exerted on said piston head from said inlet cham
With said outlet port and in communication with
ber to thereby place said ports in register and to
said one end of said passage, and resilient means
open the ?uid passage from said inlet chamber to
for yieldably holding said valve member in a di
said outlet chamber, and-means for venting said
rection toward said closed cylinder chamber and
cylinder forwardly of said piston to a pressure
said ports out of register.
lower than that of said outlet chamber.
6. In a compound hydraulic compressor of the
3. A movable valve structure comprising a
character wherein a secondary piston is operable
valve body having a high pressure inlet bore pro
to produce pressure ?uid in a secondary cham
vided with an outlet port, a valve carried by said
ber from where it is passed to a primary cham
body and movably disposed in said bore to open
ber through an axial bore and an outlet port in
and close said port responsible to predetermined 60 'said piston, the combination with said secondary
?uid pressure, a valve piston integral with said
piston providing a valve piston cylinder in liquid
valve and disposed within a hollow cylinder pro
communication with said bore and of larger di~
vided on said body, said cylinder having a, rear
ameter than said bore, of a reoiprocable valve
wardly disposed head between which and said
member comprising a piston valve disposed in said
piston a close ?uid chamber is provied and hav 65 bore and a valve piston of larger diameter oper
ing a relief port disposed forwardly of said piston,
atively disposed in said valve piston cylinder and
spring means urging said valve to closed position
providing therewith a closed cylinder chamber on
and said piston rearwardly in said cylinder, said
one side of said valve piston for actuation of said
piston and valve being provided with a ?uid pas
piston valve in one direction, said valve piston
sage placing said fluid chamber in communica 70 cylinder on the opposite side of said valve piston
tion with said inlet bore, relief valve means dis
being provided’with a relief port, said piston valve .
posed in said passage and providing a, continu
being provided with a passage interconnecting
ously open restricted passage for the flow of ?uid
said secondary chamber with a valve port dis
between said inlet bore and said ?uid chamber
posed for cooperative registration with said out’
and an enlarged, opening for the ?ow of ?uid in 75 let port and with a continuously open restricted
?uid passage between said secondary chamber
and said closed cylinder chamber, and resilient
means for yieldably urging said valve member
in a direction toward said closed cylinder cham
ber and said ports out of register, said restricted
passage being of such size as to effect opening of
the valve at substantially the same pressure in
said secondary chamber on fast as on slow oper
and providing therewith a closed cylinder cham
her on one side of said larger piston for actua
tion of said valve member, said larger cylinder on
the opposite side of said larger piston being pro
vided with a relief port, said valve member being‘
provided With a ?uid passage having one end in
communication with said pressure cylinder and
the other end being of smaller cross-sectional
ation of said secondary piston, and said resilient
area. and in communication with said closed cyl
means being of su?icient strength to return fluid 10 inder chamber, said valve member also being pro
from said closed cylinder chamber to said sec
vided with a valve port disposed for cooperation
ondary chamber.
with said outlet port and in communication with
'7. A valve structure comprising a pressure cyl
said one end of said passage, and resilient means
inder having an outlet port and an inlet open
for yieldably holding said valve member in a di
ing, a larger cylinder in series with said pressure 15 rection toward said closed cylinder chamber and
cylinder, a reciprocable valve member compris
said valve port in one of its relatively opposite po
ing a piston disposed in said pressure cylinder and
sitions with respect to said outlet port.
a larger piston disposed in said larger cylinder
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