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Sept. 24, 1946.
is‘. ‘LBE'ME
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‘2,408,031
FREE PISTON INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed Feb. 16, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheei 1
Sept. 24, 1946.
E. s.’ |_ BE'ALE
2,403,031
FREE PISTOITIHTERHAL-QOIBU3TION ENGINE
Filed Feb. 16, 1945 _
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Patented Sept. 24, 1946
Z,4d8,03l
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,031
FREE PISTGN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION
ENGINE
Evelyn Stewart Lansdowne Beale, Staines, Eng
land, assignor to Alan Mimtz & Company Lim
ited, Hounslow, England, a company of Great
Britain
Application February 16, 1943, Serial No. 476,041
In Great Britain February 2, 1942
14 Claims.
(C1. 123-'-4.6)
1
2
This invention relates to free-piston internal
COIl'llbllStlOll engines of the kind in which the
free-piston assembly consists of a power piston
rigidly connected to a piston of larger diameter
The term “gas-generator” means a combina
serving as a compressor piston or as a pneumatic
cushion piston or as both. The free-piston as
sembly is moved through the in-stroke, namely
the one that effects compression in the combus
tion chamber, at least in part by energy accumu
tion of internal-combustion engine and air-com
pressor in which air from the compressor is used
to scavenge and supercharge the internal-com
bustion engine, the gaseous product of the gen
erator being a mixture of combustion products
and air at such a temperature and pressure that
it is capable of driving a turbine or other elastic
?uid motor which converts the energy of the gase
lated in the pneumatic cushion during the preced 10 ous product into a mechanical power.
ing expansion stroke. The cylinders in which
In the drawings:
these pistons reciprocate are coaxial, and, as they
Fig. l is a diagrammatic side elevation of the
are of different diameters, the clearances between
gas-generator, partly in section on the line I-l
piston and cylinder," required to allow for thermal
in Fig. 2,
expansion, are larger for the larger cylinder. 15
Fig. 2 is a sectional end elevation, the right
Furthermore, as it may be necessary to make the
hand half being on the line 2Rr—-2R in Fig. 1, and
larger piston of an aluminium alloy and the
the left-hand half on the line 2L—2L in Fig. 1.
smaller piston of cast iron, the difference in the
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the middle portion of
clearances may be accentuated. Consequently,
the same gas-generator with a part of the casing
particularly in an engine in which the axis is 20 broken away, and
horizontal, the piston assembly is apt to tilt in
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are graphs illustrating the op
relation to the cylinders in starting from cold,
eration of this gas-generator.
but when the engine is hot and the clearances
The generator includes a power cylinder H1 in
are taken up, the tilt is eliminated. An object
which operate opposed power pistons H and HA,
of this invention is to provide an improved ar 25 the cylinder being provided with exhaust ports
rangement which overcomes such tilting when the
l2 controlled by the piston I IA and with transfer
engine is cold.
ports i3 controlled by the piston H. The power
cylinder Ill is disposed within a casing l4 form
Such engines are usually started by setting the
ing a scavenge air receiver for compressed air,
free-piston assembly at its outer dead point and
thereafter quickly admitting a charge of air (or 30 which is employed to scavenge the power cylinder.
The exhaust ports discharge to a motive gas de
other gas) under relatively high pressure into the
livery connection 36.
cushion cylinder. The starting air is released
into the cushion at atmospheric temperature.
The power pistons form respectively parts of
This air then does work on the piston so that its
two identical free-piston assemblies operatively
temperature falls. Thus the mean temperature 35 connected together by a synchronising train in
of the cushion air is lower than the temperature ‘ known manner. A combined air-compressor and
of the cushion cylinder walls. After the engine
cushion cylinder i5 is arranged co-axially with
has been running for a short time, the air in the
the power cylinder and attached to one end wall
cushion will have become heated until its mean
it of the air receiver. The outer end of the
temperature is approximately that of the cylinder 40 cylinder :5, the diameter of which is substantially
larger than that of the power cylinder It), is closed
walls. Such immediate rise of mean temperature
necessarily involves a rise of mean pressure in
by a cover it which carries a rigid hollow cylin
the cushion. A further object of this invention
drical guide 58 projecting towards and co-axially
is to provide an improved arrangement of cushion
with the power cylinder.
in which the effect of this pressure rise on start 45
The power piston H‘ is constituted by a crown
ing is at least partly compensated for.
and a cylindrical portion or belt 26 which is pro
A further object is to provide an improved ar
vided with circumferential grooves for the piston
rangement for cooling the crown of the piston
rings and which bears on the power cylinder wall.
that operates in the internal-combustion cylin
This piston closes the inner end of a cylindrical
der.
50 sleeve lg passing through a gland IS’ in the end
An embodiment of the invention will be de
wall IS. The internal diameter of the sleeve l9
scribed, by way of example, with reference to the
substantially exceeds the external diameter of
accompanying drawings, as applied to a sym
the guide H3. ‘The external diameter of the sleeve
metrical type of two-stroke free-piston gas-gen
I 9 is substantially less than that of the ring~car
erator.
55 rying belt 20 of the piston II. The outer end of
21,408,031
4
the sleeve H! has a bore 2i slidably bearing on
the guide I8 and an external annular piston 22
co-operating with the compressor and cushion
cylinder iii. The inner portion of the cylinder [5
(i. e. that portion nearer the power cylinder)
forms the air-compressor chamber, air being
drawn in, during the out stroke, through valves
such as 23 in the cylinder wall and discharged,
during the in stroke, to the receiver, through
valves such as 24 in its end wall IS. The outer
portion of the cylinder I 5 forms the ?rst cushion
compartment, while the space within the guide
18 and the sleeve I 9 of the piston assembly forms
the second cushion compartment.
The guide I8 has hollow walls forming a jacket
25 in which a cooling ?uid is circulated, and the
inner surface of the guide is provided with ?ns
26 adapted to assist in cooling the cushion air
therein. A pressure-equalising port 2'! is provided
through the guide near its outer end, communi
cating between the two cushion compartments.
The inner end of the guide is provided with an
ori?ce 26 adapted to direct a jet of air against
the ‘under side of the head of the power piston
l I during the in stroke. An inlet poppet valve 29
for starting air is provided in the outer end cover
I‘! opening into the ?rst cushion compartment.
The starting apparatus is of the standard Pes
shown) for varying the quantity of air contained
in the cushion.
This gas-generator is started as follows. The
control valve 33 is'operated to admit air from the
reservoir 34 (which is charged by any convenient
means not shown) to the cylinders 3! and 3IA,
whence it passes, through the non-return valves,
to the starting air chambers 3e and 30A, holding
the starting Valves on theirseats. When these
10 chambers are charged, the control valve 33 is
shut. The free-piston assemblies are now moved
to their outer dead points in known manner by
means not shown in the drawings and the control
valve 33 is operated to vent the cylinders 36 and
3 EA to vatmosphere. This release of the air pres
sure on'the outer faces of the starting valve pis
tons, such as 32, allows the pressure of the air
in the starting air chambers acting on the inner
faces of these pistons to open the starting valves,
so that the starting air is almost instantaneously
discharged into the ?rst cushion compartments.
where it acts on the pistons 22 and 22A and
starts the engine. While the engine is running
there will be a certain leakage of scavenge air
from the receiver between the power cylinder
and the sleeve l9 to the exhaust ports if during a
part of each cycle, but as in any case the motive
gas contains a large quantity of excess air, such
cara type, and it includes a starting air cham
lb?r 30 mounted on the cover I‘! and provided with
a cylinder 3| in which operates a piston 32 direct
leakage is immaterial.
ly connected to the valve 29, which is adapted to
be held on its seat by pressure within the cham
ber 30. The outer end of the cylinder 3| com
municates by a pipe 31 with a 3-way valve 33,
which is adapted to close the pipe 31, or to open
restricted area for various reasons.
it to atmosphere, or to put it in communication
with a compressed-air reservoir 34. A non-ree
turn valve 35 in the piston 32 allows air to pass
-
’
Although the equalising ports 27 and 2‘lA could
be of large area, it is preferred to make them of
_
Firstly, owing to the pressure drop developed
across the cooling jet ori?ce 28, some air passes
from the second to the ?rst cushion compart~
ment that would otherwise assist to raise the
velocity of the jet of air cooling the power piston
crown. For this reason, the smaller the-equalis
ing port is made, the stronger the cooling jet
The 40 becomes. A high velocity in the cooling air jet
diameter of the piston 32 exceeds that of the valve,
entails an increased amount of work, and where
as the work done per stroke varies approximately
29.
The displaced volume in and the compression
as the square of the velocity the heat-exchange
ratio of the ?rst cushion compartment in the out
co-e?icient is only approximately proportional
er portion of the cylinder I5 are larger than those
to the velocity. For this reason, the size of the
of the second cushion compartment within the
ori?ce 28 is selected to limit the air velocity.
‘sleeve I9 and the guide l8.
For example, the maximum pressure drop across
The other end of the engine is identical with
this ori?ce may be between 1/2 lb. and 2 lbs. e. g.
that already described, the parts of the other end
1 lb. per sq. in.
being denoted in the drawings by the same refer—
Secondly, flow of air under the pressure differ
ence numerals with the addition of A.
ence between the two cushion compartments
The synchronising mechanism constraining the
represents a pumping loss and performs no useful
two free-piston assemblies to move equally and
function when normal conditions are established.
It is therefore economical to reduce such loss.
oppositely is of the rack-and-pinion type (Figs.
Thirdly, a suitable restriction of the equalising
2 and 3). Racks 3'! and 31A are rigidly con
port facilitates compensation for the rise of mean
nected, by rods 38 and 38A, to the pistons 22 and
pressure, already referred to, that occurs in the
22A respectively. These racks slide in guides 39
cushion'on starting the engine. Fig. 4. shows the
and 39A and mesh with a common pinion d0 ?xed
temperature variation of the ‘cushion air plotted
on a shaft 4!. This shaft is journalled in a
bearing 42 on the cylinder i0 and in a cover 43 60 as ordinate on a base of free-piston displacement
between the inner and outer dead points, denoted
closing an aperture in the casing I4. A cam
by IDP and ODP, in a known free-piston’ engine.
44 on the shaft 4| operates a fuel-injection pump
Curve S denotes the starting conditions, starting
45 supplying a fuel-injection nozzle 41 through
air being admitted at atmospheric temperature
a pipe 46. Another pair of racks 3i’ and 37A’,
T1 and expanding down to a temperature T2
symmetrically opposed,_with reference to the axis
with a mean temperature Tm. Under stable
of the cylinder ID, to the racks 31 and 3'i’A, are
running conditions, if the same weight of air
connected to the pistons 22 and 22A respectively
remains in the cushion, the temperature variation
similarly to the racks 31 and 31A (one of the
will be as shown by curve R, from T1’ to T2’,
coupling rods appears in Fig. 2 and is denoted by 70 the mean being Tm’ which is substantially higher
38’). These racks mesh with a common pinion
than Tm. Fig. 5 shows the corresponding pres
40' ?xed on a shaft 4|’, which may be employed
sures, the curve S denoting the starting condi
to actuate auxiliary mechanism in a casing 68.
tions with the range P1 to P2, and the curve B the
_ Ducts 43 and 49A open into the ?rst cushion
running conditions with the range P1’ to P2’.
compartments and lead to control means (not 75 The compression ratio in the power cylinder
from the cylinder 3i to ‘the chamber 30.
2,408,031
6
for a given outer dead point varies rather widely
I claim:
with the cushion pressure, and ,in one particular
1. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
case investigated it was found that, if no air were
released from the cushion while the same indi
cated work was maintained in the power cylinder
(i. e. an approximately constant quantity of fuel
having a power cylinder, a‘ second cylinder co
axial with and having a diameter larger than that
of said power cylinder,‘ a free-piston assembly
including a power piston having a ring-carrying
belt and rigidly connected by a sleeve to a second
piston having a central bore 2|, said piston 00
operating respectively with said cylinders, and a
10 cylindrical guide rigid with the outer end of
was injected at each cycle), the compression ratio
in the power cylinder would rise from about
10 to 1 to about 20 to 1, owing to the rise of
temperature of the cushion air after the engine
;
said second cylinder and extending co-axially
within said sleeve, the internal diameter of
If the equalising port is small, since'the whole
said sleeve substantially exceeding the external
of the starting air is released into the ?rst cushion
diameter of said guide, and said free-piston as
compartment, the compression ratio in the power
cylinder during the initial cycles will be sub 15 sembly being guided at one end by said belt bear
ing in the bore of said power cylinder and at the
stantially higher than if the equalising port had
other end of said central bore bearing on said
been large. Consequently, when a small port is
guide, which prevents said second piston from be
used, the compression ratio in the power cylinder
ing in the bore of said second cylinder.
tends to fall as the mean pressures in the cushion
2. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
compartments become equalised. If the area of 20
having a power cylinder, a second cylinder co
the equalising port is suitable, the initial rate of
was started.
this fall in compression ratio can be made about
equal to the initial rate of rise of this compression
ratio due to the rise of temperature of the cushion
air on starting.
axial with and having a diameter larger than
that of said power cylinder, said second cylinder
having an inner end wall at its end nearer to said
25 power cylinder and an outer end wall at its end
In some designs it may be possible to select the
relative areas and clearance volumes of the
cushion compartments in such a way as to make
farther from said power cylinder, a cylindrical
guide extending co-axially within said second
rigid cylinder from said outer end wall, and a
free-piston assembly including a power piston
the fall in compression ratio due to equalisation
of cushion pressures equal to, or slightly larger 30 having a ring-carrying belt bearing in said power
cylinder, a second piston co-operating with said
than, the rise in compression ratio due to tem
second cylinder and having a central bore bearing
perature rise of the cushion air, so that com
on said cylindrical guide, and a cylindrical sleeve
plete compensation is attained. However, in other
rigidly connecting said pistons together and
designs the range of adjustment of the compres
sion ratio in the power cylinder due to equalisa 35 passing through a gland in said inner end wall,
said sleeve having an internal diameter which
tion of cushion pressures is substantially less than
exceeds the external diameter of said guide and
the range due to the temperature effect. In such
said sleeve having an external diameter which is
cases it is therefore necessary to provide in known
less than the bore of said power cylinder.
manner additional means‘ for maintaining the
3. A free-piston internal-combustion. engine
compression ratio substantially constant. Such 40
having a power cylinder, a‘pneumatic cushion, a
means may automatically release a part of the
free-piston assembly comprising a power piston
cushion air, or automatically reduce the quantity
.co-operating with said power cylinder‘ and a
of fuel injected which in turn brings the outer
cushion piston forming part of said cushion, said
dead point inwards. Such controls are likely to
assembly being movable through the stroke that
suffer from a certain time lag, whereas the pres
effects compression in said power cylinder at least
sure equalisation has an immediate e?ect and
in part by energy accumulated in said cushion
reduces not only the speed but also the range of
during the preceding expansion stroke in said
operation required of the automatic control
power cylinder, and the gas space enclosed in said
means. This is shown in Fig. 6 in which com
pression ratio r is plotted as ordinate on a time '
base. Curve A shows how the compression ratio
would rise if there were no leakage of air from
the ?rst cushion compartment, and curve B shows
how it would fall if there were no temperature
cushion being divided‘ into two compartments
communicating with each other by a restricted
passage, an inlet for compressed starting gas
opening into one of said compartments which has
its volume varied by movement of said free-pis
> rise of the cushion air but the equalising port were 55 ton assembly, and valve means controlling said
inlet.
operative. Curve C shows how the two effects
4. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
combine to maintain the compression ratio nearly
having a power cylinder, a pneumatic cushion, a
constant from the time of the ?rst cycle to to
free-piston assembly comprising a power piston
the time t1 when the automatic control gear
60 co-operating with said power cylinder and a cush
begins to take effect.
ion piston forming part of said cushion, said assem
An alternative way of making use of this equal
bly being movable through the stroke that effects
isation effect is to provide in known manner other
compression in said power cylinder at least in
automatic control means which provide full
part by energy accumulated in said cushion dur
compensation for the temperature rise of air in
65 ing the preceding expansion stroke in said power
the cushion. In this case the effect of releasing
cylinder, and the gas space enclosed in said cush
the Whole of the starting air into the ?rst cush
ion being divided into two compartments com
ion compartment is to make the compression ra
municating with each other by a restricted pas
tio in the power cylinder substantially higher on
the starting stroke than it will be after the cush 70 sage, and said compartments having their vol
umes varied by movement of said free-piston
ion pressures have become equalised. This may
assembly with di?erent .e?‘ective cushion pis
be useful in ensuring reliable ignition of fuel
ton areas respectively, an inlet for compressed
on the starting stroke when the air charge in
; starting gas opening into the one of said com
the power cylinder will be colder than in subse
quent strokes.
‘
partments that‘ has the larger effective cushion
2,408,031
7
8
piston area, and valve means controlling" said
cover constituting a ?rst cushion compartment
and the space contained by said guide, said sleeve
and said power piston constituting a second cush
inlet.
'
5. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
having a power cylinder, a pneumatic cushion, a
ion compartment, said ori?ce being placed to di
free-piston assembly comprising a power piston
rect a jet of gas onto the under side of the head
of said power piston, and the space within said
co-operating with said power cylinder and a
cushion piston forming part of said cushion, said
assembly being movable through the stroke that
effects compression in said power cylinder at least
in part by energy accumulated in said cushion
during the preceding expansion stroke in said
hollow guide communicating with said ?rst cush
ion compartment by a restricted duct, and means
for admitting a charge of starting air under pres
sure to said ?rst compartment.
,
9. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
power cylinder, and the gas space enclosed in
having a power cylinder, a cushion cylinder co
said cushion being divided into two compart
ments communicating with each other by a re
stricted passage, and said compartments having
different ratios of clearance volume to volume
that of said power cylinder, a cover closing the
end of said cushion cylinder farther from said
power cylinder, a hollow cylindrical guide ex
axial with and having a diameter larger than
tending coaxially within said cushion cylinder
swept upon movement of said free-piston as
from said cover and provided with a jacket for a
sembly, an inlet for compressed starting gas open
cooling ?uid, said guide having an inner end wall
ing into the one of said compartments that has
the smaller ratio of clearance volume to swept 20 provided with an ori?ce and said guide having a
restricted passagevopening out of the outer part
volume, and valve means controlling said inlet.
of the space within it and leading to the outer
6. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
having a power cylinder, a pneumatic cushion, a
part of said cushion cylinder, a free-piston as
free-piston assembly comprising a power piston
sembly including apower piston co-operating
co-operating with said power cylinder and a 25 with said power cylinder, an annular cushion
cushion piston forming part of said cushion, said
assembly being movable through the stroke that
piston co-operating with said cushion cylinder
and said guide, and a sleeve rigidly connecting
said pistons together, the space between said ans
e?ects compression in said power cylinder at least
nular piston and said cover constituting a ?rst
in part by energy accumulated in said cushion
during the preceding expansion stroke in said 30 cushion compartment and the space contained
by said guide, said sleeve and said power piston
power cylinder, and the gas space enclosed in said
cushion being divided into a ?rst and a second
cushion compartment communicating with each
other by a restricted passage, an inlet {for com
constituting a secondcushion compartment, said
ori?ce being placed to direct a jetvof gas on the
under side of the head of saidpower piston, and
pressed starting gas opening into said ?rst corn 35 means for admitting acharge of starting air
under pressure to said ?rst compartment.
partment, and valve means controlling said inlet,
10. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
said ?rst compartment having a larger effective
having a power cylinder, a, cushion cylinder co
axial with and having a diameter larger than
said free-piston assembly than said second com 4-0 that of said power cylinder, a cover closing the
end of said cushion cylinder farther from said
partment.
power cylinder, a hollow cylindrical guide ex
'7. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
tending co-axially within said cushion cylinder
having a power cylinder, a cushion cylinder '00
from said cover, a free-piston assembly including
axial with and having a diameter larger than that
a power piston co-operating with said power cyl
of said power cylinder, a cover closing the end of
inder, an annular cushion piston co-operating
said cushion cylinder farther from said power
cushion piston area and a smaller ratio of clear
ance Volume to volume swept upon movement of
cylinder, a hollow cylindrical guide extending co
axially within said cushion cylinder from said
with said cushion cylinder and said guide, and a
cover, a free-piston assembly including a power
the space between said annular piston and said
piston co-operating with said power cylinder, an
annular‘ cushion piston co-operating with said
cushion cylinder and said guide, and a sleeve rig
idly connecting said pistons together, the space
between said annular piston and said cover con
stituting a ?rst cushion compartment and the
space contained by said guide, said sleeve and
said power piston constituting a second cushion
compartment communicating with said ?rst com
sleeve rigidly connecting said pistons together,
cover constituting a ?rst cushion compartment
and the space contained by said guide, said sleeve
‘ and said power piston constituting a second cush
ion compartment communicating with said ?rst
compartment by a restricted passage, and means
for admitting a charge of starting air under pres
sure to said ?rst compartment, the throttling ef
fect of said restricted passage being such that,
after starting, the initial rate of fall in com
pression ratio in' said power cylinder due to
equalisation of mean pressures in said compart
admitting a charge of starting air under pressure
60 ments is approximately equal to the initial rate
to said ?rst compartment.
of rise of said compression ratio due to the rise
.8l A free-piston internal-combustion engine
of temperature of the cushion gas. a
‘Q
having a power cylinder, a cushion ‘cylinder co
11. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
axial with and having a diameter larger than that
having a power cylinder, a cushion cylinder ,co
of said power cylinder, a cover closing the end of
axial with and having a diameter larger than
said cushion cylinder farther from said power
that of said power cylinder, a cover closing the
cylinder, a hollow cylindrical guide extending co
end of said cushion cylinder farther from said
axially within said cushion cylinder from said
power cylinder, a hollow cylindrical guide ex
cover and having an inner end wall provided with
an ori?ce, a free-piston assembly including a 70 tending co-axially within said, cushion cylinder
from said cover and provided witha jacket for
power piston co-operating with said power cyl
a cooling ?uid, a free-piston assembly including
inder, an annular cushion piston co-operating
a power piston co-operating with said power cyl
with said cushion cylinder and ‘said ‘guide, and
partment by a restricted passage, and means for
' a sleeve rigidly connecting said pistons together,
, inder, an annular cushion piston co-operating
» the space between said annular. piston. and said 75 with said cushion cylinder and said guide, and
2,408,031
9
a sleeve rigidly connecting said pistons together,
the space between said annular piston and said
10
axial with and having a diameter larger than
that of said power cylinder, a hollow cylindrical
guide extending co-axially within said cushion
cylinder, a free-piston assembly comprising an
annular piston bearing on said guide and 00
operating with said cushion cylinder to form a
cushion chamber, a power piston bearing in said
power cylinder and a sleeve rigidly connecting
said pistons together, the space within said guide
cover constituting a ?rst cushion compartment
and the space contained by said guide, said sleeve
and said power piston constituting a second cush
ion compartment communicating with said ?rst
compartment by a restricted passage, and an in
ner end wall on said guide having an orifice for
directing a jet of gas from the interior of said
guide onto the under side of the head of said 10 and said sleeve constituting a second cushion
power piston.
chamber, and means including a communication
12. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
between said chambers for varying the gas con
having a power cylinder, a second cylinder co
tent of both of said chambers.
axial‘with and having a diameter larger than
14. A free-piston internal-combustion engine
that of said power cylinder, a hollow cylindrical 15 having a power cylinder, a cushion cylinder co
guide extending co-axially within said second
axial with and having a diameter larger than
cylinder, said guide having an external diameter
that of said power cylinder, a hollow cylindrical
less than the bore of said power cylinder, a
guide extending co-axially within said cushion
power piston bearing in said power cylinder, an
cylinder, a free-piston assembly comprising an
annular piston bearing on said guide and co 20 annular piston bearing on said guide and co
operating with said second cylinder, and a
operating with said cushion cylinder, a power
sleeve rigidly connecting said pistons together
piston bearing in said power cylinder, a sleeve
and having substantial clearances from said
rigidly connecting said pistons together and
guide and said power cylinder, said sleeve and
having a clearance from said guide, and control
said power piston forming with said guide a 25
eans operable for admitting a charge of com
compression chamber, and said guide having a
pressed starting gas directly into the outer por
hollow wall for the circulation therein of a ?uid
tion of said cushion cylinder, a communication
for cooling the contents of said compression
being provided between said outer portion and
chamber.
the interior of said sleeve for transferring gas
13. A free-piston internal-combustion engine 30 between said outer portion and said interior.
having a power cylinder, a cushion cylinder oo
EVELYN STEWART LANSDOWNE BEALE.
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