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Sept. 24, '1946.
’
R. A. HILL
"2,408,021 -
TREATMENT OF LIQUIDS
Filed Feb. 16, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Inventor,
19017271 A 7 Hi”
22.:
Sal-at. 24, 1946.
‘
R. A. HILL
2,408,021
mama? or‘v LIQUIDS '
Filed Feb. 16, 1945
2 Sh-eets-Sheet' 2
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Ilwe'ntor
R011; 261. A - H1122
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2,408,021
,Patented Sept. 24, 1946
UNITED“ STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,021
TREATMENT OF LIQUIDS»
Ronald‘ ArthurHill, Wandsworth, London, Eng
land, assignor. to. The Aluminium‘ Plant &
Vessel Company. Limited, LondomEngland, a a
British company
Application February 16, 1945,. Serial No. 578,173 r
111- Great. Britain January 17,. 1944
.
3 Claims.
1
(Cl. 261-412)
.
This invention‘ relates to the treatment of
pours'released. Onthe other hand, where an
liquids andhas particular, although not exclusive,
aerating or gas-saturating treatment is to be car
reference-to thetreatment of such liquidsas fruit
juicesand thelike, the chief object‘ of the inven
tion being to provide: animproved method of and
means for subjecting such-liquidstothe in?uence
ried‘ out, the treating vessel is equipped With
of air or gas as in aeration or gas- saturation
means for supplying air or gas thereto under
pressure and, the degree of saturation or aeration
obtained will be dependent to some extent upon
the pressure prevailing in such vessel.
In order that the said invention may be clearly
systems or to treatments for ‘the purpose of re
understood and. readily carried into effect the
leasing contained -air or gas therefrom.
According to one feature of the invention there 10 same will now. be more fully described with ref
erence to the accompanying drawings in which:
is provided a, means for carrying out such treat
Fig. 1 shows diagrammatically one mode of
ments comprising a treating vessel having ar
carrying out the invention as applied to a liquid
ranged therein a vertically disposed‘ tubular mem
de-aerating or degassing system; and
'
ber to‘ which the liquid under treatment is‘ sup
Fig. 2 shows diagrammatically another mode of
plied by an upwardly-directed; liquid-inlet con 15
carrying out the invention as appliedto a liquid
duit or nozzle arranged in position within the
aerating or gas-saturation system.
upper end of the said tubular member, the ar
The arrangement shown in-Fig. ‘1 of the accom
rangement being such‘that-the wall of the latter
panying drawings comprises a de—aerating or de
is formedilwith“ a series of perforations. across
which theliquidiis spread, stretched; or caused 20 gassing vessel ! composed of glass, stainless steel
or other suitable material and having its axis
to. flow in the. form. of i a thin. film so that it is
disposed vertically or substantially so, the said
continuously agitated as it passes downwardly
vessel being provided at its lower end with an
along such wall from the top to-the bottom‘of
outlet 2 for the treatment or tie-aerating liquid
saidtubularrmember;
'
Such a construction may be used for the carry- 25 andnear its upper end with a side wall opening 3
adapted to serve as an. inletrfor preheated liquid,
ing out of de-aerating and like operations. orfor
fruit’ juice or the like. The outlet 2 may be con
treatments in which a liquid is required'to be
nected with the; suction side of a pump l4 and
subjected'to the in?uence. of air or gas as in
within the treating vessel and spaced from the
aerating or gas-saturating systems.
In carrying out the invention, the jet of 30 inner wall thereof there is arranged a tubular
liquid emerging from the upwardly-directedeon
member 4 the wall of which is‘formed over sub
stantially‘ the whole‘ of its height with a series of
duit or nozzle is- preferably vdirected against a ?at
small perforations’. The upper end of the treat
plate, e. g. a polished flat plate composed of glass
ing vessel is closed by or provided with a flat
or other suitable material, so-as‘to spread the
same and cause the; liquid to pass outwardly to 35 plate 5‘ which is preferably polished and may be
composed of glass or other suitable material and
the wall of the said tubular member. In some in
the arrangement is such that the upper end of
stances, the arrangement may be such that the
the tubular member '4’abuts' against such ?at
liquid ?lm is spread over and caused to flow down
plate. The side ‘wall opening‘ 3- is‘ equipped with.
the surfaces of the perforated tubular member
only but, in many instances, it is preferable to 40 a liquid inlet conduit 6 which, it will be seen, ex
tends to the spacev within the tubular member A
utilise both surfaces of the perforated member
and there terminates in an upwardly-directed
and the surface of the inner wall of the surround
for example, the upper end of the perforated
member maybe formed with a series of serrations
or the like permitting some of the spreading liquid
nozzle 8 adapted to project the incoming liquid
against the ?at: plate so that the liquid becomes
spread and is‘caused to pass outwardly to the
walls of the tubular member é-down which it ?ows
to pass on across the ?at plate to the inner sur
face of the treating Vessel so that use is made of
in the form of thin. ?lms which are spread or
stretched across the said perforations. In many
ing treating vessel for the purpose‘in view. Thus,
this relatively large area for furnishing a third
instances, it is preferable to utilise both surfaces
50 of the perforated tubular member 4 and the in
thin ?lm of the liquid under treatment.
ner wall of the surrounding treating vessel I for
It will be appreciated that in instances in which
the spreading of the liquid in ?lm form and for
a ole-aerating or like operation is to be carried out,
this purpose, the upper end of the perforated
a sub-atmospheric pressure is maintained in the
treating vessel and the latter is equipped with
member 4 may be formed with a series of cut
means for removing therefrom the air and va 55 away portions, serrations or the like permitting
2,408,021
2%
some of the spreading liquid to pass on across the
In either of the arrangements described vent
holes may be provided at convenient points in the‘
wall of the perforated member of such a size that
no continuous liquid ?lm can form across them,
in order that the pressures within and without
?at plate to the inner surface of the treating ves
sel so as to form a third ?lm thereon.
The fruit juice or other liquid introduced into
the treating vessel is preferably pre-heated to a
temperature which is slightly in excess .of its
the tubular member may be equalised quickly
boiling 'point‘ under normal pressure conditions
without gas or‘ air havingto break through the
?lm of liquid by passage through the small per
and, under ' operating conditions, a ‘sublat'mos
pheric pressure is maintained in the said vessel
forations across which the liquid is caused to
10 ?ow, it being understood that the dimensions of
so that the liquid boils on entry.
At its upper end the treating vessel is provided
the small perforations are such, and preferen
with ‘an outlet Hi for the released air and va
tially the ?ow of liquid is so adjusted, that'a cone
pours, which outlet is connected as hereinafter
tinuous liquid ?lm can be stretched and main
described, with a suitable sourcefof vacuum, e. g”
tained across them;
.
a vacuum pump. As the liquid is preheated prior
If desired, the upper portion of the perforated
to admission to the vessel l, the pump need not
be of the high vacuum type; For _ex'ample,‘»in'
many instances, it is sufficient to employ a pump‘
tubular member may be ?tted with a sleeve
equipped‘ with suitable drip trays for catching
and respreading any liquid which on striking the
capable of providing 28 inches vacuum on a 30
inch barometer,
The said outlet is preferably
:50
suitably shielded as, for example, by a hood it‘. _
tubular member and/or the wall of the treat
ing vessel, may rebound instead of flowing down
in
' Interposed between ‘the ole-aerating vessel and
film‘form.
'
‘
'
‘It will be appreciated that, in some instances,
the, vacuum source'is a condenser is for con
both of the arrangements described may be uti
lised. For example, in instances in, which it is
larly those which are responsible for the aroma 25 desired to remove the air wholly or partly from a
and ‘taste of the juice being treated and, in the
liquid and to subsequently replace the same with
preferred mode of carrying out the invention,
a gas such as carbon-dioxide, the liquid may be
provision is made, e. g. by a conduit l6, for re
treated ?rstly in an apparatus such as that
turning such condensed esters to the liquid. In
shown in Fig._ 1 and then passed‘on for treatment
this connection, it is found that the distillate so in an apparatus such as that shown in Fig. 2
densing the vapours and volatile esters, particu
from the,condenser, after being cooled therein,
connected with a source of the gas under pres
should be returned to a point as close to the sue
sure.
tion connection of the pump it as possible, in
order to prevent the condensed esters ?ashing ,
oil again within the de~aerator. The condenser ‘
I
I
claim:
7
Y
7
v1. Apparatus for. incorporating gas in liquid
is provided with an outlet 26 connected with the
and for degasifying liquids containing gas} com
prising a closed treating vessel, a vertically dis
said source of vacuum. ‘If desired, a foam trap
posed open-ended tubular member mounted with
l8 may be interposed as shown between the va
in' said vessel in spaced relation‘ to theside‘w'alls
pour outlet to and the inlet to ‘the condenser i5
thereof, means for supplying a liquid to be treated
and such trap may be provided with a bottom
to the surface of said tubular member including
outlet l9 connected with the‘lower part of the ‘--' an upwardly directed liquid flow‘ conduit posi
treating vessel so that any liquid collected may
tioned with its discharge end in the upper por- r
be returned to the main body of the liquid under
treatment.
In Fig. 2 of the accompanying drawings there
tion of said tubular member, said tubular mem
ber having a series of perforations provided there
in across which the liquid is caused to flow in
the form of a; thin ?lm to effect continuous agi
tation of the liquid as it passes downwardly along
the wall of said tubular member from the top to
the bottom thereof, and ‘a flat plate positioned
above the upper portion of said tubular member
to receive a stream of liquid from the upwardly
directed conduit and cause said stream to spread
is shown diagrammatically an arrangement suit- '
able for carrying the invention into effect as
applied to a liquid aerating or gas-saturating sys
tern. The liquid treating vessel i and its con
tained perforated tubular member are similar to
those shown in and described with reference to
Fig. 1, the liquid tobe aerated or saturated with
gas being supplied thereto via the inlet 3 and
the nozzle 8 and the treated liquid being with
drawn through the outlet 2. In‘ this instance,
however, the side wall‘ opening Ill provided in the
upper part of the treating vessel'co'nstitutes an
inlet for the gas or air with which the liquid
and flow, outwardly to the Wall of the perforated
tubular member.
-
is to be treated._ For example, the openinCr may,
as shown, be coupled by a pipe line 25 with a
source of gas supply such 'as the cylinders 22
which contain gas under pressure. Thus, in this
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 in which
the ?at plate is arranged so that it abuts against
the upper end‘ of the perforated tubular member.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein the
upper end'of the perforated member is formed
(so with a series of cutaway portions permitting, some
instance, ‘the treating vessel is equipped with
means for supplying air or gas thereto under
pressure and, as will be appreciated, the degree 60
of saturation or aeration obtained will be de
pendent to some extent upon the pressure sup
plied or prevailing in such vessel.
of the spreading liquid to pass on across the flat
plate to the inner surface of the treating vessel so
that use iswmade of this relatively large area for
furnishing a third thin ?lm of the liquid under
treatment.
‘
‘
'
I
RONALD ARTHUR HILL.
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