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Sept. 24, 1946.
'
w, D, TlPTON
2,408,008
HYDRODYN AMI C TRANSM I S S ION
Filed Feb. 17_, 1944
2 Sheets-Shea
l
INVENTOR
'
WILL/HM D. T/P‘T'ON
W/KW
Y
,
ATTORN Y
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
2,408,008
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,008
' HYDRODYNAMIC TRANSMISSION
William D. Tipton, Stoneleigh, Md.; Elizabeth B.
Tipton executrix of said William D. Tipton,
deceased
1
Application February 17, 1944, Serial No. 522,735
7 Claims. ( Cl. 74-1895)
This invention relates to hydrodynamic trans
missions, particularly to those types which-em
body a ?uid torque converter and a gearset in
combination; and is an improvement over the
arrangement disclosed and claimed in my previ
ously issued Patent No. 2,306,834, issued Dec. 29,
2
usual starting gear ll. Bolted to the ?ywheel It]
at i2 is a shell-like housing member I3 which
encloses the hydraulic unit and has a rearwardly
extending portion M to which is attached by
means of a jaw clutch l5, a plate-like .member
H3. The latter is fastened by bolts I‘! to a car
1942.
rier member l3. _A resilient sealing assembly
The principalobject of this invention is to pro
5 9 of any suitable design is provided between the
vide an improved automatically variable ratio
housing 23, and rearward extension M as illus
power transmission of the aforesaid‘ type for 10
automotive use wherein the major portion of the
The carrier l8 carries a plurality (preferably
trated.
»
V
engine torque is transmitted mechanically under
three) of planetary gear elements 2|, each being
vehicle direct drive conditions.
provided with three sets of gear teeth, designated
Another object is to provide an improved power
respectively 22, 23 and 24, the purpose of which
transmission of the ?uid type wherein the hy
will be presently made clear. ‘
draulic power transmitting structure will func
The hydraulic unit comprises three relatively
tion as a torque multiplier during vehicle oper
rotatable vaned wheels 25, 3| and 35. The wheel
ation under conditions of high torque demand,
35 serves‘as an impeller and carries a sleeve 36.
and as a ?uid coupling of the kinetic type under
The wheel 25 is adapted to serve both as an im—
conditions of low torque demand.
20 peller and as a guide or reaction wheel under
.Still another object is to provide in such a
different operating conditions and is fastened at
transmission means for automatically adjusting
25 to a sleeve 21, the latter being splined at 28
the drivingratio to accommodate varying condi
to the forwardly extending portion 29 of an an
tions of drive.
nulus gear 30. The runner or turbine wheel 3|
A further object is to provide in such a device,
is carried by a hub 32 splined at 33 on the out
means for increasing the overall operating effi
put shaft 34.
ciency while maintaining the desirable cushioned
Fig. 2 illustrates the shape of the vanes of the
drive and good accelerating characteristics.
three wheels. The impeller and runner wheels
A still further object is to provide in connec
35 and 3| may have straight or curved vanes and
tion with such a transmission, an automatically 30 the wheel 25 which‘ acts as either an impeller
operable and foolproof “no-back” or “hill-hold.”
or a guide wheel has curved vanes.
Other objects and advantages of the device will
The sleeve 36 carried by the impeller 35 is
become apparent from a reading of the following
splined at 31 to thelforwardly extended hub of
description.
Further objects and advantages of the inven
tion will become apparent from the following de
scription.
Reference is now made to the accompanying
drawings in which reference characters have
been used to designate corresponding parts re
ferred to in the description, and wherein
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal central sectional view
a sun gear 38. The gear 38 has teeth 39 which
mesh with the teeth 22 of planet gears 2|. The
teeth‘ 23 of the planet gears mesh with teeth 40
of an annulus gear 4|, and the teeth 24 of the
planet gears mesh with teeth 42 of a smaller
annulus gear 43.
The gears 4| and 43 are dis
posed in telescoping relationship as illustrated
and are rotatable with respect to each other and
shaft 34.
of a preferred embodiment of the power trans
Gear 4| has a rearwardly extending hub which
mission.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional 45 is adapted to be drivingly connected by means of
a one-way clutch 44 with a brake drum 45. Gear
view of the ?uid directing vanes, the three sets
43 has both forwardly and rearwardly extending
of vanes being shown in a single plane for con.
hubs. The forward extension thereof is adapted
for driving connection with shaft 34 by one-way
Fig. 1.
‘
‘
50 clutch 46, and the rearward extension is adapted
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional View of valve F
for driving connection with a brake drum 41 by
of Fig. 1, and
one-way clutch 48.
‘
Fig. 5 is a similar view of valve G.
The clutches 44, 46 and 48 are of the well
Referring to the drawings, I0 designates the
known camland roller type and are so ‘arranged 1
?ywheel of a vehicle engine which carries the 55 that shaft 34 can overrun gear 43, gear 4| can
venience.
‘
Fig. 3 is a section taken along line 3--3 of
2,408,008
3
4
overrun brake drum 45 and gear 03 can overrun
Solenoid S has the usual field coil I05 and
core I06. A coil spring I01 biases the valve stem
I08 (which is formed integrally with core I05)
to venting position, The stem has a pair of en
brake drum 4?.
A third brake drum "35 is splined at 50 to the
mainshaft 34 and thus functions when locked to
hold the shaft 34 stationary.
The drums 55, ‘ill and 49 are respectively con
trolled by brake bands 5|, 52 and Y53.
These
bands are similar inconstruction and are hy
draulically actuated. The mechanism for oper
ating band 52 is shown in detail in Fig. 3. As
illustrated, housing plate 54 carries a fluid cylin
der 55 in which is disposed a, reciprocable piston
55. Piston 55 has a reduced extension 5'! sup
ported in a boss 58. The brake band 52 has a
pair of ears 59 normally urged apart by a coil
spring 60.
The piston extension 51 passes
through holes in the ears and carries the spring
v5|). vFluid under pressure introduced through
port 6| will tighten the brake band and restrain
rotation of the drum 5'5.
Suitably attached to the rear end of the hous
ing '52 is a housing 53 which contains a forward
and reverse gearset. The latter comprises a gear
05 rotatably mounted by means of ‘a .ball bearing
57 in wall 55 of casing 53. Gear 55 is splined
on shaft 30 at 08 and has teeth 55 disposed in
mesh with a countershaft gear 69. The latter is
larged portions I05, I|0 which permit communi
cation between port 99 and either port I0! or
I03 depending upon the valve positions.
' It is ‘clear therefore that‘valve G will remain
in its illustrated position and brake drum 45 will
be free for rotation so long as the mercury globule
9| remains in the bottom of tube 90. The tube
‘30 'will be revolved about the axis of shaft 85
whenever shaft 34 is rotated, and at some pre
determined speed of shaft 35 the globule 9| will
be forced upwardly in the tube by centrifugal
force and contacts 32 will be bridged whereupon
solenoid S will be energized and valve G will be
operated to close off vent port I03 and open pres~
sure port IOI. Brake band 5| will thus be set.
Brake bands 52 and 53 are operated manually
by means of pedal I05’ and valve F. Pedal I05’
corresponds somewhat to the conventional clutch
pedal in its operation. Valve F (Fig. 4) has a
vent passage I05’ which vconnects vent ports I01’,
I08’ with the sump through‘ pip-e I09’. A pipe
H0’ supplies fluid pressure to pressure ports III,
I I2. Port I I3 connects with the operating cylin
der of brake band 53 through pipe I I5, and port
I I4 connects with the operating cylinder of brake
one of a cluster 10 carried on countershaft H.
A second countershaft gear ‘I2 meshes with an
,
idler gear 73 which is suitably mounted in the 30 band 52 through pipe H6.
Pedal I05’ is operably connected with a cross
Casing.
head III which is in turn operably connected
_ ‘Piloted in the hollow bore of gear 651s one
end ‘of a‘shaft ‘M, a roller bearing ‘I5 being dis
with valve stems H8 and H9. Coil springs I20,
I2I urge the respective stems I I8, I I3 toward the
posed between the shaft and gear. The shaft 14
is rotatably supported at its rear end by a bearing 35 right of Fig. 4. Stem H5 has enlarged portions
13 and constitutes the ?nal driven shaft of the
I24, I25 formed thereon and stem I I0 has similar
transmission.
7
‘
portions I22, I23.
The respective enlarged stem ‘portions are so
Slidably mounted on splines TI is a clutch mem
arranged that depression of pedal I05’ one half
ber ‘I8 which is adapted to be shifted axially of
the housing by a shifter fork ‘I9 in the usual 40 of its stroke will cut off pressure port II2 and
open vent port I07’ without affecting the rela
manner. Clutch member ‘I8 has teeth 80 adapted
tionship of ports in the lower valve chamber.
to mesh with idler "I3 upon rearward shift thereof,
Further depression of the pedal to ‘the limit of
and clutch teeth 8| adapted to mesh with clutch
teeth '82 carried by gear 65 upon forward shift.
its stroke will close vent port I58’ and open
45
pressure port I II without affecting the relation
As can be readily understood, the clutch mem
ship of ports in the upper valve chamber.
ber ‘I8 may be shifted from its illustrated neutral
position rearwardly to engage idler ‘I3 for reverse
The effect of this operation characteristic of
drive, or forwardly to engage gear 65 for forward
valve F is to release band 52 .(which is normally
set as above explained in connection with Fig. 3)
drive.
Mounted on top of casing 63 is a governor
by depression of pedal I05’ half way and to set
mechanism 83. This comprises a shaft 85 having
brake band 53 by, full depression of the .pedal
while maintaining band 52 released. The signi?
a worm pinion 85 at its lower end. The latter
engages a worm 85 which is carried by a shaft
cance of this will be more fully explained below.
‘The operation of my improved transmission is
8'! mounted in the wall 65. This shaft also car
ries a gear 83 which engages and is driven by 55 as follows:
With the Vehicle at rest with its engine running
gear 65. Shaft 84 carries a collar 85‘ which in
turn carries a. closed tube 90 of non-conducting
and the parts in their illustrated positions, brake
drum 4‘! is stationary because of the pressure
material, mounted as shown. In the tube 90 is a
globuleiof mercury 9|. The tube is inclined such
in cylinder 55. Annulus gear 43 is therefore
60
that the globule normally rests in the lower end
held against reverse rotation and forms a reac
tion point for the planetary gearset. Flywheel
thereof. The upper end Of the tube has .a pair
I0, housing I3, plate It and carrier I8 are rotat
of electrical contacts 92, which are connected by
ing at engine speed, and planet gears 21 are
?exible conductors 93 to a pair .of slip rings 94, 95.
Slip ring 55 is connected to one side of a bat
rotated due to the teeth 42 being held.
tery 95 (preferably the regular car battery) and 65
The hydraulic wheels 25 and 35 are thus caused
to rotate forwardly with carrier I8, the impeller
slip ring 54 is connected by a wire 0'! with a
35 turning in excess‘ of input speed and the wheel
solenoid S (Fig. 5) which forms part of a control
25 turning slowly in accordance with the relation
valve G. The other side of solenoid S is con
ship set up by the planetary gear ratios and
nected by wire 98 with the battery 9.5. Valve G
is shown in venting position. Port ‘90 thereof is "Il thus functions as a reaction or guide wheel for
the hydraulic unit. The vehicle remains station
connected by a pipe I00 with the operating cylin
ary because of clutch ‘I8 being in neutral.
der of brake band 5|; port IOI is connected .by
Pedal I05’ is now depressed fully releasing drum
pipe I02 with a source of fluid pressure ‘(the
41 and setting band 53. This removes the ‘reac
engine lubricating system for example) and port
tion point from the planetary 'gearset and locks
I03 vents to the sump through pipe I04.
2,408,008
5
6
shaft 34 and gear- 65 against rotation. Shifter
fork 19 may now be manipulated to engage teeth
If, when running in direct drive, the driver‘
desires to accelerate the vehicle, opening of the
80 with gear 13 for reverse drive or to engage
teeth 8| with teeth 82 for forward drive. Let it
be assumed that forward drive is established.
Pedal 105' is then released locking gear 43.
Gear 34 which is driven by wheel 25 may be
larger than gear 43 as shown, but is preferably
of the same size whereupon it remains stationary.
throttle will cause asudden‘ torque increase on
carrier 18 which because of the difference in gear
sizes will speed up wheel 35. This will, in turn,
cause increased ?uid velocity in the ?uid circuit
andincrea-sed reaction on wheel 25. The latter
will slow down and react against brake‘ drum 45
(which is set) through the action of gears 30, 2|,
10 43 and clutch 44, and will rotate at less-than
Impeller 35 turns forwardly at greater-than-in
put speed because of the step-up in ratio.
Note that under these conditions, one-way
clutch 46 which prevents reverse rotation of
shaft 34, functions as a “no-back” or “hill-hold”
device and prevents the car from rolling back
ward when stopped on an upgrade. This “hill
hold”. can be made ineffective ‘in case the driver
desires to let the vehicledrift backwards by de
pressing pedal Hi5’ half way. This releases drum
4'! which has held gear 43 stationary through one
way clutch 43.
,
As the engine is speeded up, impeller 35 de
. livers ?uid to guide wheel 25 which is turning
input speed depending upon the predetermined
ratio of gears 2| and 44. The vehicle has now
returned to second speed ratio condition. This
return or “step-down” is entirely automatic and
is the result of additional torque supplied or in
creased torque demand on shaft 34, or both. Thus
it is seen that the equivalent of’ the well-known
“kickdown” is present Without the necessity of
any conscious eifort on the part of the driver;
Restoration’ of direct drive is automatic when
the torque difference between ?ywheel It and
shaft 34 disappears.
.
_
.
It may therefore be seen that I have provided
forwardly slowly or is stationary in accordance
an improved hydrodynamic drive which is simple _
with the relative diameters of gears 30 and 43.
in construction, economical to build, entirely au
The out?ow from wheel 25 enters the passages
tomatic in operation, and which operates at a
of runner 31 which drives the final drive shaft
higher efficiency than those heretofore used.‘
14 through shaft 34, gear 65 and clutch member
' Having thus described a speci?c embodiment of
18. This condition of drive corresponds to con
my invention, I wish to point out that such has
Ventional low speed drive.
been done for illustrative purposes only and it is
When the vehicle has reached a speed of, say
not intended to limit the breadth or scope of the
8 M. P. H,, governor mechanism 83 functions
invention in the broader aspects thereof except
automatically to set brake band 5| and thus ‘stop
as set forth in the claims appended below.
drum 45; This stops gear 4| from rotating
I claim:
'
through the action of overrunning clutch 44 and
1. In a ?uid power transmission having a driv
causes guide wheel 25 to be rotated forwardly
ing structure and a driven structure, a runner
at increased relative speed because of the relative
wheel carried by the driven structure; a second
sizes of gears 4! and 35. Car is now in second
vaned wheel arranged in series relation with the
speed stage and acceleration continues until the
runner wheel and adapted to act either as a run
torque demand of shaft 34 is less than that sup. 40 ner wheel or as a guide wheel; a vaned impeller
plied by guide wheel 25.
‘
wheel arranged in series relation with the afore
The diameters of wheels 25 and 35 and the
said wheels; differential gear means for coupling
ratios of gears 30 and 38 are such that, under
said second wheel and said impeller to the driv
normal conditions, the wheel 25 will tend to over
ing structure, said gear means being constructed
run wheel 35, and when there is a sudden increase
and arranged such that the rotational speed of
in torque demand such as during acceleration, the
said second wheel and said impeller varies in ac
increased reaction against wheel 25 will cause it
cordance with the ?uid reaction imposed on said
to lag behind and rest against brake drum 45 or
second wheel as a consequence of torque demand
41 depending upon which of the brakes is set. .
on said driven structure; and means operably as
When torque demand decreases to a Value less '
sociated with said gear means for coupling said
than that being supplied by wheel 25 under the
second wheel to said driven structure in response
above described second speed driving conditions,
to equalization of torque demand on said. runner
wheel 25 speeds up to the speed of runner 3!.
and said second wheel.
This causes a corresponding relative speed-up of
gear 43 which now tends to overrun shaft 34.
One-way clutch 46 now functions to clutch gear
43 to shaft 34 and the entire planetary unit ro
tates as a unit, the gear 4! idling. This condi
tion is the third speed ratio or direct drive con
2. In a ?uid power transmission having a driv
ing structure and a driven structure, a runner
transmitted mechanically to shaft 34 through
brake means including a brake drum; an over
wheel drivingly connected to the driven struc
ture; a pair of hydraulic wheels of different di
ameter disposed in driving relation with said
runner wheel; a planet carrier driven by the
dition.
driving structure; a planet pinion on said carrier;
Note that wheels 25 and 3| are now turning as
two sets of teeth on said pinion; an annulus gear
a unit, thus the wheel 25 functions in direct drive
meshing
with one set of teeth and drivingly con
as a runner and wheel 35 functions as an impeller
nected with the larger of said wheels; a sun gear
slipping slightly with respect to wheels 25 and 3|
as in a. two-element ?uid coupling of the kinetic 65 meshing with said teeth and drivingly connected
with the smaller wheel; a second annulus gear
type.
meshing with the second set of pinion teeth;
In direct drive, most of the engine torque is
running brake device‘ operably disposed between
shell l3, planet carrier I8, planet gear 2 I , annulus
gear 43 and clutch 46. The remainder is trans 70 said second annulus gear and said brake drum
for preventing reverse rotation of said gear when
mitted hydraulically through runner 3! , thus the
slippage present in ordinary torque converter and _ ‘ said brake is set; and an overrunning clutch de
vice operably disposed between said second annu
?uid coupling transmissions is reduced to an ex
tremely low value with consequent gain in over
lus gear and said driven structure for drivingly
75 coupling said gear to said driven ‘structure in re
all e?iciency.
2,408,008
7
8
sponse to tendency of said‘ gear to overrun said
meshing with said teeth and Vdrivi-ngly connected
structure.
wheel drivingly connected to the driven struc
with the smaller wheel; a second annulus gear
meshing with a second set of pinion teeth; a third
annulus gear of larger diameter than said second
annulus gear’ meshing with'the third set of pin
ture; a pair of hydraulic wheels of different di
ion teeth; means for selectively restraining re
.
3. In a fluid power transmission having a driv=
ing structure and a driven structure, a ‘runner
ameter, disposed‘ in driving relation with said
verse rotation of said second and third‘ gears
runner wheel; a planet carrier driven by the driv“
while permitting free forward rotation thereof;
ing structure; a planet pinion on said carrier;
meshing
two sets of
with
teeth
oneonsetsaid
of teeth
pinion;
and
andrivingly
annulus con
said means for restraining the annulus gear of
larger diameter including a governor means're
sponsive to the speed of said driven structure.
6. In a ?uid power transmission having a'driv
lng structure and a driven structure, a runner
nected with the larger of’said wheels; a sun gear
meshing with said teeth and drivingly connected
wheel drivingly connected to the driven struc
with the smaller Wheel; a second annulus gear
meshing
second annulus
with thebeing
second
theset
diameter
of pinion
of teeth;
or smaller
15 ture; a pair of hydraulic wheels of different di
than said ?rst annulus; and means for auto~
matically clutching said second annulus to said
driven structure in response to tendency. of said
gear to overrun said structure.
4. In a ?uid power transmission'having a driv
ing structure and a driven structure, a runner
wheel drivingly connected to the driven struc’w
' ture; a pair of hydraulic wheels of different di-
ameter disposed in driving relation with said run
ner' wheel; a planet carrier'driven by the 'driv
ing structure; a planet pinion on said carrier;
two sets of teeth on said pinion; an annulus gear
meshing with one set of teeth and drivingly con
nected with the larger of said wheels; 2. sun gear
meshing with said teeth and drivingly connected
with the smaller wheel; a second annulus gear
meshing with the second setv of pinion teeth;
ameter disposed in driving relation with. said run
ner wheel; a planet carrier driven by the driving
structure; a planet pinion on said carrier; two
- brake means including a brake drum; arr-oven
sets of teeth on said pinion; an annulus gear
meshing with‘ one set of- teeth and drivingly con
nected with the larger of said wheels; 2. sun gear
for preventing reverse rotation of said gear when
said brake is set;,and an overrunning clutch de
vice operably disposed between said second annu
lus gear and said driven structure for preventing
reverse rotation of said driven structure with re
spect to said gear.
meshing with said teeth and drivingly connected
with the smaller wheel; a second annulus gear
meshing with the second set of pinion teeth;
means for restraining said second; annulus
against reverse rotation whereby said larger _,
wheel may act as a guide wheel; and means for
running brake device operably disposed betweenv
said second annulus gear and said brake drum ,
7. In a hydrodynamic transmission for an au
tomotive- vehicle, a pair of series arranged hy-'
draulic wheels; planetary gear means for con
automatically coupling said second annulus to
necting said; wheels with the vehicle engine; a
said driven structure in response to tendency of '7 third hydraulic wheel arranged in series with the
said gear to'overrun said structure.
aforesaid wheels and connected to the vehicle
5. In a ?uid power transmission having a driv 40 driving wheels; said planetary gear means in~
cluding a planet pinion having a plurality of sets
ing structure and a driven structure, a runner
wheel drivingly connectedto the driven struc~
of teeth; an annulus gear disposed in mesh with
ture; a pair of hydraulic wheels of different di—
one set of teeth; a second‘ annulus gear disposed
ameter disposed in driving relation with said run~
in mesh with a second set of teeth; selectively op~
ner wheel; a planet carrier driven by the driving
era-ble brake means for controlling rotation of
said annulus gears, and means including gover
structure; a planet pinion on said carrier; three
nor means operably responsive to the speedof
sets of teeth on said pinion; an annulus gear
meshing with one set of teeth and drivingly con
the‘ third wheel for controlling said brake means.
nected with the larger of said wheels; a sun gear
WILLIAM D. TIPTON.
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