s¢§n24,1946. - A. N. GusTAvsoN 2,407,981 VOTING MACHINE Fjßed Hay 27, 1942 »3 Sheets-Sheet 1` SePL 24, 1946» A@ N.»Gus'rAvscN ' 2,407,981 VOTING MACHINE Filed ‘May 27. 1942 3 Sheets-¿Sheet 3 ' fa@ w Patented Sept. 24, 1946 2,407,981 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,407,981 VOTING MACHINE Alvin N. Gustavson, Bem us Point, N. Y., assignor to Automatic Voting Machine Corporation, Jamestown, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware 1 Application May 27, 1942, Serial No. 444,640 2 Claims. (Cl. 2235-54) This invention relates to an improvement in voting machines and more particularly to a mechanism for requiring a voter to indicate and cast a complete ballot, and includes structure of the nature of my abandoned application, Serial No. 195,722, ñled March 14, 1938. In an election for representatives to general assembly, representatives to conventions, or in any other omce group election, there are more candidates up for election than there are oflices to be nlled. Certain cf the candidates must al ways be defeated and others nominated or elect ed. In elections of this nature the voter is in structed Yto cast his ballot for the same lnumber of candidates as there are oñices to be filled in a given oiiice group. Little or no elîect on the out come of an election would occur if only a few voters failed to cast their ballots as instructed, but it was found that a group vof voters, by pre arrangement, could defeat lthe purpose of an 20 election of this nature by casting their ballots for only one candidate instead of a number of candidates equal to the number of oi‘ûces in the office group. In this manner a particular candi 2 the ballots he previously had indicated and which had satisfied the protective mechanism of the voting machine to the extent of allowing the v election onicial to raise the entrance knob. Thus the protective mechanism could be circumvented and it became evident that the voting machine must be under protective control from the time a voter enters the booth until he leaves it. The present invention serves to prevent the withdrawing of ballots subsequent to the time a voter has indicated his ballot is complete and ready to be registered, and this constitutes the principal object of the invention. Another object of the invention is to provide a mechanism for a voting machine which func tions to control and require proper balloting sub sequently to the release or withdrawal of control by an election official. Other and further objects of the invention will be more fully understood from a consideration of the following specification, taken in conjunc tion with the accompanying drawings; and in which Fig. 1 is a rear elevation of one modification date would receive votes equal in number to that 25 of the invention applied to a voting machine; of the group of voters and the other candidates Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view taken sub would receive none. Thus the favored candidate stantially on the line 2_2 of Fig. 1; would be the equivalent of twice the number of Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken sub votes ahead of any other candidate with respect to a given groupof voters. Inasmuch as this 30 stantially on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1; practice is not only unethical and contrary to Fig. 4 is a fragmentary View, partly in section, showing that portion of the mechanism adapted the intent of the election laws, it became neces to engage and control movement of interlocking sary to provide a mechanism for controlling this straps in main and auxiliary interlocks; condition in elections involving candidate groups. Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 showing inter The present invention is directed to means for locking straps held in voted position by a bar controlling balloting in elections involving can forming a part of the invention; didate groups and comprises a mechanism which serves to prevent a voter from recording his bal Fig. 6 is a view of a part of the mechanism lot and leaving the Voting booth without first shown in Fig. 1, with the elements in a position having complied with the election laws concern 40 assumed when the entrance knob has been raised ing candidate group balloting. ì , and a voter has operated the curtain closing Prior to this invention, in the election of candi lever; dates to ofiice groups, a voter could comply with Fig. 7 is a further view showing the position the election requirements, thereby satisfying> any of ther parts of the mechanism during their re protective mechanism provided for this purpose, 45 turn to normal position; and indicate-to an election oflicial that his ballot Fig. 8 is a fragmentary rear elevational view was complete. The election ofiicialwould then of another modification of the invention applied raise the entrance knob for the purpose of lock to a voting machine; ing the voting machine against further balloting Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view, partly en and unlocking a lever operable by the voter, to larged, taken substantially on the line 9-9 of register his ballot and Open the curtains of the Fig. 8, and sho-ws the parts in inoperative posi booth. Subsequently to the entrance knob being tion; raised by the election oiiicial and prior to the Fig. l0 is a vertical sectional View, similar to voter’s operation of the registering lever, it was Fig. 9, showing the parts in full line in partly possible for the voter to withdraw any or al1 of 55 operated position; 2,407,9531 3 4 Fig. l1 is a fragmentary perspective view show ing a strap interlocking bar; Fig. 12 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken substantially on the line I2-I2 of Fig. 11; the same direction. Bar 1I' is adapted to move into position above or beneath lugs 13 for the and Fig. 13 is an enlarged Vertical sectional view of a modiñcation form of the structure shown in Adjacent the side wall I I of the machine is a vertically positioned bar 14 which extends up wardly and is connected in any conventional manner with the lever that is adapted to be oper Fig. 12. Reference is now had to the drawings wherein the invention is shown applied to a voting ma purpose oi preventing movement of the straps I4 out of the position they occupy at the time the bar is manipulated. ‘ ated by a voter to open or close the curtains of a chine, a portion of which is generally indicated by the reference numeral I8. The machine in cludes side and base walls II and I2. Adjacent the base wall is a main interlock I3 having main interlocking straps I4. Since the present inven tion has to do particularly with balloting in oñice groups, an auxiliary interlock I6 is provided. This interlock includes auxiliary straps I1 joined in any conventional manner to and operable by straps I4. An entrance knob I8 is located exteriorly of the votingl machine and is limited to vertical movement through the provision of a shaft I9 which is mounted in a suitable slot 2|l in the wall IIofthe machine. A sleeve 22 and strap 23 are mounted on the shaft I9. A shaft 24, secured to strap 23, mounts one end of a rod 26. The rod 26 extends downwardly along the wall II and is joined at its lower end through a pivot member voting booth. Adjacent the entrance knob I8, one end of a strap 16 is pivotally joined to the bar- 14’. This strap is formed with an offset to cause the lower portion 11 thereof to approach wall I I. The portion 11 projects between a pair of guides 18 mounted on one face oí the bracket 3l. Adjacent the offset of the strap 16 is a pin Under certain circumstances of operation hereinafter set forth, pin 19 is adapted to con tact surfaces 51, 58, and`59 of cam 54. Having described the structure of the inven tion, its use in connection with the operation of a voting machine is as follows: It is to be assumed that the voting machine II) is arranged to» handle the election of candidates in an office group where there are a limited number of oflices avail able and a greater number oi candidates are seeking nomination or election to these oñices. In accordance with the election laws, a voter must cast his ballot for a candidate for each of 2,1 to one end of a rocker arm 28. Arm 28 is 30 the oiiices of the group. When a voter enters the _fitted with a rod 29 which is projectable through voting booth, the election ofñcial raises the en an o-pening in one or more plates when a voter trance knob I8. In the usual mechanism of the has manipulated the prescribed number of can didate indicators on the face lci" the voting ma chine and the related interlocking straps I4 and ‘ I1. y _ Secured to the wall II, beneath the entrance knob IB, is a bracket 3l'. IThis bracket has an upwardly extending arm 32. Mounted on the arm 32`is a pivot pin 33 which supports a bell crank 34. An arm 36 of the bell crank 34 is piv otally connected by a pin 31 to a bracket 36 that is rigidly secured to the rod 26. The other arm .39 of the bell crank is pivotally connected with one end of an extensible member 4I which com. prises a¿pair of straps 42 and 43. These straps are formed with longitudinally extending slots 44 and 46. A pin 41` on strap 42 projects into slot 46 and a further pin 48 on strap 43 projects through slot 44. An expansion spring 49 is se cured at one end to pin 48 of strap 43 and at the other end'to a further pin 5I on strap 42. The free end of strap 43 is joined through a pivot pin 5_2' to a rod 53. It will be noted that this rod parallels straps 42 and 43 and at one end is pivotally joined to a cam 54 thorugh a pin 56.> The cam 54, at its lower end, is pivotally mounted onbracket 3| and includes surfaces 51, voting machine, knob I6 functions, through strap 23, to release the lever by which the voter may enclose himself in the booth and unlock the ma chine for voting. However, since the present in vention is connected with the entrance knob, an adjustment of certain parts thereof also takes place. It will be noted that strap 26 is connected with the entrance knob and, therefore, this strap will move upwardly, causing arm 28 to pivot and rod ‘.29 to project through a neutral position open ing in one or more plates located in the auxiliary I interlock I6. As the strap 26 moves upwardly, it causes bell crank 34 to pivot about pin 33 on bracket 3 I. This rotational movement of the bell crank moves member 4I, whichin turn causes rod 53 ‘to move toward the left as viewed in the drawings. One end of rod 53 is joined to the cam 54 and, consequently, this cam will swing into the position shown in Figure 6 of the drawings. The rod 53 is also connected through plate 6I with bell crank 64 and causes this bell crank to rotate about pivot pin 68 and move~ the angle bar `1I to occupy a position directly over lugs 13 of the straps I4. . 'l As the voter moves the lever to close the cur tains and unlock the machine for voting, bar 14 58, and 59. Fixed to the other end of rod 53 is a moves downwardly, causing strap 16 to move (Il) plate 6I. The free end of this plate is connected downwardly, pin 19 is thus brought into contact through a pivot pin 62 with an arm 63 of a bell with surface 51 of cam 54. Since this surface crank 64. A central supporting member 66 in the is inclined, the cam will be rotated clockwise voting machine mounts a horizontally disposed about itspivot and move rod 53. This movement bracket 61‘to which the central portion of the bell _crank 64 is joined by a pivot pin 68. An arm 69 of the bell crank is pivotally connected with one end of --an angle bar 1I. One or more links 12 have pivotal connection at one end with the bar 1I and are pivotally anchored at the opposite ends to a fixed portion of the machine. The purpose of link 12 is to guide the bar 1I, bell crank 64 serving to transmit movement of rod 53 to bar ' of rrod 53' causes angle bar 1I to momentarily move out of position abovev lugs 13. Itis to be noted that the entrance knob I8 is still in raised position and bell crank 34 and member 4I are in the position shown in Figure '1 of the drawings. Movement of rod 53, without moving bell crank 34 or strap 26, is possible through the provision of the extensible member 4I which, as'heretofore described, comprises relatively slidable spring held 1I in aA direction perpendicular to the movement straps 42, and 43. As the pin 19 moves from off of said rod. Each oi the interlocking straps I4 is formed with a lug 13. These lugs all extend in 75 thefsurface151. onto surface 58, thentension oi 5 2,407,981 spring 49 causes cam 54 to commence moving to ward the left as viewed in the drawings. This movement continues until the pin has moved onto the notched surface 59. This action of the pin 6 not change his mind concerning his ballot; and move any indicators from voting to non-voting position, due to the fact that these indicators are directly connected with straps I4 and these straps 19 and cam 54, it will be understood, takes place are prevented movement by bar 1I. Upon move during the curtain closing operation and the ment of the curtain lever to open position, bar parts of the invention, when the voting machine 14 moves upwardly and, through strap 16, causes is ready for use, assume the position shown in pin 19 to ride upwardly along the surfaces of cam Figure 6 of the drawings. 54 and the parts of the device return to the po During the curtain closing operation, the rel 10 sition shown in Figure 1 of the drawings, thus pre atively extensible parts 43 and 44 have functioned paring the mechanism for control of the next and bar 1I momentarily withdrawn from its po voter. sition overlying the lugs of the. straps. No ad Since bar 1| extends substantially the full vantages are obtained by this functioning of the length of the machine, it is effective not only to parts during the curtain closing operation. How prevent movement of straps I4 of a given group, ever, during the curtain opening operation, as is but all of the straps of the voting machine, well known in voting machines of this type, it is whether they are in a group the mechanism is in necessary to first secure the actuated straps tended to control or not. It is conceivable that against voter manipulation, register the vote in a voter might fail to fully actuate one or more dicated by the voter and, third, return the straps straps not set up in a given group, and such ac to their original inoperative position. The rela tuation might be such as to cause the vertical tively extensible parts, which permit withdrawal edges of one or more lugs 13 to become directly of bar 1I, function during the curtain opening aligned with the vertical edge of the upper flange operation following registering the indicated vote of the bar 1I. Under such circumstances the on the counters, and permit movement of the 25 bar 1I could not move into position above or be straps to their original inoperative position. It low the lugs and its usefulness as a means of might be assumed that withdrawal of bar 1I preventing undesired movement of the straps would withdraw control of the machine over the would be nulliiied. Although it is true that a possibility of a voter’s changing his preference, strap I4 would not be properly actuated and a but it is to be borne in mind that by the timesuch 30 corresponding candidate indicator on the face of a possibility exists the voter’s indicated ballot the machine would not have been fully moved into has already been registered, and any attempt yto vote indicating position, it is conceivable that manipulate the voting indicators would in no voters unfamiliar with ìnachine voting might fail wise affect the original intended vote. ’ to fully move `the candidate indicators and effect When the election official lowers the entrance full movement of the corresponding straps I4, knob I8, shaft 29 is withdrawn from the aux thereby creating the condition mentioned. iliary interlock I6. With the lowering of entrance A modification of the invention is shown in knob I8, the cam 54, rod 53, and bar 1I return Figures 8 to 13, inclusive, and in this form the to the position indicated in Figures 1, 2, and 4 device provides against damage or incomplete of the drawings and the interlocking straps are 40 operation of the machine by utilizing the bar 1I thus free to be moved. The voter may now cast his ballot for a candidate for each of the ofiices listed on the face of the voting machine. As the voting operation takes place, certain` of the in as a support for one or more plates that engage the lugs of the straps. These plates are of dif ferent lengths to accommodate different size terlocking straps I4 and I1 are raised and as 45 groups and may be placed on the bar 1I to ef fectively control a group, regardless of its posi sume the position shown in Figure 5 of the draw tion on a voting machine. ings. If the voter has properly cast his ballot, Reference is now particularly had to Figures certain of the interlocking straps I4 and I1 will 8 to 12, inclusive, wherein such a modiñcation of actuate a control mechanism in the auxiliary the structure is shown. In this instance, main interlock I6 by causing one or more plates thereof to register certain openings with shaft 29. The 50 interlocking straps 80 are provided. These straps each include conventional means for connecting voter now indicates to the election official that he has completed balloting and said oflicial again raises the entrance knob I8. The strap 26 moves upwardly, rocking arm 28 and moving shaft 29 the auxiliary straps I1 thereto. Additionally, they include pointed lugs SI having upper and lower surfaces 82 and 83, respectively, and a shoulder 84, which is a continuation of surface 83 and formed on the under edge of the lug. Straps 80, in all other respects, are identical with straps downwardly into engagement with certain plate openings in the auxiliary interlock I6. If the vot er has not properly cast his ballot, the entrance I4 and, of course, intel-locks I3 and Iíì are as knob cannot be fully raised because the shaft 29 shown and described in the previous modification. will not be engageable with openings in the plates One or more plates 86 are mounted on the hori of the auxiliary interlock. Strap 26 again causes 60 zontal flange of the bar 1I. The number, length, bell crank 34 to swing about pivot 33 and, through and disposition of these plates correspond to the rod 53 and bell crank 64, moves bar 1I toward number of groups to be controlled, their location the interlocking straps I4. It will be noted (see on the voting machine, as well as their length; Figure 5) that straps I4 have been raised by manipulation of indicators on the face of the 65 by which is meant the number of straps involved in a group. Each plate is formed with a wedge voting machine and that said bar has now moved shaped front edge 81, and one or more down into position beneath lugs 13 and prevents move wardly inclined cams 88 are located adjacent this ment of the straps I 4 from voting to non-voting edge. The plate is mounted on the bar 1I upon position. In other words, once the voter has 70 pins 89 that project through the slots 9| of the indicated to `the election oñicial that his choice plate. Any suitable removable means, such as of candidates has been made, and the oiîicial cotter pins 92, serve to prevent displacement of has raised the entrance knob I8 for the purpose the pins. Between the head 93 of each pin and of allowing him to open the curtains of the booth, the under face of the horizontal flange of the bar record his vote, and leave the machine, he can 75 1I may be located a small spring 94. The spac 2,407,981 7 8 modification extends beyond the vertical flange ing of the head 93 from the bar 'H determines the of the bar 1l and is mounted for limited hori extent to which plate 86 may be tilted, and the zontal movement `with respect to the bar by the spring 94 serves to return this plate to full »sur pin and slot structure 89-9l. Attached by pins face contact with the upper flange of the bar 'H to the horizontal flange of the bar are springs after such tilting. The edge of the plate 86, when Cl 99 100. These springs are similar to springs 96 and in inoperative position, is flush with the vertical 'serve a corresponding purpose. flange ofthe bar 1l. One or more strip or other It is to be particularly noted, in connection with suitable springs 96 are secured to the vertical the modilication shown in Figures'ß to 13, inclu flange of bar 1I by pins 91. These springs (see Figure 8) extend laterally along the iiange of the bar and thence upwardly to form a projection 93 that engages the rear edge of the plate 88. Any rearward movement of plate 86, within the limits prescribed by pins 89 and slots 9 I, tensions springs sive, that should a voter fail to actuate a strap 80 to an extent such that the under side of a lug 8l would be engaged by plate 86, such actuation would be insuñicient to permit movement of the entrance knob |8,. as pin 29 would not enter an opening in the sliding plate controlled by lthe in 96y and causes them to subsequently return the 15 terlock rollers. Furthermore, should any straps plate to unoperated position. be slightly moved, plate B6, if the group voting It isv clearly evident that the entrance knob i8 is Isatisiied as to number through actuation of cannot be actuated if less straps than the num~ their straps, will contact upper surface 82 of lugs ber required to be actuated in a group have been 8 I , returning them to fully unoperated position. so actuated. In the event a voter has only par 20 Although applicant has shown and described tially actuated one or more of the required num only two modiiications of a mechanism in a voting ber of straps 89, such actuation being sufficient to spread the rollers of the auxiliary interlock I9 and make possible entry of pin 29 into the sliding plate actuated by said rollers, the main strap ißt may have been raised to no greater extent than indi~ cated in Figure l0 of the drawings. However, this position of the strap 8l) is such as to bring the pointed end of the lug 8l slightly above the point 81 of a plate 8E. Thus, when the entrance knob is raised and bar 'll is caused to move plate t5 into engagement ‘with the lugs of one or'more 'such partially actuated straps, the plate will strike the inclined surface 83 and move the incompletely actuated strap 89 to the position it should have occupied had it been fully actuated in the first instance. Plate B6 is capable of completing move machine which serves to preventa voter changing his vote subsequently to his indication to an elec tion official that his vote is complete, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that modi ñcations of the structure herein described may be made and are contemplated insofar as they are within the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in .the hereunto annexed claims. Having thus set forth my invention -what I claim as new and for which I desire protection by Let ters Patent is: ' ' > , 1. In a voting machine having a manually op erable control member and a plurality of oper able straps having oiîset portions, a mechanism for securing said straps against movement from ment of insuiliciently operated straps 89, not «only either operated or inoperated position, said mech sition against improper return to inoperative po sition, but also move said straps to fully operated position to prevent damage from occurring to their connected parts during the operation of portions without affecting said control member. anism comprising a bar movable >to engage the because of its contact with the lug, but also be cause such contact causes rearward movement of 40 offset portions in either position of said straps, a rod joined to said control member, yieldable plate 86 with respect to bar 1I, and as Isuch move means operably connecting said bar with said rod, ment takes place, cams 89 move onto the upper further means connecting said bar with a further ilange of the bar, raising the forward edge of the bar, said further bar being operable to move said plate and giving additional movement to the straps 8D; Plates 8G may therefore be said to not . yieldable means and at least momentarily with. draw said bar from engagement with said offset only secure the straps in partially operated po registering a vote. ' When utilizing the plates 8E as a means of en~ gaging the lugs of the straps, bar 1l must be po sitioned farther to the rear of the machine than it Would normally be positioned if directly en gageable with the lugs of the straps. It is con templated, however, that the position of bar 'il may be reversed such, for example, as shown in Figure 13, and thus the bar, operating struc~ ture, and supports would be identical with .the structure shown in Figure 1. Plate 8S in this 2. In a voting machine having a control mem ber movable to an operated position and a plu-l rality of operable straps having offset portions, a mechanism for securing said straps in operated position comprising a bar engageable with said offset portions when said straps are in operated position, yieldable means operably connecting said bar with said control member, and further means connected with said bar, said further means being operable to at least momentarily move said yieldable means and withdraw said bar from engagement with said oiîset portions with out affecting said control member. ALVIN N. GUSTAVSON.