Sept. 24, '1946. ’ R. A. HILL "2,408,021 - TREATMENT OF LIQUIDS Filed Feb. 16, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Inventor, 19017271 A 7 Hi” 22.: Sal-at. 24, 1946. ‘ R. A. HILL 2,408,021 mama? or‘v LIQUIDS ' Filed Feb. 16, 1945 2 Sh-eets-Sheet' 2 \J \J - _ _ ~ _ Ilwe'ntor R011; 261. A - H1122 MM?“ Amway: ' 2,408,021 ,Patented Sept. 24, 1946 UNITED“ STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,021 TREATMENT OF LIQUIDS» Ronald‘ ArthurHill, Wandsworth, London, Eng land, assignor. to. The Aluminium‘ Plant & Vessel Company. Limited, LondomEngland, a a British company Application February 16, 1945,. Serial No. 578,173 r 111- Great. Britain January 17,. 1944 . 3 Claims. 1 (Cl. 261-412) . This invention‘ relates to the treatment of pours'released. Onthe other hand, where an liquids andhas particular, although not exclusive, aerating or gas-saturating treatment is to be car reference-to thetreatment of such liquidsas fruit juicesand thelike, the chief object‘ of the inven tion being to provide: animproved method of and means for subjecting such-liquidstothe in?uence ried‘ out, the treating vessel is equipped With of air or gas as in aeration or gas- saturation means for supplying air or gas thereto under pressure and, the degree of saturation or aeration obtained will be dependent to some extent upon the pressure prevailing in such vessel. In order that the said invention may be clearly systems or to treatments for ‘the purpose of re understood and. readily carried into effect the leasing contained -air or gas therefrom. According to one feature of the invention there 10 same will now. be more fully described with ref erence to the accompanying drawings in which: is provided a, means for carrying out such treat Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically one mode of ments comprising a treating vessel having ar carrying out the invention as applied to a liquid ranged therein a vertically disposed‘ tubular mem de-aerating or degassing system; and ' ber to‘ which the liquid under treatment is‘ sup Fig. 2 shows diagrammatically another mode of plied by an upwardly-directed; liquid-inlet con 15 carrying out the invention as appliedto a liquid duit or nozzle arranged in position within the aerating or gas-saturation system. upper end of the said tubular member, the ar The arrangement shown in-Fig. ‘1 of the accom rangement being such‘that-the wall of the latter panying drawings comprises a de—aerating or de is formedilwith“ a series of perforations. across which theliquidiis spread, stretched; or caused 20 gassing vessel ! composed of glass, stainless steel or other suitable material and having its axis to. flow in the. form. of i a thin. film so that it is disposed vertically or substantially so, the said continuously agitated as it passes downwardly vessel being provided at its lower end with an along such wall from the top to-the bottom‘of outlet 2 for the treatment or tie-aerating liquid saidtubularrmember; ' Such a construction may be used for the carry- 25 andnear its upper end with a side wall opening 3 adapted to serve as an. inletrfor preheated liquid, ing out of de-aerating and like operations. orfor fruit’ juice or the like. The outlet 2 may be con treatments in which a liquid is required'to be nected with the; suction side of a pump l4 and subjected'to the in?uence. of air or gas as in within the treating vessel and spaced from the aerating or gas-saturating systems. In carrying out the invention, the jet of 30 inner wall thereof there is arranged a tubular liquid emerging from the upwardly-directedeon member 4 the wall of which is‘formed over sub stantially‘ the whole‘ of its height with a series of duit or nozzle is- preferably vdirected against a ?at small perforations’. The upper end of the treat plate, e. g. a polished flat plate composed of glass ing vessel is closed by or provided with a flat or other suitable material, so-as‘to spread the same and cause the; liquid to pass outwardly to 35 plate 5‘ which is preferably polished and may be composed of glass or other suitable material and the wall of the said tubular member. In some in the arrangement is such that the upper end of stances, the arrangement may be such that the the tubular member '4’abuts' against such ?at liquid ?lm is spread over and caused to flow down plate. The side ‘wall opening‘ 3- is‘ equipped with. the surfaces of the perforated tubular member only but, in many instances, it is preferable to 40 a liquid inlet conduit 6 which, it will be seen, ex tends to the spacev within the tubular member A utilise both surfaces of the perforated member and there terminates in an upwardly-directed and the surface of the inner wall of the surround for example, the upper end of the perforated member maybe formed with a series of serrations or the like permitting some of the spreading liquid nozzle 8 adapted to project the incoming liquid against the ?at: plate so that the liquid becomes spread and is‘caused to pass outwardly to the walls of the tubular member é-down which it ?ows to pass on across the ?at plate to the inner sur face of the treating Vessel so that use is made of in the form of thin. ?lms which are spread or stretched across the said perforations. In many ing treating vessel for the purpose‘in view. Thus, this relatively large area for furnishing a third instances, it is preferable to utilise both surfaces 50 of the perforated tubular member 4 and the in thin ?lm of the liquid under treatment. ner wall of the surrounding treating vessel I for It will be appreciated that in instances in which the spreading of the liquid in ?lm form and for a ole-aerating or like operation is to be carried out, this purpose, the upper end of the perforated a sub-atmospheric pressure is maintained in the treating vessel and the latter is equipped with member 4 may be formed with a series of cut means for removing therefrom the air and va 55 away portions, serrations or the like permitting 2,408,021 2% some of the spreading liquid to pass on across the In either of the arrangements described vent holes may be provided at convenient points in the‘ wall of the perforated member of such a size that no continuous liquid ?lm can form across them, in order that the pressures within and without ?at plate to the inner surface of the treating ves sel so as to form a third ?lm thereon. The fruit juice or other liquid introduced into the treating vessel is preferably pre-heated to a temperature which is slightly in excess .of its the tubular member may be equalised quickly boiling 'point‘ under normal pressure conditions without gas or‘ air havingto break through the ?lm of liquid by passage through the small per and, under ' operating conditions, a ‘sublat'mos pheric pressure is maintained in the said vessel forations across which the liquid is caused to 10 ?ow, it being understood that the dimensions of so that the liquid boils on entry. At its upper end the treating vessel is provided the small perforations are such, and preferen with ‘an outlet Hi for the released air and va tially the ?ow of liquid is so adjusted, that'a cone pours, which outlet is connected as hereinafter tinuous liquid ?lm can be stretched and main described, with a suitable sourcefof vacuum, e. g” tained across them; . a vacuum pump. As the liquid is preheated prior If desired, the upper portion of the perforated to admission to the vessel l, the pump need not be of the high vacuum type; For _ex'ample,‘»in' many instances, it is sufficient to employ a pump‘ tubular member may be ?tted with a sleeve equipped‘ with suitable drip trays for catching and respreading any liquid which on striking the capable of providing 28 inches vacuum on a 30 inch barometer, The said outlet is preferably :50 suitably shielded as, for example, by a hood it‘. _ tubular member and/or the wall of the treat ing vessel, may rebound instead of flowing down in ' Interposed between ‘the ole-aerating vessel and film‘form. ' ‘ ' ‘It will be appreciated that, in some instances, the, vacuum source'is a condenser is for con both of the arrangements described may be uti lised. For example, in instances in, which it is larly those which are responsible for the aroma 25 desired to remove the air wholly or partly from a and ‘taste of the juice being treated and, in the liquid and to subsequently replace the same with preferred mode of carrying out the invention, a gas such as carbon-dioxide, the liquid may be provision is made, e. g. by a conduit l6, for re treated ?rstly in an apparatus such as that turning such condensed esters to the liquid. In shown in Fig._ 1 and then passed‘on for treatment this connection, it is found that the distillate so in an apparatus such as that shown in Fig. 2 densing the vapours and volatile esters, particu from the,condenser, after being cooled therein, connected with a source of the gas under pres should be returned to a point as close to the sue sure. tion connection of the pump it as possible, in order to prevent the condensed esters ?ashing , oil again within the de~aerator. The condenser ‘ I I claim: 7 Y 7 v1. Apparatus for. incorporating gas in liquid is provided with an outlet 26 connected with the and for degasifying liquids containing gas} com prising a closed treating vessel, a vertically dis said source of vacuum. ‘If desired, a foam trap posed open-ended tubular member mounted with l8 may be interposed as shown between the va in' said vessel in spaced relation‘ to theside‘w'alls pour outlet to and the inlet to ‘the condenser i5 thereof, means for supplying a liquid to be treated and such trap may be provided with a bottom to the surface of said tubular member including outlet l9 connected with the‘lower part of the ‘--' an upwardly directed liquid flow‘ conduit posi treating vessel so that any liquid collected may tioned with its discharge end in the upper por- r be returned to the main body of the liquid under treatment. In Fig. 2 of the accompanying drawings there tion of said tubular member, said tubular mem ber having a series of perforations provided there in across which the liquid is caused to flow in the form of a; thin ?lm to effect continuous agi tation of the liquid as it passes downwardly along the wall of said tubular member from the top to the bottom thereof, and ‘a flat plate positioned above the upper portion of said tubular member to receive a stream of liquid from the upwardly directed conduit and cause said stream to spread is shown diagrammatically an arrangement suit- ' able for carrying the invention into effect as applied to a liquid aerating or gas-saturating sys tern. The liquid treating vessel i and its con tained perforated tubular member are similar to those shown in and described with reference to Fig. 1, the liquid tobe aerated or saturated with gas being supplied thereto via the inlet 3 and the nozzle 8 and the treated liquid being with drawn through the outlet 2. In‘ this instance, however, the side wall‘ opening Ill provided in the upper part of the treating vessel'co'nstitutes an inlet for the gas or air with which the liquid and flow, outwardly to the Wall of the perforated tubular member. - is to be treated._ For example, the openinCr may, as shown, be coupled by a pipe line 25 with a source of gas supply such 'as the cylinders 22 which contain gas under pressure. Thus, in this 2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 in which the ?at plate is arranged so that it abuts against the upper end‘ of the perforated tubular member. 3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the upper end'of the perforated member is formed (so with a series of cutaway portions permitting, some instance, ‘the treating vessel is equipped with means for supplying air or gas thereto under pressure and, as will be appreciated, the degree 60 of saturation or aeration obtained will be de pendent to some extent upon the pressure sup plied or prevailing in such vessel. of the spreading liquid to pass on across the flat plate to the inner surface of the treating vessel so that use iswmade of this relatively large area for furnishing a third thin ?lm of the liquid under treatment. ‘ ‘ ' I RONALD ARTHUR HILL.