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s¢§n24,1946. -
A. N. GusTAvsoN
2,407,981
VOTING MACHINE
Fjßed Hay 27, 1942
»3 Sheets-Sheet 1`
SePL 24, 1946»
A@ N.»Gus'rAvscN
'
2,407,981
VOTING MACHINE
Filed ‘May 27. 1942
3 Sheets-¿Sheet 3
' fa@
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Patented Sept. 24, 1946
2,407,981
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,407,981
VOTING MACHINE
Alvin N. Gustavson, Bem us Point, N. Y., assignor
to Automatic Voting Machine Corporation,
Jamestown, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
1
Application May 27, 1942, Serial No. 444,640
2 Claims. (Cl. 2235-54)
This invention relates to an improvement in
voting machines and more particularly to a
mechanism for requiring a voter to indicate and
cast a complete ballot, and includes structure of
the nature of my abandoned application, Serial
No. 195,722, ñled March 14, 1938.
In an election for representatives to general
assembly, representatives to conventions, or in
any other omce group election, there are more
candidates up for election than there are oflices
to be nlled. Certain cf the candidates must al
ways be defeated and others nominated or elect
ed. In elections of this nature the voter is in
structed Yto cast his ballot for the same lnumber
of candidates as there are oñices to be filled in a
given oiiice group. Little or no elîect on the out
come of an election would occur if only a few
voters failed to cast their ballots as instructed,
but it was found that a group vof voters, by pre
arrangement, could defeat lthe purpose of an 20
election of this nature by casting their ballots
for only one candidate instead of a number of
candidates equal to the number of oi‘ûces in the
office group. In this manner a particular candi
2
the ballots he previously had indicated and which
had satisfied the protective mechanism of the
voting machine to the extent of allowing the
v election onicial to raise the entrance knob. Thus
the protective mechanism could be circumvented
and it became evident that the voting machine
must be under protective control from the time
a voter enters the booth until he leaves it.
The present invention serves to prevent the
withdrawing of ballots subsequent to the time a
voter has indicated his ballot is complete and
ready to be registered, and this constitutes the
principal object of the invention.
Another object of the invention is to provide
a mechanism for a voting machine which func
tions to control and require proper balloting sub
sequently to the release or withdrawal of control
by an election official.
Other and further objects of the invention will
be more fully understood from a consideration
of the following specification, taken in conjunc
tion with the accompanying drawings; and in
which
Fig. 1 is a rear elevation of one modification
date would receive votes equal in number to that 25
of the invention applied to a voting machine;
of the group of voters and the other candidates
Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view taken sub
would receive none. Thus the favored candidate
stantially on the line 2_2 of Fig. 1;
would be the equivalent of twice the number of
Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken sub
votes ahead of any other candidate with respect
to a given groupof voters. Inasmuch as this 30 stantially on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1;
practice is not only unethical and contrary to
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary View, partly in section,
showing that portion of the mechanism adapted
the intent of the election laws, it became neces
to engage and control movement of interlocking
sary to provide a mechanism for controlling this
straps in main and auxiliary interlocks;
condition in elections involving candidate groups.
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4 showing inter
The present invention is directed to means for
locking straps held in voted position by a bar
controlling balloting in elections involving can
forming a part of the invention;
didate groups and comprises a mechanism which
serves to prevent a voter from recording his bal
Fig. 6 is a view of a part of the mechanism
lot and leaving the Voting booth without first
shown in Fig. 1, with the elements in a position
having complied with the election laws concern 40 assumed when the entrance knob has been raised
ing candidate group balloting.
ì ,
and a voter has operated the curtain closing
Prior to this invention, in the election of candi
lever;
dates to ofiice groups, a voter could comply with
Fig. 7 is a further view showing the position
the election requirements, thereby satisfying> any
of ther parts of the mechanism during their re
protective mechanism provided for this purpose, 45 turn to normal position;
and indicate-to an election oflicial that his ballot
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary rear elevational view
was complete. The election ofiicialwould then
of another modification of the invention applied
raise the entrance knob for the purpose of lock
to a voting machine;
ing the voting machine against further balloting
Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view, partly en
and unlocking a lever operable by the voter, to
larged, taken substantially on the line 9-9 of
register his ballot and Open the curtains of the
Fig. 8, and sho-ws the parts in inoperative posi
booth. Subsequently to the entrance knob being
tion;
raised by the election oiiicial and prior to the
Fig. l0 is a vertical sectional View, similar to
voter’s operation of the registering lever, it was
Fig. 9, showing the parts in full line in partly
possible for the voter to withdraw any or al1 of 55 operated position;
2,407,9531
3
4
Fig. l1 is a fragmentary perspective view show
ing a strap interlocking bar;
Fig. 12 is an enlarged vertical sectional view
taken substantially on the line I2-I2 of Fig. 11;
the same direction. Bar 1I' is adapted to move
into position above or beneath lugs 13 for the
and
Fig. 13 is an enlarged Vertical sectional view of
a modiñcation form of the structure shown in
Adjacent the side wall I I of the machine is a
vertically positioned bar 14 which extends up
wardly and is connected in any conventional
manner with the lever that is adapted to be oper
Fig. 12.
Reference is now had to the drawings wherein
the invention is shown applied to a voting ma
purpose oi preventing movement of the straps I4
out of the position they occupy at the time the
bar is manipulated.
‘ ated by a voter to open or close the curtains of a
chine, a portion of which is generally indicated
by the reference numeral I8. The machine in
cludes side and base walls II and I2. Adjacent
the base wall is a main interlock I3 having main
interlocking straps I4. Since the present inven
tion has to do particularly with balloting in oñice
groups, an auxiliary interlock I6 is provided.
This interlock includes auxiliary straps I1 joined
in any conventional manner to and operable by
straps I4.
An entrance knob I8 is located exteriorly of
the votingl machine and is limited to vertical
movement through the provision of a shaft I9
which is mounted in a suitable slot 2|l in the wall
IIofthe machine. A sleeve 22 and strap 23 are
mounted on the shaft I9. A shaft 24, secured to
strap 23, mounts one end of a rod 26. The rod
26 extends downwardly along the wall II and is
joined at its lower end through a pivot member
voting booth. Adjacent the entrance knob I8,
one end of a strap 16 is pivotally joined to the
bar- 14’. This strap is formed with an offset to
cause the lower portion 11 thereof to approach
wall I I. The portion 11 projects between a pair
of guides 18 mounted on one face oí the bracket
3l. Adjacent the offset of the strap 16 is a pin
Under certain circumstances of operation
hereinafter set forth, pin 19 is adapted to con
tact surfaces 51, 58, and`59 of cam 54.
Having described the structure of the inven
tion, its use in connection with the operation of
a voting machine is as follows: It is to be assumed
that the voting machine II) is arranged to» handle
the election of candidates in an office group
where there are a limited number of oflices avail
able and a greater number oi candidates are
seeking nomination or election to these oñices.
In accordance with the election laws, a voter
must cast his ballot for a candidate for each of
2,1 to one end of a rocker arm 28. Arm 28 is 30
the oiiices of the group. When a voter enters the
_fitted with a rod 29 which is projectable through
voting booth, the election ofñcial raises the en
an o-pening in one or more plates when a voter
trance knob I8. In the usual mechanism of the
has manipulated the prescribed number of can
didate indicators on the face lci" the voting ma
chine and the related interlocking straps I4 and ‘
I1.
y _ Secured to the wall II, beneath the entrance
knob IB, is a bracket 3l'. IThis bracket has an
upwardly extending arm 32. Mounted on the
arm 32`is a pivot pin 33 which supports a bell
crank 34. An arm 36 of the bell crank 34 is piv
otally connected by a pin 31 to a bracket 36 that
is rigidly secured to the rod 26. The other arm
.39 of the bell crank is pivotally connected with
one end of an extensible member 4I which com.
prises a¿pair of straps 42 and 43. These straps
are formed with longitudinally extending slots 44
and 46. A pin 41` on strap 42 projects into slot
46 and a further pin 48 on strap 43 projects
through slot 44. An expansion spring 49 is se
cured at one end to pin 48 of strap 43 and at the
other end'to a further pin 5I on strap 42.
The free end of strap 43 is joined through a
pivot pin 5_2' to a rod 53. It will be noted that
this rod parallels straps 42 and 43 and at one
end is pivotally joined to a cam 54 thorugh a pin
56.> The cam 54, at its lower end, is pivotally
mounted onbracket 3| and includes surfaces 51,
voting machine, knob I6 functions, through strap
23, to release the lever by which the voter may
enclose himself in the booth and unlock the ma
chine for voting. However, since the present in
vention is connected with the entrance knob, an
adjustment of certain parts thereof also takes
place. It will be noted that strap 26 is connected
with the entrance knob and, therefore, this strap
will move upwardly, causing arm 28 to pivot and
rod ‘.29 to project through a neutral position open
ing in one or more plates located in the auxiliary
I interlock I6. As the strap 26 moves upwardly, it
causes bell crank 34 to pivot about pin 33 on
bracket 3 I. This rotational movement of the bell
crank moves member 4I, whichin turn causes
rod 53 ‘to move toward the left as viewed in the
drawings. One end of rod 53 is joined to the cam
54 and, consequently, this cam will swing into
the position shown in Figure 6 of the drawings.
The rod 53 is also connected through plate 6I
with bell crank 64 and causes this bell crank to
rotate about pivot pin 68 and move~ the angle bar
`1I to occupy a position directly over lugs 13 of
the straps I4.
.
'l
As the voter moves the lever to close the cur
tains and unlock the machine for voting, bar 14
58, and 59. Fixed to the other end of rod 53 is a
moves downwardly, causing strap 16 to move
(Il)
plate 6I. The free end of this plate is connected
downwardly, pin 19 is thus brought into contact
through a pivot pin 62 with an arm 63 of a bell
with surface 51 of cam 54. Since this surface
crank 64. A central supporting member 66 in the
is inclined, the cam will be rotated clockwise
voting machine mounts a horizontally disposed
about itspivot and move rod 53. This movement
bracket 61‘to which the central portion of the bell
_crank 64 is joined by a pivot pin 68. An arm 69 of
the bell crank is pivotally connected with one end
of --an angle bar 1I. One or more links 12 have
pivotal connection at one end with the bar 1I
and are pivotally anchored at the opposite ends
to a fixed portion of the machine. The purpose
of link 12 is to guide the bar 1I, bell crank 64
serving to transmit movement of rod 53 to bar
' of rrod 53' causes angle bar 1I to momentarily
move out of position abovev lugs 13. Itis to be
noted that the entrance knob I8 is still in raised
position and bell crank 34 and member 4I are
in the position shown in Figure '1 of the drawings.
Movement of rod 53, without moving bell crank
34 or strap 26, is possible through the provision
of the extensible member 4I which, as'heretofore
described, comprises relatively slidable spring held
1I in aA direction perpendicular to the movement
straps 42, and 43. As the pin 19 moves from off
of said rod. Each oi the interlocking straps I4 is
formed with a lug 13. These lugs all extend in 75 thefsurface151. onto surface 58, thentension oi
5
2,407,981
spring 49 causes cam 54 to commence moving to
ward the left as viewed in the drawings. This
movement continues until the pin has moved onto
the notched surface 59. This action of the pin
6
not change his mind concerning his ballot; and
move any indicators from voting to non-voting
position, due to the fact that these indicators are
directly connected with straps I4 and these straps
19 and cam 54, it will be understood, takes place
are prevented movement by bar 1I. Upon move
during the curtain closing operation and the
ment of the curtain lever to open position, bar
parts of the invention, when the voting machine
14 moves upwardly and, through strap 16, causes
is ready for use, assume the position shown in
pin 19 to ride upwardly along the surfaces of cam
Figure 6 of the drawings.
54 and the parts of the device return to the po
During the curtain closing operation, the rel 10 sition
shown in Figure 1 of the drawings, thus pre
atively extensible parts 43 and 44 have functioned
paring the mechanism for control of the next
and bar 1I momentarily withdrawn from its po
voter.
sition overlying the lugs of the. straps. No ad
Since bar 1| extends substantially the full
vantages are obtained by this functioning of the
length of the machine, it is effective not only to
parts during the curtain closing operation. How
prevent movement of straps I4 of a given group,
ever, during the curtain opening operation, as is
but all of the straps of the voting machine,
well known in voting machines of this type, it is
whether they are in a group the mechanism is in
necessary to first secure the actuated straps
tended to control or not. It is conceivable that
against voter manipulation, register the vote in
a voter might fail to fully actuate one or more
dicated by the voter and, third, return the straps
straps not set up in a given group, and such ac
to their original inoperative position. The rela
tuation might be such as to cause the vertical
tively extensible parts, which permit withdrawal
edges of one or more lugs 13 to become directly
of bar 1I, function during the curtain opening
aligned with the vertical edge of the upper flange
operation following registering the indicated vote
of the bar 1I. Under such circumstances the
on the counters, and permit movement of the 25 bar 1I could not move into position above or be
straps to their original inoperative position. It
low the lugs and its usefulness as a means of
might be assumed that withdrawal of bar 1I
preventing
undesired movement of the straps
would withdraw control of the machine over the
would be nulliiied. Although it is true that a
possibility of a voter’s changing his preference,
strap I4 would not be properly actuated and a
but it is to be borne in mind that by the timesuch 30 corresponding candidate indicator on the face of
a possibility exists the voter’s indicated ballot
the machine would not have been fully moved into
has already been registered, and any attempt yto
vote indicating position, it is conceivable that
manipulate the voting indicators would in no
voters unfamiliar with ìnachine voting might fail
wise affect the original intended vote.
’
to fully move `the candidate indicators and effect
When the election official lowers the entrance
full movement of the corresponding straps I4,
knob I8, shaft 29 is withdrawn from the aux
thereby creating the condition mentioned.
iliary interlock I6. With the lowering of entrance
A modification of the invention is shown in
knob I8, the cam 54, rod 53, and bar 1I return
Figures 8 to 13, inclusive, and in this form the
to the position indicated in Figures 1, 2, and 4
device provides against damage or incomplete
of the drawings and the interlocking straps are 40 operation of the machine by utilizing the bar 1I
thus free to be moved. The voter may now cast
his ballot for a candidate for each of the ofiices
listed on the face of the voting machine. As the
voting operation takes place, certain` of the in
as a support for one or more plates that engage
the lugs of the straps. These plates are of dif
ferent lengths to accommodate different size
terlocking straps I4 and I1 are raised and as 45 groups and may be placed on the bar 1I to ef
fectively control a group, regardless of its posi
sume the position shown in Figure 5 of the draw
tion on a voting machine.
ings. If the voter has properly cast his ballot,
Reference is now particularly had to Figures
certain of the interlocking straps I4 and I1 will
8 to 12, inclusive, wherein such a modiñcation of
actuate a control mechanism in the auxiliary
the structure is shown. In this instance, main
interlock I6 by causing one or more plates thereof
to register certain openings with shaft 29. The 50 interlocking straps 80 are provided. These straps
each include conventional means for connecting
voter now indicates to the election official that
he has completed balloting and said oflicial again
raises the entrance knob I8. The strap 26 moves
upwardly, rocking arm 28 and moving shaft 29
the auxiliary straps I1 thereto. Additionally, they
include pointed lugs SI having upper and lower
surfaces 82 and 83, respectively, and a shoulder
84, which is a continuation of surface 83 and
formed on the under edge of the lug. Straps 80,
in all other respects, are identical with straps
downwardly into engagement with certain plate
openings in the auxiliary interlock I6. If the vot
er has not properly cast his ballot, the entrance
I4 and, of course, intel-locks I3 and Iíì are as
knob cannot be fully raised because the shaft 29
shown and described in the previous modification.
will not be engageable with openings in the plates
One or more plates 86 are mounted on the hori
of the auxiliary interlock. Strap 26 again causes 60
zontal flange of the bar 1I. The number, length,
bell crank 34 to swing about pivot 33 and, through
and disposition of these plates correspond to the
rod 53 and bell crank 64, moves bar 1I toward
number of groups to be controlled, their location
the interlocking straps I4. It will be noted (see
on the voting machine, as well as their length;
Figure 5) that straps I4 have been raised by
manipulation of indicators on the face of the 65 by which is meant the number of straps involved
in a group. Each plate is formed with a wedge
voting machine and that said bar has now moved
shaped front edge 81, and one or more down
into position beneath lugs 13 and prevents move
wardly inclined cams 88 are located adjacent this
ment of the straps I 4 from voting to non-voting
edge. The plate is mounted on the bar 1I upon
position. In other words, once the voter has
70
pins 89 that project through the slots 9| of the
indicated to `the election oñicial that his choice
plate. Any suitable removable means, such as
of candidates has been made, and the oiîicial
cotter pins 92, serve to prevent displacement of
has raised the entrance knob I8 for the purpose
the pins. Between the head 93 of each pin and
of allowing him to open the curtains of the booth,
the under face of the horizontal flange of the bar
record his vote, and leave the machine, he can
75 1I may be located a small spring 94. The spac
2,407,981
7
8
modification extends beyond the vertical flange
ing of the head 93 from the bar 'H determines the
of the bar 1l and is mounted for limited hori
extent to which plate 86 may be tilted, and the
zontal movement `with respect to the bar by the
spring 94 serves to return this plate to full »sur
pin and slot structure 89-9l. Attached by pins
face contact with the upper flange of the bar 'H
to the horizontal flange of the bar are springs
after such tilting. The edge of the plate 86, when Cl 99
100. These springs are similar to springs 96 and
in inoperative position, is flush with the vertical
'serve a corresponding purpose.
flange ofthe bar 1l. One or more strip or other
It is to be particularly noted, in connection with
suitable springs 96 are secured to the vertical
the modilication shown in Figures'ß to 13, inclu
flange of bar 1I by pins 91. These springs (see
Figure 8) extend laterally along the iiange of the
bar and thence upwardly to form a projection 93
that engages the rear edge of the plate 88. Any
rearward movement of plate 86, within the limits
prescribed by pins 89 and slots 9 I, tensions springs
sive, that should a voter fail to actuate a strap 80
to an extent such that the under side of a lug 8l
would be engaged by plate 86, such actuation
would be insuñicient to permit movement of the
entrance knob |8,. as pin 29 would not enter an
opening in the sliding plate controlled by lthe in
96y and causes them to subsequently return the 15 terlock rollers. Furthermore, should any straps
plate to unoperated position.
be slightly moved, plate B6, if the group voting
It isv clearly evident that the entrance knob i8
is Isatisiied as to number through actuation of
cannot be actuated if less straps than the num~
their straps, will contact upper surface 82 of lugs
ber required to be actuated in a group have been
8 I , returning them to fully unoperated position.
so actuated. In the event a voter has only par 20
Although applicant has shown and described
tially actuated one or more of the required num
only two modiiications of a mechanism in a voting
ber of straps 89, such actuation being sufficient to
spread the rollers of the auxiliary interlock I9 and
make possible entry of pin 29 into the sliding plate
actuated by said rollers, the main strap ißt may
have been raised to no greater extent than indi~
cated in Figure l0 of the drawings. However, this
position of the strap 8l) is such as to bring the
pointed end of the lug 8l slightly above the point
81 of a plate 8E. Thus, when the entrance knob
is raised and bar 'll is caused to move plate t5
into engagement ‘with the lugs of one or'more
'such partially actuated straps, the plate will strike
the inclined surface 83 and move the incompletely
actuated strap 89 to the position it should have
occupied had it been fully actuated in the first
instance. Plate B6 is capable of completing move
machine which serves to preventa voter changing
his vote subsequently to his indication to an elec
tion official that his vote is complete, it will be
understood by those skilled in the art that modi
ñcations of the structure herein described may be
made and are contemplated insofar as they are
within the spirit and scope of the invention as
set forth in .the hereunto annexed claims.
Having thus set forth my invention -what I claim
as new and for which I desire protection by Let
ters Patent is:
'
'
>
,
1. In a voting machine having a manually op
erable control member and a plurality of oper
able straps having oiîset portions, a mechanism
for securing said straps against movement from
ment of insuiliciently operated straps 89, not «only
either operated or inoperated position, said mech
sition against improper return to inoperative po
sition, but also move said straps to fully operated
position to prevent damage from occurring to
their connected parts during the operation of
portions without affecting said control member.
anism comprising a bar movable >to engage the
because of its contact with the lug, but also be
cause such contact causes rearward movement of 40 offset portions in either position of said straps,
a rod joined to said control member, yieldable
plate 86 with respect to bar 1I, and as Isuch move
means
operably connecting said bar with said rod,
ment takes place, cams 89 move onto the upper
further means connecting said bar with a further
ilange of the bar, raising the forward edge of the
bar, said further bar being operable to move said
plate and giving additional movement to the
straps 8D; Plates 8G may therefore be said to not . yieldable means and at least momentarily with.
draw said bar from engagement with said offset
only secure the straps in partially operated po
registering a vote.
'
When utilizing the plates 8E as a means of en~
gaging the lugs of the straps, bar 1l must be po
sitioned farther to the rear of the machine than
it Would normally be positioned if directly en
gageable with the lugs of the straps. It is con
templated, however, that the position of bar 'il
may be reversed such, for example, as shown
in Figure 13, and thus the bar, operating struc~
ture, and supports would be identical with .the
structure shown in Figure 1. Plate 8S in this
2. In a voting machine having a control mem
ber movable to an operated position and a plu-l
rality of operable straps having offset portions, a
mechanism for securing said straps in operated
position comprising a bar engageable with said
offset portions when said straps are in operated
position, yieldable means operably connecting
said bar with said control member, and further
means connected with said bar, said further
means being operable to at least momentarily
move said yieldable means and withdraw said bar
from engagement with said oiîset portions with
out affecting said control member.
ALVIN N. GUSTAVSON.
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