sept- 24, 1946. R. B. AlTCHlSON 2,407,972 BLOWPIPE FOR PIERCING METAL BODIES Filed _Aug. 28, 1942 Z'Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR _ Robe/‘Z B Az'ichzsm BY ' ATTORNEY Sept 24, 1946., R, B. AITCHISON V 7 2,407,972 BLOWPIPE FOR PIERCING METAL BODIES Filed Aug. 28, 1942 Z‘Sheets-Sheet 2 v ‘ INVENT I Roberi B. All? ’ won BY ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 24, 1946 2,407,972 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,972 BLOWPIPE FOR PIERCING METAL BODIES Robert B. Aitchison, Staten Island, N. Y., assignor to The Linde Air Products Company, a corpo ration of Ohio Application August 28, 1942, Serial No. 456,572 3 Claims. (Cl. 158-2744) 1 2 ‘This invention relates to a blowpipe for pierc ing metal bodies wherein a jet or stream of oxy gen is discharged from the blowpipe to remove, provide such a blowpipe which is adequately cooled; and to provide such a blowpipe which is better adapted than previous apparatus for ‘by thermochemical reaction, successive portions piercing holes through metal bodies and produc of a metal body,‘and the blowpipe is inserted in 5 ing relatively deep kerfs by a severing operation, the hole or kerf produced by such removal of wherein the blowpipe is inserted within the hole metal. It is to be understood that the term or cut produced. Other objects and novel fea “piercing,” as used hereinafter and in the ap tures of this invention will become apparent from pended claims, refers not only to a substantially the following description and accompanying round hole or drilling, normally only slightly 10 drawings, in which: larger than the blowpipe, which extends partly Fig, 1 is a condensed side view of a blowpipe or completely through the body, but also to a cut or kerf extending into the body and which partly or completely severs one portion of the body from the remainder thereof. The blowpipe 15 and. method of this invention comprise an im provement upon the apparatus known as an “oxygen lance.” An oxygen lance is used for thermochemically piercing deep holes or cuts in large bodies of ferrous metal, such as billets, ladle skulls, sala manders, and the like. The oxygen lance con sists of a long iron or steel pipe through which oxygen is passed while the pipe is advanced into the hole being pierced in the body of metal. Heat 25 for thermochemical reaction is supplied by com bustion of metal at the end of the lance pipe itself, sometimes augmented by the heat of an constructed in accordance with this invention and utilized in piercing a hole in a ferrous metal body; Fig. 2 is a condensed longitudinal section of the blowpipe of Fig. 1, on a slightly enlarged scale; Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section on a further enlarged scale of the nozzle end of the blowpipe of Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is an end view of the nozzle end of the blowpipe; ‘ Fig. 5 is a cross-section taken along line 5-5 of Fig. 3; and ' Figs. 6 to 10, inclusive, are cross-sections, on an enlarged scale, taken‘along lines 6-6, ,'|-—1, 84-8, 9-—9, and Hl—l0, respectively, of Fig. 2. In accordance with this invention, a ferrous ordinary cutting blowpipe, the lance thus be metal body is pierced thermochemically by an coming shorter and shorter as the operation pro 30 operation wherein a jet of metal removing oxygen ceeds. However, with the oxygen lance, a is directed against a portion of the body and against the bottom of a hole formed in the body smooth-walled, accurately controlled, and large hole suitable for precision work, such as for cen by the removal of metal therefrom, the jet of tering or piercing a billet, cannot ordinarily be metal removing oxygen being discharged from a produced. Moreover, the expensive and now 35 torch which is inserted in and advanced within scarce metal of the lance itself is lost by com the hole. Heat to maintain the thermochemical bustion; progressive burning of the end of the metal-removing operation is supplied by inter lance renders it di?'lcult for the operator to secting jets of oxygen and fuel gas discharged judge the progress he is making; and it is almost separately from the nozzle to mix and burn ex impossible to control the shape of a cut with the 40 ternally of the nozzle but within the hole. Prefer oxygen lance, as the length of pipe required for ably, the jets of oxygen and fuel gas which pro a relatively short-‘hole makes manipulation of duce such an externally mixed ?ame have a rela tively high velocity, are discharged at an acute the lance di?icult. Among the objects of this invention are to pro angle to each other, and are con?ned until sub vide a blowpipe for piercing or cutting ferrous 45 stantially immediately before impact, as by being metal bodies more readily, more economically, discharged through passages which intersect at and with a greater ease of starting and maintain a substantially common outlet. ing the cutting or piercing operation; to provide As illustrated in Fig. 1, a blowpipe for carrying such a blowpipe by means of which a larger, more out the above method may comprise a handle H, accurately located, and smoother-walled hole 50 to which is attached a long nozzle N which is can be produced; to provide such a blowpipe - considerably longer than indicated in the draw ings, normally being of the order of several feet which is not, like the oxygen lance, consumed itself during operation; to provide such a blow or more and, in any case, longer than the length pipe in which the possibility of ?ashbacks, which of the deepest hole to be pierced. From the end normally lead to work stoppage, is prevented; to 55 of nozzle N, a metal removing stream or jet of‘ 2,407,972 oxygen, surrounded by a plurality of intersect ing jets of oxygen and acetylene which mix and burn externally of the nozzle to form a ring of high temperature oxy-fuel gas ?ames, are di rected against the bottom of a hole 9 being pierced in a ferrous metal body or workpiece NV. As illustrated more clearly in Figs.‘ 3 and 4, the metal removing stream or jet of oxygen is discharged axially of the nozzles through a passage formed. by a central tube ill of the nozzle; a plurality of‘ jets of fuel gas, such as acetylene, are discharged‘ from a plurality of outlet passages ll disposed in; Q a ring surrounding central tube IE1; and a plu~ rality of oxygen jets are discharged. from outlet passages i2, each of which terminates in a sub stantially common outlet with one of the acetylene passages l l. The oxygen and acetylene jets discharged from these passages thus are con?ned before discharge until substantially im~ mediately before intersection, and intersect at an 2, acute angle so that kinetic energy at impact 4 with a manifold 37 which forms an annular space 33 surrounding tube 19, as in Figs. 2 and '7. Manifold 3i also forms an annular space 39 about baiile 20, as in Figs. 2 and 6, to which used cooling medium returns, after ?owing between tube l9 and baffle 29, past the end of ba?‘le 2i‘! and thenv back between bai?e 25f and outer tube at, as explained previously. From space 33, the used cooling medium is‘ discharged through an outlet line Iii]. Oxygen lines 25 and 3B, acetylene line 2%; and cooling medium inlet line 35 are con nected to suitable sources of supply of the re spective gases or liquids, while cooling medium outlet d?'may be connected with a drain or other suitable source of disposal of the used cooling I medium. The rear end of baffle 28 may be secured to manifold El in any suitable ?uid-tight manner, as by brazing. Gas-tight connections between tubes l6 and i9 and glands 28 and 32 and mani fold 31; respectively,,m‘ay be secured in‘ a suitable impact being‘ closely adjacent the point of exit manner, as by packing 4% compressed by glands 28 and- 3-2‘, tightened by aset of bolts‘ 133 which from the nozzle. Acetylene and oxygen outlet passages I! and threadedly‘ engage‘ manifoldv 37- and pass through a boss formed‘ on outer gland‘ 28. In addition, causes an intimate mixing thereof, the point of suitable thread sealing material, such as litharge i2 terminate in a beveled surface l3 forming a or the like, may assist‘ in providing an‘ eiTective bell mouth in a nozzle block H, which‘ is provided seal between nipple‘ Z2- and valve block 23', as with a central aperture into which tube‘ ii! ex~ well as between the nipple and gland 28; tends. Acetylene passages ll lead from an an In operation, after a flow of cooling water has nular distributing passage l5, 2; portion of which 30 been established and the cutting oxygen pres is' formed between block M and central tube iii sure testediwith the cutting oxygen valve open, . and the remainder 'of which is formed between the preheat oxygen and acetylene are adjusted central‘ tube iii and a surrounding tube 5%. by valves 27 and 3| so that a‘ suitable externally Passages ll diverge forwardly at a slight angle mixed ?ame is produced by the‘ intersecting from central tube Ill‘ and the longitudinal axis acetylene and oxygen jets discharged from the of the nozzle, while outlet passages l2 converge nozzle. The heating‘ ?ame or ?ames thus‘ pro~ forwardly at an acute angle toward tube It and duced is utilized in heating a desired‘ spot on the the longitudinal‘ axis of the nozzle. Each oxygen work, and as soon- as this spot has‘ reached the passage I2 is supplied by a connecting passage ll, drilled from the rear end of block I4 and con‘ 40 kindling temperature, the metal-removing oxygen is turned on’ slightly and the- blowpipe drawn veying oxygen from an annular distributing pas back a- bit to’ widen‘ the area of attack. A few sage lB. formed ‘between tube i6 and an inter circular motions will establish the width, and a mediate tube l9; slight back and forth or reciprocatory motion of To prevent the nozzle from‘ becoming ever heated or consumed during operation in a con 45 the nozzle will cause the stream or jet- of- oxygen discharged from'the‘ nozzle to remove‘ metal and ?ned space, a cooling medium, such as water, is form themouth of- the hole by thermochemical circulated therethrough in suf?cient quantity to action. 'The' blowpipe' is advanced into the hole, maintain the temperature of the nozzle below its preferably‘ with a slight reciprocatory motion, temperature of combustion with oxygen. The cooling medium?ows toward the end of the nozzle 50 suppl'ementa1"heat being‘ supplied by the exter nally'mixed ?ames, which also-tend to-wash‘ the between intermediate tube IQ and a baffle" tube wall of the hole and-produce a smooth bore; 2G,,around the end of the ba?ie tube, and then The: hole may ‘be pierced entirely through the back between the baf?e tube 29 and a relatively body, or terminated at any point desired. In heavy tube 2iv forming the outer wall of the addition, the blowpipe maybe used to sever a nozzle. Each‘ of tubes l9, l6, l9, and 2! are relatively‘ thick‘ ferrousmetal body by moving: the secured to block M in a ?uid-tight manner, as nozzle along the'bottom- of a kerf, or by making by welding, brazing, or silver soldering. a hole and then removing successive increments As in Figs. 1‘, 2, and 10, the rear end of oxygen starting at one side of the hole; During such op tube It is suitably secured, as by brazing, to a nipple 22, in turn connected to a valve block 23'. Ch 0 erations, the nozzle will be adequately“ cooled by the water circulating theret-hrough, since the A shut-off valve within block 23 is actuated by water passes quite close to theend of thenozzle, a handle 24, and oxygen is supplied to the valve which is exposed to the greatest amount of heat. block 23 by an inlet line 25. Acetylene is sup In a piercing operation carried out in accord plied distributing passage is, between tubes iii ance with this invention; itlis possible to produce, and Hi, from an inlet line 26 provided with‘ a through a ferrous‘ metal article; an accurate, control valve 21 and connected with a gland smooth-walled hole of suf?cient size so‘ that a 28 which forms an annular space 29 about boring bar provided with a- tool may be inserted tube l0, as in Figs. 2 and 9. Heating oxygen within the hole to' machine the‘ hole ‘to larger is supplied passage it, between tubes IS and I9, from an inlet line 30 provided with a 70 dimensions‘. Such a hole can‘be‘made in“ a‘ much valve 3!. and connected with an intermediate‘ shorter time than by mechanical methods, such ‘as drilling, and does not require the heavy'and glandEZ which forms an annular space 33 about expensive equipment utilized in other operations, tube l5, as in Figs. 2 and 8. A suitable cooling such as punching. The size of the hole which medium, such as water, is supplied by an inlet line 35, provided with a valve 36 and‘ connected 75 can be made with a reasonable degree of accuracy 5 2,407,972 with the consumable oxygen lance is about 1% to 11/2 inches, smaller than normal boring bars. of the hole when ,the‘pipe is partially consumed, and it is therefore customary to utilize 10 foot or A hole 21/2 to 3 inches in diameter can be made 20 foot lengths of pipe; It is obvious that a non with greater accuracy by utilizing a, blowpipe con consumable blowpipe having a nozzle only 3, 4 or structed in accordance with this invention and 5 5 feet long, for instance, is much more, readily having a nozzle approximately 1%,: inches in di-) manipulated than a lance having a pipe 10 feet ameter. In addition, it appears possible, by in or 20 feet long. creasing the size of the nozzle, to increase the Among other advantages of the blowpipe of this diameter of the hole which can be produced with invention are the economies obtained.’ For in desired accuracy. stance, ‘the invention eliminates the Waste in The apparatus of this invention also‘has pe lance pine, due to the unusable stubs. Present culiar utility in the reduction to charging size of normal practice is to utilize either 10 foot or 20 large masses of scrap steel and iron, such as foot sections of pipe, but the last foot or so can skulls, salamanders, and the like. Particularly not be used because the lance is too short. In under present conditions, when the availability 15 addition, operations carried out with the consum of scrap is a problem of tremendous importance, able lance are interrupted every time a piece of any method by whichjsuch large masses of scrap pipe is to be attached to the handle, whereas the can be more readily cut or broken up has consid blowpipe of this invention can be used continu erable value. There aretwo general methods ously. Furthermore, since the blowpipe of this which may be used. In one method, lines of invention is not consumed during the operation, weakness are produced in the skull or salamander an amount of new steel, equivalent to that which by cutting kerfs or holes partially through the otherwise would compose the pipe of the con metal, and the weakened mass is then broken sumable lance, is saved. with a heavy ball dropped thereon. In such op The blowpipe of this invention utilizes less erations, it is desirable to cut from the crown, or 25 oxygen in piercing an equivalent hole, since lower more nearly pure steel or iron side, as it is un oxygen pressures, resulting in lower oxygen con ‘economical to cut in the slag end of the skull, sumptions, are adequate. For instance, on a job since cutting proceeds relatively slowly and the which normally required, with a consumable slag is relatively friable and breaks easily in im lance, 80 to 100 pounds per square inch gage oxy pact. After making four cuts or kerfs 90 degrees gen pressure, with a non-consumable blowpipe a apart and extending laterally into the skull sub larger and more uniform hole was made at a stantially to the center and down to the shrink greater speed at an oxygen pressure of only 65 age cavity, a few blows of the ball readily break pounds per square inch gage. . the skull into four parts. Thus, it is unnecessary Although one embodiment of this invention has to cut entirely through the skull. 35 been described with particularity, it is to be un Another method of operation (which should be derstood that various changes may be made in carried out only by experienced operators) con the apparatus without departing from the spirit‘ sists in drilling holes or kerfs enlarged slightly at and scope of the invention as de?ned in the ap the bottom, to accommodate dynamite or other pended claims. explosive. A few well-placed kerfs and su?icient What is claimed is: dynamite will readily break up even the hardest 1. A blowpipe for thermochemically piercing a of skulls. An advantage of this invention, as deep hole in a metal body comprising a long noz compared withthe consumable oxygen lance, lies zle having a central tube open at one end; means in the fact that the hole or kerf cannot be en ' largeol at the bottom readily with the consumable 45 for supplying metal removing oxygen to the other end of said central tube; said nozzle also having lance, whereas the blowpipe of this invention can readily be manipulated to produce considerable enlargement. The use of the blowpipe of this invention is less tiring and exacting upon the operator. The walls of the hole or kerf are relatively smooth and free of obstructions, so that manipulation of the noz zle is easier; the molten products of reaction are hotter and run out more freely, but at the same time less slag is produced which results in a cleaner kerf or hole; manipulation is easier be cause there is little danger of the nozzle freezing or welding itself in the hole; and a hole or kerf can be stopped at any time and restarted without di?iculty. In addition, the end of the apparatus is not always being consumed, so that the operator can ascertain the progress he is making. This is par ticularly advantageous, since the rate of com bustion or consumption of the end of a lance pipe may vary widely, as from 6 inches to 20 inches per minute, for diiferent conditions, and the op erator does not know, for instance, whether the ?rst 12 inches of the lance pipe consumed have produced a hole 8 inches or 24 inches deep. Also, the nozzle of a blowpipe constructed in accord ance with this invention, need be only as long as, a second tube surrounding said central tube in spaced relation; means for supplying fuel gas to the space between said central tube and said sur rounding tube; said nozzle also having an inter 50 mediate tube surrounding said second "tube in spaced relation; means for supplying oxygen to the space between said second tube and said in termediate tube; a ba?le tube surrounding said intermediate tube; means for supplying a liquid 55 cooling medium to the space between said inter mediate tube and said ba?le tube; a ring-shaped nozzle block attached to one end of each of said tubes except said baffle tube, the end of said baille tube being spaced from said block; an outer tube 60 secured to said block, whereby cooling medium will ?ow from said nozzle block in the space be tween said intermediate tube and said baille tube, then around the end of said baffle tube, and re turn through the space between said balile tube 65 and said outer tube; and passages formed in said nozzle block meeting at substantially common outlets spaced about said central tube, one group of passages connecting with the fuel gas supply . space between said central tube and said second tube and another group of passages connecting with the oxygen supply space between said sec ond tube and said intermediate tube. or slightly longer than, the greatest thickness of 2. A blowpipe for thermochemically piercing a body to be pierced; but a consumable lance pipe deep hole in a metal body as de?ned in claim 1, must be considerably longer to reach the bottom 75 in which at least the discharge section of said 2,407,972 7 '7 fuel gas passages are inclined forwardly at an angle away‘ from’ the longitudinal axis of said 8 produced by thermochemical metal removal and into the mouth of which hole said nozzle is in serted, the con?uent jets of fuel gas and oxygen providing high-temperature oxy-fuel gas heating oxygen passages are inclined forwardly at an ?ames which surround and supply supplemental angle toward the longitudinal axis of said nozzle. heat ‘for the thermochemical removal of metal by v3. A blowpipe for‘ thermochemically piercing said stream of oxygen; and passages for circulat deep holes in metal bodies, comprising a long ing a cooling medium through said nozzle and nozzle having a longitudinal, central passage for at least to" a point adjacent the discharge end discharging» axially from one end of the nozzle a- metal removingstream of oxygen against a de 10 thereof, said fuel gas discharge passages termi nating in outletsv grouped around said central sired portion of a metal body; passages terminat passage and incliningv at an angle away there ing- in outlets for discharging- jets of fuel gas from’, and said heat supplying oxygen discharge and oxygen, each jet of fuel gas being discharged nozzle, and at least the discharge section of said at an acute angle to an oxygen jet and inter s'e'c'ting' said oxygen jet adjaoent to the point of exit? from said nozzle, whereby said jets of fuel gas‘an‘d oxygen converge‘ and’ burn within a hole passages meeting said‘ fuel gas discharge‘ passages at substantially common outlets grouped around said central passage. 7 ' ROBERT E; AI'TCHISON.