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sept- 24, 1946.
Filed _Aug. 28, 1942
Z'Sheets-Sheet l
Robe/‘Z B Az'ichzsm
Sept 24, 1946.,
Filed Aug. 28, 1942
Z‘Sheets-Sheet 2 v
Roberi B. All? ’ won
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
Robert B. Aitchison, Staten Island, N. Y., assignor
to The Linde Air Products Company, a corpo
ration of Ohio
Application August 28, 1942, Serial No. 456,572
3 Claims. (Cl. 158-2744)
‘This invention relates to a blowpipe for pierc
ing metal bodies wherein a jet or stream of oxy
gen is discharged from the blowpipe to remove,
provide such a blowpipe which is adequately
cooled; and to provide such a blowpipe which is
better adapted than previous apparatus for
‘by thermochemical reaction, successive portions
piercing holes through metal bodies and produc
of a metal body,‘and the blowpipe is inserted in 5 ing relatively deep kerfs by a severing operation,
the hole or kerf produced by such removal of
wherein the blowpipe is inserted within the hole
metal. It is to be understood that the term
or cut produced. Other objects and novel fea
“piercing,” as used hereinafter and in the ap
tures of this invention will become apparent from
pended claims, refers not only to a substantially
the following description and accompanying
round hole or drilling, normally only slightly 10 drawings, in which:
larger than the blowpipe, which extends partly
Fig, 1 is a condensed side view of a blowpipe
or completely through the body, but also to a
cut or kerf extending into the body and which
partly or completely severs one portion of the
body from the remainder thereof. The blowpipe 15
and. method of this invention comprise an im
provement upon the apparatus known as an
“oxygen lance.”
An oxygen lance is used for thermochemically
piercing deep holes or cuts in large bodies of
ferrous metal, such as billets, ladle skulls, sala
manders, and the like. The oxygen lance con
sists of a long iron or steel pipe through which
oxygen is passed while the pipe is advanced into
the hole being pierced in the body of metal. Heat 25
for thermochemical reaction is supplied by com
bustion of metal at the end of the lance pipe
itself, sometimes augmented by the heat of an
constructed in accordance with this invention and
utilized in piercing a hole in a ferrous metal
Fig. 2 is a condensed longitudinal section of
the blowpipe of Fig. 1, on a slightly enlarged
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section on a further
enlarged scale of the nozzle end of the blowpipe
of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is an end view of the nozzle end of the
Fig. 5 is a cross-section taken along line 5-5
of Fig. 3; and
Figs. 6 to 10, inclusive, are cross-sections, on
an enlarged scale, taken‘along lines 6-6, ,'|-—1,
84-8, 9-—9, and Hl—l0, respectively, of Fig. 2.
In accordance with this invention, a ferrous
ordinary cutting blowpipe, the lance thus be
metal body is pierced thermochemically by an
coming shorter and shorter as the operation pro 30 operation wherein a jet of metal removing oxygen
ceeds. However, with the oxygen lance, a
is directed against a portion of the body and
against the bottom of a hole formed in the body
smooth-walled, accurately controlled, and large
hole suitable for precision work, such as for cen
by the removal of metal therefrom, the jet of
tering or piercing a billet, cannot ordinarily be
metal removing oxygen being discharged from a
produced. Moreover, the expensive and now 35 torch which is inserted in and advanced within
scarce metal of the lance itself is lost by com
the hole. Heat to maintain the thermochemical
bustion; progressive burning of the end of the
metal-removing operation is supplied by inter
lance renders it di?'lcult for the operator to
secting jets of oxygen and fuel gas discharged
judge the progress he is making; and it is almost
separately from the nozzle to mix and burn ex
impossible to control the shape of a cut with the 40 ternally of the nozzle but within the hole. Prefer
oxygen lance, as the length of pipe required for
ably, the jets of oxygen and fuel gas which pro
a relatively short-‘hole makes manipulation of
duce such an externally mixed ?ame have a rela
tively high velocity, are discharged at an acute
the lance di?icult.
Among the objects of this invention are to pro
angle to each other, and are con?ned until sub
vide a blowpipe for piercing or cutting ferrous 45 stantially immediately before impact, as by being
metal bodies more readily, more economically,
discharged through passages which intersect at
and with a greater ease of starting and maintain
a substantially common outlet.
ing the cutting or piercing operation; to provide
As illustrated in Fig. 1, a blowpipe for carrying
such a blowpipe by means of which a larger, more
out the above method may comprise a handle H,
accurately located, and smoother-walled hole 50 to which is attached a long nozzle N which is
can be produced; to provide such a blowpipe
- considerably longer than indicated in the draw
ings, normally being of the order of several feet
which is not, like the oxygen lance, consumed
itself during operation; to provide such a blow
or more and, in any case, longer than the length
pipe in which the possibility of ?ashbacks, which
of the deepest hole to be pierced. From the end
normally lead to work stoppage, is prevented; to 55 of nozzle N, a metal removing stream or jet of‘
oxygen, surrounded by a plurality of intersect
ing jets of oxygen and acetylene which mix and
burn externally of the nozzle to form a ring of
high temperature oxy-fuel gas ?ames, are di
rected against the bottom of a hole 9 being pierced
in a ferrous metal body or workpiece NV. As
illustrated more clearly in Figs.‘ 3 and 4, the metal
removing stream or jet of oxygen is discharged
axially of the nozzles through a passage formed.
by a central tube ill of the nozzle; a plurality of‘
jets of fuel gas, such as acetylene, are discharged‘
from a plurality of outlet passages ll disposed in; Q
a ring surrounding central tube IE1; and a plu~
rality of oxygen jets are discharged. from outlet
passages i2, each of which terminates in a sub
acetylene passages l l. The oxygen and acetylene
jets discharged from these passages thus are
con?ned before discharge until substantially im~
mediately before intersection, and intersect at an 2,
acute angle so that kinetic energy at impact
with a manifold 37 which forms an annular space
33 surrounding tube 19, as in Figs. 2 and '7.
Manifold 3i also forms an annular space 39
about baiile 20, as in Figs. 2 and 6, to which used
cooling medium returns, after ?owing between
tube l9 and baffle 29, past the end of ba?‘le 2i‘!
and thenv back between bai?e 25f and outer tube
at, as explained previously. From space 33, the
used cooling medium is‘ discharged through an
outlet line Iii]. Oxygen lines 25 and 3B, acetylene
line 2%; and cooling medium inlet line 35 are con
nected to suitable sources of supply of the re
spective gases or liquids, while cooling medium
outlet d?'may be connected with a drain or other
suitable source of disposal of the used cooling
I medium.
The rear end of baffle 28 may be secured to
manifold El in any suitable ?uid-tight manner,
as by brazing. Gas-tight connections between
tubes l6 and i9 and glands 28 and 32 and mani
fold 31; respectively,,m‘ay be secured in‘ a suitable
impact being‘ closely adjacent the point of exit
manner, as by packing 4% compressed by glands
28 and- 3-2‘, tightened by aset of bolts‘ 133 which
from the nozzle.
Acetylene and oxygen outlet passages I! and
threadedly‘ engage‘ manifoldv 37- and pass through
a boss formed‘ on outer gland‘ 28. In addition,
causes an intimate mixing thereof, the point of
suitable thread sealing material, such as litharge
i2 terminate in a beveled surface l3 forming a
or the like, may assist‘ in providing an‘ eiTective
bell mouth in a nozzle block H, which‘ is provided
seal between nipple‘ Z2- and valve block 23', as
with a central aperture into which tube‘ ii! ex~
well as between the nipple and gland 28;
tends. Acetylene passages ll lead from an an
In operation, after a flow of cooling water has
nular distributing passage l5, 2; portion of which 30
been established and the cutting oxygen pres
is' formed between block M and central tube iii
sure testediwith the cutting oxygen valve open, .
and the remainder 'of which is formed between
the preheat oxygen and acetylene are adjusted
central‘ tube iii and a surrounding tube 5%.
by valves 27 and 3| so that a‘ suitable externally
Passages ll diverge forwardly at a slight angle
mixed ?ame is produced by the‘ intersecting
from central tube Ill‘ and the longitudinal axis
acetylene and oxygen jets discharged from the
of the nozzle, while outlet passages l2 converge
nozzle. The heating‘ ?ame or ?ames thus‘ pro~
forwardly at an acute angle toward tube It and
duced is utilized in heating a desired‘ spot on the
the longitudinal‘ axis of the nozzle. Each oxygen
work, and as soon- as this spot has‘ reached the
passage I2 is supplied by a connecting passage
ll, drilled from the rear end of block I4 and con‘ 40 kindling temperature, the metal-removing oxygen
is turned on’ slightly and the- blowpipe drawn
veying oxygen from an annular distributing pas
back a- bit to’ widen‘ the area of attack. A few
sage lB. formed ‘between tube i6 and an inter
circular motions will establish the width, and a
mediate tube l9;
slight back and forth or reciprocatory motion of
To prevent the nozzle from‘ becoming ever
heated or consumed during operation in a con 45 the nozzle will cause the stream or jet- of- oxygen
discharged from'the‘ nozzle to remove‘ metal and
?ned space, a cooling medium, such as water, is
form themouth of- the hole by thermochemical
circulated therethrough in suf?cient quantity to
action. 'The' blowpipe' is advanced into the hole,
maintain the temperature of the nozzle below its
preferably‘ with a slight reciprocatory motion,
temperature of combustion with oxygen. The
cooling medium?ows toward the end of the nozzle 50 suppl'ementa1"heat being‘ supplied by the exter
nally'mixed ?ames, which also-tend to-wash‘ the
between intermediate tube IQ and a baffle" tube
wall of the hole and-produce a smooth bore;
2G,,around the end of the ba?ie tube, and then
The: hole may ‘be pierced entirely through the
back between the baf?e tube 29 and a relatively
body, or terminated at any point desired. In
heavy tube 2iv forming the outer wall of the
addition, the blowpipe maybe used to sever a
nozzle. Each‘ of tubes l9, l6, l9, and 2! are
relatively‘ thick‘ ferrousmetal body by moving: the
secured to block M in a ?uid-tight manner, as
nozzle along the'bottom- of a kerf, or by making
by welding, brazing, or silver soldering.
a hole and then removing successive increments
As in Figs. 1‘, 2, and 10, the rear end of oxygen
starting at one side of the hole; During such op
tube It is suitably secured, as by brazing, to a
nipple 22, in turn connected to a valve block 23'. Ch 0 erations, the nozzle will be adequately“ cooled by
the water circulating theret-hrough, since the
A shut-off valve within block 23 is actuated by
water passes quite close to theend of thenozzle,
a handle 24, and oxygen is supplied to the valve
which is exposed to the greatest amount of heat.
block 23 by an inlet line 25. Acetylene is sup
In a piercing operation carried out in accord
plied distributing passage is, between tubes iii
ance with this invention; itlis possible to produce,
and Hi, from an inlet line 26 provided with‘ a
through a ferrous‘ metal article; an accurate,
control valve 21 and connected with a gland
smooth-walled hole of suf?cient size so‘ that a
28 which forms an annular space 29 about
boring bar provided with a- tool may be inserted
tube l0, as in Figs. 2 and 9. Heating oxygen
within the hole to' machine the‘ hole ‘to larger
is supplied passage it, between tubes IS
and I9, from an inlet line 30 provided with a 70 dimensions‘. Such a hole can‘be‘made in“ a‘ much
valve 3!. and connected with an intermediate‘
shorter time than by mechanical methods, such
‘as drilling, and does not require the heavy'and
glandEZ which forms an annular space 33 about
expensive equipment utilized in other operations,
tube l5, as in Figs. 2 and 8. A suitable cooling
such as punching. The size of the hole which
medium, such as water, is supplied by an inlet
line 35, provided with a valve 36 and‘ connected 75 can be made with a reasonable degree of accuracy
with the consumable oxygen lance is about 1%
to 11/2 inches, smaller than normal boring bars.
of the hole when ,the‘pipe is partially consumed,
and it is therefore customary to utilize 10 foot or
A hole 21/2 to 3 inches in diameter can be made
20 foot lengths of pipe; It is obvious that a non
with greater accuracy by utilizing a, blowpipe con
consumable blowpipe having a nozzle only 3, 4 or
structed in accordance with this invention and 5 5 feet long, for instance, is much more, readily
having a nozzle approximately 1%,: inches in di-)
manipulated than a lance having a pipe 10 feet
ameter. In addition, it appears possible, by in
or 20 feet long.
creasing the size of the nozzle, to increase the
Among other advantages of the blowpipe of this
diameter of the hole which can be produced with
invention are the economies obtained.’ For in
desired accuracy.
stance, ‘the invention eliminates the Waste in
The apparatus of this invention also‘has pe
lance pine, due to the unusable stubs. Present
culiar utility in the reduction to charging size of
normal practice is to utilize either 10 foot or 20
large masses of scrap steel and iron, such as
foot sections of pipe, but the last foot or so can
skulls, salamanders, and the like. Particularly
not be used because the lance is too short. In
under present conditions, when the availability 15 addition, operations carried out with the consum
of scrap is a problem of tremendous importance,
able lance are interrupted every time a piece of
any method by whichjsuch large masses of scrap
pipe is to be attached to the handle, whereas the
can be more readily cut or broken up has consid
blowpipe of this invention can be used continu
erable value. There aretwo general methods
ously. Furthermore, since the blowpipe of this
which may be used. In one method, lines of
invention is not consumed during the operation,
weakness are produced in the skull or salamander
an amount of new steel, equivalent to that which
by cutting kerfs or holes partially through the
otherwise would compose the pipe of the con
metal, and the weakened mass is then broken
sumable lance, is saved.
with a heavy ball dropped thereon. In such op
The blowpipe of this invention utilizes less
erations, it is desirable to cut from the crown, or 25 oxygen in piercing an equivalent hole, since lower
more nearly pure steel or iron side, as it is un
oxygen pressures, resulting in lower oxygen con
‘economical to cut in the slag end of the skull,
sumptions, are adequate. For instance, on a job
since cutting proceeds relatively slowly and the
which normally required, with a consumable
slag is relatively friable and breaks easily in im
lance, 80 to 100 pounds per square inch gage oxy
pact. After making four cuts or kerfs 90 degrees
gen pressure, with a non-consumable blowpipe a
apart and extending laterally into the skull sub
larger and more uniform hole was made at a
stantially to the center and down to the shrink
greater speed at an oxygen pressure of only 65
age cavity, a few blows of the ball readily break
pounds per square inch gage.
the skull into four parts. Thus, it is unnecessary
to cut entirely through the skull.
35 been described with particularity, it is to be un
Another method of operation (which should be
derstood that various changes may be made in
carried out only by experienced operators) con
the apparatus without departing from the spirit‘
sists in drilling holes or kerfs enlarged slightly at
and scope of the invention as de?ned in the ap
the bottom, to accommodate dynamite or other
pended claims.
explosive. A few well-placed kerfs and su?icient
What is claimed is:
dynamite will readily break up even the hardest
1. A blowpipe for thermochemically piercing a
of skulls. An advantage of this invention, as
deep hole in a metal body comprising a long noz
compared withthe consumable oxygen lance, lies
zle having a central tube open at one end; means
in the fact that the hole or kerf cannot be en
' largeol at the bottom readily with the consumable 45 for supplying metal removing oxygen to the other
end of said central tube; said nozzle also having
lance, whereas the blowpipe of this invention can
readily be manipulated to produce considerable
The use of the blowpipe of this invention is less
tiring and exacting upon the operator. The walls
of the hole or kerf are relatively smooth and free
of obstructions, so that manipulation of the noz
zle is easier; the molten products of reaction are
hotter and run out more freely, but at the same
time less slag is produced which results in a
cleaner kerf or hole; manipulation is easier be
cause there is little danger of the nozzle freezing
or welding itself in the hole; and a hole or kerf
can be stopped at any time and restarted without
In addition, the end of the apparatus is not
always being consumed, so that the operator can
ascertain the progress he is making. This is par
ticularly advantageous, since the rate of com
bustion or consumption of the end of a lance pipe
may vary widely, as from 6 inches to 20 inches
per minute, for diiferent conditions, and the op
erator does not know, for instance, whether the
?rst 12 inches of the lance pipe consumed have
produced a hole 8 inches or 24 inches deep. Also,
the nozzle of a blowpipe constructed in accord
ance with this invention, need be only as long as,
a second tube surrounding said central tube in
spaced relation; means for supplying fuel gas to
the space between said central tube and said sur
rounding tube; said nozzle also having an inter
50 mediate tube surrounding said second "tube in
spaced relation; means for supplying oxygen to
the space between said second tube and said in
termediate tube; a ba?le tube surrounding said
intermediate tube; means for supplying a liquid
55 cooling medium to the space between said inter
mediate tube and said ba?le tube; a ring-shaped
nozzle block attached to one end of each of said
tubes except said baffle tube, the end of said baille
tube being spaced from said block; an outer tube
60 secured to said block, whereby cooling medium
will ?ow from said nozzle block in the space be
tween said intermediate tube and said baille tube,
then around the end of said baffle tube, and re
turn through the space between said balile tube
65 and said outer tube; and passages formed in said
nozzle block meeting at substantially common
outlets spaced about said central tube, one group
of passages connecting with the fuel gas supply
space between said central tube and said second
tube and another group of passages connecting
with the oxygen supply space between said sec
ond tube and said intermediate tube.
or slightly longer than, the greatest thickness of
2. A blowpipe for thermochemically piercing a
body to be pierced; but a consumable lance pipe
deep hole in a metal body as de?ned in claim 1,
must be considerably longer to reach the bottom 75 in which at least the discharge section of said
fuel gas passages are inclined forwardly at an
angle away‘ from’ the longitudinal axis of said
produced by thermochemical metal removal and
into the mouth of which hole said nozzle is in
serted, the con?uent jets of fuel gas and oxygen
providing high-temperature oxy-fuel gas heating
oxygen passages are inclined forwardly at an
which surround and supply supplemental
angle toward the longitudinal axis of said nozzle.
heat ‘for the thermochemical removal of metal by
v3. A blowpipe for‘ thermochemically piercing
said stream of oxygen; and passages for circulat
deep holes in metal bodies, comprising a long
ing a cooling medium through said nozzle and
nozzle having a longitudinal, central passage for
at least to" a point adjacent the discharge end
discharging» axially from one end of the nozzle
a- metal removingstream of oxygen against a de 10 thereof, said fuel gas discharge passages termi
nating in outletsv grouped around said central
sired portion of a metal body; passages terminat
passage and incliningv at an angle away there
ing- in outlets for discharging- jets of fuel gas
from’, and said heat supplying oxygen discharge
and oxygen, each jet of fuel gas being discharged
nozzle, and at least the discharge section of said
at an acute angle to an oxygen jet and inter
s'e'c'ting' said oxygen jet adjaoent to the point of
exit? from said nozzle, whereby said jets of fuel
gas‘an‘d oxygen converge‘ and’ burn within a hole
passages meeting said‘ fuel gas discharge‘ passages
at substantially common outlets grouped around
said central passage.
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