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Sept. 24, 1946.
Filled Dec. 29, 1942
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
David Gordon Clifford, Palo Alto, Calif., and Ilia',`
E; Mouromtseiï,` Montclair, N; J.,- assignors» to»
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, _East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation ofv Pennsylvania
Application December'29, 1942-, Serial` No; ‘170;{190
4 Claims’.
(Cl. 2504215) '
1 .
Thisï invention» relates generally to ultra high .
frequency devices- and' more particularly to such
devices identiiied as diodes used for purposes of
rectiiication of ultra high frequency oscillation
or production of lower frequency oscillationsv by
means"` of so called heat frequencies obtained by
the introduction of»A other ultra high»y frequency
oscillations of suitable frequency.
high frequency ser-vice toreplace crystal» detec
torsf Alstr-uc‘tu'ral premise of present-day diodes
resides inthe necessary closeï spacing of the diode
electrodes, their separation' being as-little as prac
tical'ly! possible» and in practice amounting to but
a few thousandths of an inch.
characterized. as a cavity resonator detector.
Likewise, from a general aspect, an object of
the invention» is` to" overcome» the difficulties enu-`
merated above-` and to materially improve prior
arlt constructicnsA of ultra highI frequency devlic'es
and especially diodes»
Considerable attention is beingv given at the
presenttime to uselof- diodes as detectors in ultra
fecti'vef and e?‘cient ultra high frequency device
Thus onediih- ‘I -
cultyf encountered in the prior art has been to l
adequately reduce the spacing an‘d maintain an
even»V spacing of so srnall an amount without a
contact inadvertently" occurring and short circuit `
In considering the incorporation of‘a- resonant
More specifically an object of the'l invention is
to provide an ultra high frequency device asïchar-`
acterized wherein4 tuningi is obtained while the
electron emission and reception characteristics
remain the same;
Of` analogous nature» isi another object» which
thel invention» seeks to accomplish, namely,Y that
capa'citative variation‘rnay be accomplished with
out> disturbing the relation Of- the@ emission effect
between the diode electrodes:
Another object of the' invention is to- obtain
mechanical rigidity of anelectrode notwithstand=
ing Inova-bility thereof for> tuning purposes.Í
A further object of- the" invention isl to permit
substantially unirripaired H. FL. current" flowk on
the interior or cavity wall while- maintaini?g a
cavity- as‘ an integral part of a» diode as- above
discontinuity'in the wall for other purposesî
characterized, and wherein the electrodes of the
diode'Al are reentrant intoy the resonant cavity„the 25
Still further objects of the invention will ap‘
pear as the? description progresses, both by di- Y
problem of tuning without disturbing the elec'
rect? recitation thereof and by; implication from ~
-trode spacing has heretofore eludedr adequate so
lution. The necessity of avoidingv contact of the
the context.
electrodes referred to above is a‘ more serious
Referring to the accompanying drawing in
problem when one» of the electrodes has to be 30 which like numerals,` of reference indicate similar
parts throughout the several' views;
moved for tuningE purposes thanwhen both are
permanently* fixed. A further difticulty is ,also
introduced, in that heretofore a shifting of one
electrode for tuning purposes not only changed
th’e-L capacitative relation of the' electrodes', but 35
altered the electrodey spacingA and transit time of
Figure 1 is a vertical sectionalview of anïulti‘a
high frequency device constituted as a- diode de'
Fig; I.
across-Section on line II-TIï of
» Figure 3'i`s` an enlargement ofithatp‘artof Fig.
the electrons, whichA was highly detrimental.
1 showing the structural' assembly by- which' effec
When utilizing a resonant cavity for> ultra high
tive‘discontinuity i's‘ obtained as* to D; C. poten
frequency oscillations, the' interior or cavity wall
constitutes a conductive surface for high. fre 40 tialf‘bu't with theV effect of electricalic'ontinuity iii
regards to the H. E. current; and>`
quency current. Continuity of that surface is
Figure' 4 is a viewv siniila'r’to' Fig.' 3 showing a
desirable> with minimumY of- interruption. Inas
modified construction.
much, however, as part ofthe surface is con
¿In the‘speciiic embodiment of the invention
nected. with the anode and another part with the 45
illustrated in said'V drawing, the‘referenc‘e'fnún'iex‘
cathode, and` anode and cathodehave to be at
al lildesiglnates a sealed envelope, shownas of
different D; C. potentials, a discontinuity meet
' ing this circumstance follows of necessity.
glass, with a reent‘rant glass stem> Il therein'
from which projects a metallic; collar I2 flared
problem `therefore presentsitself of providing a
at itsupper'end to provide a' harige I3 in a plane
structure of resonator which has a' discontinuity 50 transverse to the' saidv collar. Above the collar
edefc’tiv‘e‘tolmaintain difference of'D. C.' potential
and flange isa tubular cathode I44 the upper end
without materially interfering with the continu
of which isclosed, as by integral end `I'5,.and the
ityï for high frequency current flow.
lower end. of' which has a. Wide ñange I6 prio
The present invention accordingly has> for its
jecting radially considerably" beyond. the fiang'e
general objectß the provision" of'
improved, ef 55. |3‘ of' the` saidv collar~ 122` The cathode, flange` ÍB
rests fiatwise on the collar fiange I3, coaxial
therefrom by mica or other dielectric 33. While
the headers have peripheral cylindrical portions
therewith and secured thereto as by Welding or
Within the cathode I4 is a suitable
heater I’I here illustrated as av coiled filament at
tached to appropriate lead-in wires I8 sealed
3| for welding or otherwise securing the same to
the outer wall 23 of the resonant chamber, the
part of primary importance is the Vplate or Wash
' otherwise.
through stem III.,
. er-like body portion 32 of the inner header over
' '
Coaxial with the cathode I4 is an anode I9'
lapping in part' the peripheral'margin of the
flange I6 from the cathode which projects be
skirt portion 2l)` which girdles the upper end por- tween the similar plates of both headers. The
tion of the cathode in desired closely spaced 10 intervening dielectric obtains the desired elec
relation thereto for obtaining the desired short
trical discontinuity for the D. C. potential.
transit time of electron path from cathode to
In order to obtain electrical continuity for the
the lower part of which is hollow to provide a
anode. The cathode is indicated as having an
emissive oxide coating 2| on the cylindrical por->
H. F. current across the area of D. C. discon
tinuity, the overlapping of flange I6 with plate
tion thereof engirdled by the anode. 4Particular
attention is called to the fact that emissionrfrom
the cathode ls preferably restricted to the region
32 is made radially a quarter wave length in di- '
electric 30 referredV to the generated wave of
oscillations in the resonant chamber. Wave
length in dielectric 30 is shorter than in airor
included between the cylindrical walls of the` -
cathode and skirt portion of the anode.
The region within which cathode I4 and skirt
portion 20 of anode I9` are located, is constructed
vacuum of the chamber.
The construction ac
cordingly sets up ahigh impedancewat the outer
periphery of flange I6 which reñects a low im
as a resonant chamber 22 the walls of which are
pedance at the inner `peripheral edge of plate
metal. The specinc construction involved pro
32 thereby presenting the eifect of electrical con
vides a cylindrical outer sidewall 23, preferably
tinuityV across the gap between flange and plate
of copper, coaxial with the cathode and anode 25 at the inner periphery of the said plate.
and having its lower margin feather-edged and
For more deñnitely assuring the condition of
sealed to the glass portion 0f the envelopeand
high impedance at the periphery of the flange,
thereby constituting a part of the said envelope.
a vconstruction such as shown in Figure/1 may
The upper vpart of said side wall 23 is provided
be employedx In this instance the headers are
with an inner shoulder 24 for properly locating 30 constructed as before,_but spaced apart somewhat
and supporting the rim or edge of a transverse
Vfarther to accommodate a different flange con
flexible metallic diaphragm 25. The body por
struction. Accordingly numeral 32 is again ap
tion of anode I'S'projects through the middle of
plied to the plate, but due to difference in the
said diaphragm, and said diaphragm is vacuum
flange construction it is designated by numeral
sealed both to the anodeand to said outer wall. 35 I 6a. rI‘he overlap of flange Ißa and plate 32 is,
By virtue o1" the resilient flexibility of the dia
, as before, a quarter wave length measured in the
phragm, the length of the chamber may be varied
dielectric 35a intervening between the overlap
as well as a changecbeing obtained in capacity
ping portions. At the underside kof the ,ilange is
between anode and cathode, and thereby permits
an impedance section comprised ofan open an
40 nular cavity 30h between the under side of `a part
Both for tuning purposes and for accurate rigid
of said íiange vand a parallel plate 3Go the inner
mounting of the anode, the upper end of the
periphery of which is bent upwardly and secured,V
anode is shown of sturdy construction and car
by welding or otherwise to said flange, >the. up
ried by an equally sturdy capV ZS'in turn sup
wardly bent portion 35d forming an innerend
ported at¿its outer margin from the side wall
wall for the annular cavity 30h.v The outer
` 23 of the resonator chamber. The structure illus
periphery of» the parallel plate 33e turns upward
desired tuning of the same.
trated includes a ring 2'I brazed or otherwise
beyond the end of ñange Iiia, as at 33e with a
secured onthe exterior of said wall 23 next the
gap 39j between the said up-turned Vend 30e and
upper edge thereof and threaded on its outer
end Vofiiange IEa. Part of dielectric 30a closes
surface tointer-engage with threads 28 on'the 50 the end of >gap 30j and thel parts are propor
inside of a .skirtV portion of said cap 26. Simi
tioned to establish substantially a free space
larly theupper end of anode I9 provides ay stern’
quarter wave length distance from the said closed
threaded at 2S engaging cooperating threads in Y end 39d to the dielectric'closure ofY gap 3ûf. yThe
the cap. In both instances the threaded engage .i low impedance at closed end Bildrwill, accordingly
ments are adequately extensive to obtain and
reilect a» high impedance at gap 30j, >as desired,
maintain accurate position of the anode skirt in
and accordingly insures a high impedance at the
itsspacing around the cathode. Furthermore the
threads _23. ofthe anode> have a different pitch
or otherwiserendered differential with respect to
the threads on the outerwall'so that rotation
ofthe cap obtains -longitudinal movement of the
periphery of lflange Ilia toY insure, in turn, a low
impedance at the inner periphery of plate 32.
It may be further added that the dielectric, k'such
as mica, fills the region beyond upturned end
or rim 30e and the wall 23 of-the resonant cham
anode. By utilizing right-hand threads, for in
ber, as well as the space between thelower header
stance, in both places but of different pitch, a
and the cavity-forming under plate 33o. A few
considerable rotation of the cap is required for
a.v small longitudinal movement of the anode,
‘thereby obtaining va fine tuning adjustment.
fIt-will be understood by those versed in the
_art that aD. C.` >potential is established from
any suitable external `source between cathode YI4
holes or slots 3tlg may be provided from the evac
uated chamber into annular cavity 30h for en
abling that cavity likewise to be evacuated. »
In practice, the device' is evacuated through
the stem, as by tubulationopening 33 therein,
¿ thereïbeing suitable slots 34 in the collar I2 and
and >anode ISvfor obtaining electron transit from 70 slots 35 in ñange I 6 or I 6a to accomplish'com
the one to the other. ÍThis necessitates elec
trical discontinuity ,between the cathode ilange
>and _the Vresonator side wall. The structure shown
consists in providing a pair ofheaders, one above . .
and the’other below said flange and separated
plete cutgassing so that resonant chamber 22 will
function in vacuum. oscillations set up in said
chamber may be transferred for useful purpose
by a usualoutputmeans, suchas concentric line
and loop 36 shown.
It may now be particularly pointed out that
dinally and thereby varying the inter-electrode
by proper choice of dimensions of the several
capacity while maintaining constant electron
parts, the spacing of cathode and anode can be
path spacing between said electrodes.
very small, limited only by mechanical consid
2. An ultra high frequency device comprising
erations, thus making possible a time of transit
a diode structure having a cathode and anode
in this diode consistent with satisfactory oper
and evacuated enclosure therefor, said cathode
ation at ultra high frequencies. The change in
and anode overlapping and having a constant .
the lump-ed capacity of the device due to move
radial spacing for the eiectron path therebe
ment of the anode it with diaphragm 25, with
tween and telescopically adjustable as to dis
corresponding change of frequency for tuning 10 tance of overlap for varying inter-electrode ca
purposes, does not afiect the transit time of
pacity thereat, and means other than said spac
electrons between cathode and anode. Likewise
ing establishing direct current discontinuity in
the dielectric spacing of flange and plates with
the enclosure between the cathode and anode
impedance control between the cathode and outer
comprising parts insulated from each other and
wall provides an eiiicient means for obtaining 15 overlapping an odd quarter wave-length distance
a high frequency rectified current or beat fre
and establishing thereat an effect of negligible
impedance to high frequency current and estab
While arbitrarily selected eXemplifications of
lishing eifect of electrical continuity t0 high fre
the invention have been herein shown, it is to
quency current.
be understood that this has been done through
3. An ultra high frequency device comprising
necessity of presenting a physical embodiment of
a metallic enclosure forming a resonator, a cath
the invention and it therefore follows that all
ode and an anode each within said resonator,
matter contained in the specification or depicted
and an impedance section within said enclosure
in the drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative
comprising parts insulated from each other and
and not necessarily in a limiting sense, and as
overlapping an odd quarter wave-length distance,
setting forth the true` scope of invention by state
said cathode being connected with one of said
ments of both the generic and speciñc features
overlapping parts of the impedance section and
thereof which as a matter of language encein
said anode being connected with another of said
pass the inventive concept.
overlapping parts of the impedance section,
We claim:
30 whereby said impedance section establishes a di
1. An ultra high frequency device comprising
rect currentA discontinuity between the cathode
electrodes of which one is a cylindrical cathode
and anode and establishes thereat an eñect of
and another is an anode having a cylindrical
skirt portion telescopically overlapping an end
of the cathode, said cathode having an emissive
portion and a non-emissive capacitative portion
in continuation of the emissive portion and the
emissive portion being at the said end overlapped
negligible impedance to high frequency current
and establishes effect of electrical continuity for
high frequency current.
4. An ultra high frequency device comprising
a metallic enclosure forming a resonator, a cath
ode and an anode in said resonator, said cath
by the cylindrical skirt portion of the anode,`
ode having a íiange projecting laterally there
said skirt portion being radially opposite the en 40 from and said enclosure having a plate overlap
tire emissive portion of the cathode, and the
ping said fiange a distance substantially equal
non-emissive portion of the cathode projecting
to a quarter wave-length in dielectric, and di
from said skirt, an enclosure around said elec
electric between said overlapping plate and
trodes, and movable means extending from said
enclosure to one of said electrodes for adjusting
the telescopic overlap of said electrodes longitu
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