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Патент USA US2408041

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Sept. 24, 1946.
FiledÀMarGh 5, 1941
2 Sheets-Sheet l
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sept. 24, 1946.
Filed March 5, 1941
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Patented Sept. 24, 1946
Henri G. Busignies, Forest Hills, N. Y., assignor to
International Standard Electric Corporation,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application March 5, 1941, Serial No. 381,840
3 Claims.
(c1. 25o-11)
This invention relates to direction ñnder sys
tems and more particularly to vdirection finder
controlled by signal voltages for rendering the
beam etïective or ineffective.
A better understanding of my invention and
the objects and features thereof may be had from
systems having rotary goniometer effects, and
cathode ray indicators used with such systems.
In direction finder systems it is known to pro
duce a rotary effect of the antenna. system .by
the particular description of some modifications
of my invention made with reference to the ac
using ñxed antennas such as crossed loops with a
companying drawings, in which
rotating coil or goniometer coupled to the loops
to produce a desired rotary effect, This, how
Fig. 1 shows a general schematic view of a di
ever, necessitates the use of a motor for operating 10
kthe rotating parts.
Furthermore, in systems wherein rotary goni
Fig. 4 shows an alternative indicator arrange
ment, and
Figs. 5 and 6 show cathode ray screens used to
15 explain the operation of the circuit of Fig. 4.
ometers are used with a cathode ray indicator it
is necessary to provide some means for assuring
that the rotation of the cathode ray is rotated
in proper timed relation with the goniometer ro 20
Figs. 2 and 3 show alternate grid control means
for the indicator tube;
It is an object of my invention to provide elec
tronic means for producing the desired rotary
eiîect of the antenna without the use of mechani
cal rotating parts.
rection iinder according to my invention;
In Fig, 1 is shown an antenna system compris
ing a pair of dipoles l, I and a second pair of di
poles 2, 2 connected together to act as crossed
directional receiving units. To antenna l is cou
pled a circuit 3, the opposite sides of which are
applied to push-pull related grids in a tube 4,
It is a further object of any invention to pro
and with antenna system 2 is coupled a circuit 5
vide a means operated in timed relation with the
coupledin push-pull relation to grids of a tube
signals producing the effective rotation of the an
6. The anodes of both the double tubes 4 and 6
tenna to simultaneously rotate the beam of a 25 are connected in parallel to a common feed line
cathode ray tube.
l. An alternating current source I0 is provided
The above recited objects may be achieved ac
connected over a transformer I I to an adjustable
cording to my invention by providing a phase
phase splitting circuit I2, the separate phases of
splitting network and vacuum tube arrangement
which are coupled if desired through amplifiers
coupled to a pair of crossed antennas to pro 30 I3, lll, to individual circuits I5, I6. Circuit I5
duce an effective rotation. The energy derived
is coup-led to the grids of tube 4, the coupling
from this phase splitter is -applied to the de
circuit being grounded at its mid-point so vthat
flecting plates of a cathode ray indicator, with
energy at 180o phase diñerence is applied to the
frequency multiplication if desired, to produce the
grids of tube 4. Circuit I6 in which the energy
desired timed rotation of the cathode beam. The 35 is in phase quadrature to that of circuit I5, is sim
resultant signal from thel loops is applied to the
ilarly coupled to the grids of tube i5. It should
cathode ray tube to produce signal indications,
preferably by achieving radial deñection through
velocity modulation. Alternatively the signal
be understood that instead of the combined tubes
‘i and 6 shown, separate vacuum tubes could be
used in this arrangement.
may be applied to a signal grid in the cathode 40
It will be noted that energy is supplied to the
ray tube and lateral deiiections may be produced
grids of tubes 4 and 6 from the circuits l5, IB in
in proper timed relation by a relaxation oscilla
such a manner that the output energy in line 'l
will be of a wave formation exactly the same as
In accordance with the above features of my
if a rotatable goniometer were provided. Ac
invention it is a further object of my invention 45 cordingly, by the use of this arrangement an ef
to provide a cathode ray indicator in which a
fective rotation of the directional antennas is
directive signal is produced on the screen by an
achieved without the necessity of providing me
arrangement including means for laterally de
chanically rotating parts.
flecting the beam by velocity modulation.
In order to obtain a directional indication, a
When the beam is caused to deflect radially 50 cathode ray tube 20 is provided. The deflecting
from any position, either the center or outward,
electrodes of tube 2U are connected to circuits I5,
by received signals, it is desirable that the beam
I6, respectively, to provide a deflecting potential
be suppressed during the times that the signal
which will serve to rotate the cathode ray beam
indications are not elîective. Accordingly, it is
a further object of my invention to provide means'
in synchronism with the electronic rotation of the
loop. As shown in this figure the output energy
from the antenna is coupled over a vacuum tube
30 to a receiving detector arrangement 40 to a
coupling arrangement 4i. Arrangement 4l may,
for instance, be a re-modulating system in which
4Z is provided a tube of the 6Q7 type which re
places both amplifier 42 and rectifier 45. Tube
46 is replaced by a tetrode tube 63.
In place of the entire cathode ray assembly
of Fig. l, may be substituted the alternative ar
rangement of Fig. ll. In this arrangement the
cathode ray tube 2t is similarly provided with
an accelerating electrode 25, concentrating elec
trode 23, grid 22 and cathode 2l. The output of
pled through a detector tube ¿i2 to spaced points
receiver 4t, however, is connected to the grid
on a resistance element d3, which serves to pro
22 of the cathode ray tube instead of to the
vide the operating potentials for the electrodes of
accelerating electrode. The accelerating elec
cathode ray tube 2U.
trode is controlled by a relaxation oscillation
Cathode ray tube 2t is provided with an elec
generator BE. VThe period of relaxation oscilla
tron emitting cathode 2l, a control grid V22, a
focusing element 23, and an accelerating elec 15 tion generator 6G is made to be long relative to
the rotation frequency of the cathode ray beam
trode 24. It will be noted that as connected,
and the effective rotation of the antenna system.
the output of tube d2 will vary the poten-tial on
Accordingly, a spiral pattern such as shown in
accelerating electrode Zit. This variation in volt
Fig. 5 will normally be traced. However, grid 22
age will velocity modulate the electron beam and
will thus cause a radial displacement of the beam 20 of tube 2D is normally biased- so that only at the
indicating peak of the signal will an indication
of the cathode ray tube. It can, therefore, be
be Visible on the screen of cathode ray 2U. Ac
readily geen that the rotated electron beam will
cordingly, when the direction signal is applied to
be deflected radially either inwardly or outwardly
22, a series of marks will appear on the screen
under control or” the envelope potentials. Thus,
a pattern will be produced on ‘the screen of cath 25 producing a radial indication, as shown in Fig. 6.
the signals are re-modulated onto a fixed inter
mediate frequency so that the direction finder is
universally useful with all types of signals over a
wide frequency range. The output of lll is cou
It can be readily seen that this type of indica
tion depends upon the rotation of the electron
beam and a simultaneous radial and emission
may'beprovided 'to avoid the ambiguity of indi
control of the cathode ray beam.
Relaxation oscillator 'Ei'ë may be arbitrarily con
It will be seen that if no further circuits are 30
trolled in frequency so long as the period of its
provided, the cathode ray beam will continuously
oscillation is made equal to a plurality of rota
trace a circle on the face of cathode ray tube
tions of the cathode ray beam. However, if de
2G, even if the receiving circuit is arranged so
ode ray tube Z9 indicating the direction of recep
tion of signals. If desired a sensing antenna 2t
that only peak potential is applied to the elec
sired, the generator may be controlled directly
coupled to the output of di, which rectifier sup
the scope of my invention.
trode 2li'. ’It it is'desired to avoid this continuous 35 from receiver ¿Bü or from one oi’ the circuits VI5 or
l5, so as to produce oscillations which are a con
trace, a system may be arranged ’to maintain
trolled sub-multiple of the rotation frequency of
grid 22 Ybiased substantially to cut-off, except at
the cathode ray beam.
periods during which an indicating portion of
It is clear that many of the features disclosed
the Vsignal envelope is being received. In. Fig. l
this is provided by means of a rectifier tube ¿l5 40 above may be modiñed without departing from
plies energy over Vampliiier '£56 to a resistance unit
¿il in the normal vbiasing circuit of grid 22. Tube
Furthermore, al
though there is a particular cooperation between
the various elements comprising the complete
direction finder, some of these elements may be
‘ useful in other circuits apart from the speciñc
combinations recited. For example, the elec
tronic rotation may be applied to circuits having
other types or" radial deflection. vThis is not pre
tial on grid '22. By this arrangement the cath
ferred, however, since Yin such a case it is neces
ode ray tube may be arranged to ’be either bright
during the signal reception, and dark the re 50 sary to provide an additional electronic distrib
utor or mechanical distributor for rotating the
mainder of the time, or dark during signal recep
cathode ray beam in order that effective radial
tion and bright the remaining portion of the
production of signals may be achieved.
time. The self-biasing circuit '123 serves to main
It is also clear that the circuit arrangement of
tain the proper bias on amplifier tube (it, to main
tain the proper relation between voltages from ‘“ Fig. 5 may be utilized independently of the elec
tronic rotation of the beam as can the indicator
rectifier ‘£5 regardless of the 'position of switch
arrangement of Fig. l. However, if other forms
of rotation are used the advantageous coopera
In Fig. 2 is provided an alternative black-out
tion of the deflection indicator of this type will be
arrangement vfor the beam of cathode ray tube
156 is provided with a self-biasing resistance con
denser circuit liß. A switch ¿Si is provided so
that the energy from rectifier ¿i5 may be applied
either to increase or decrease the negative poten
2d, the circuit shown being capable of substitu 60
tion for >that part of the circuit oi Fig. l, shown
between lines AA and BB. In this arrangement
considerably lessened.
What is claimed is:
l. A direction finder comprising an aerial sys
teni means for producing an effective rotation of
the energy from rectifier ¿t is applied over a
said aerial system to produce an indicating volt
potentiometer resistance 6E? to ampliñer llt, so
that the degree of brightness of the beam may 65 age dependent upon the effective angular posi
tion or" said aerial system with respect to a source
be readily controlled. Also, the potentiometer
of radiation, a cathode ray tube indicator having
6l is provided to adjust the amount of rectifier
an electrode system for producing a cathode ray
voltage supplied across potentiometer til. This
beam, means for producing a rotation of said
circuit provides for ready adjustment of the po
70 cathode ray beam in timed relation with effective
tential applied to the grid 22 of tube 2t.
rotation Yof said aerial system, means comprising
An alternative and preferred arrangement -for
a saw-tooth oscillation generator having a .period
the >rectiiier unit is shown in Fig. 3. In Vthis ar
equal to a predetermined number of rotations of
rangement the entire part ofthe circuit of Fig. 1,
said beam for causing a velocity modulation of
cut-off at lines AA, BB and CC, should be re
placed by that shown in Fig. 3. In place of tube 75 said beam to produce a, lateral deviation of said
trolled by said indicating voltage for controlling
the intensity of said beam for applying said indi
said beam to produce a lateral deviation of said
beam, and means for applying said indicating
voltage to said cathode ray tube to obtain a di
eating voltage to said cathode ray tube to obtain
rection indication.
beam, and means comprising an electrode con
a direction indication.
2. A direction iinder comprising an aerial sys
tem means for producing an'eiîective rotation of
said aerial system to produce an indicating volt
age dependent upon the eiîective angular position
of said aerial system with respect to a source Aof 10
radiation, a cathode ray tube indicator having an
electrode system for producing a cathode ray
3. A cathode ray tube indicator for use with an
effectively rotatable aerial system having an elec-`
trode system for producing a cathode ray beam,
means for producing a rotation of said cathode
ray beam in timed relation With' effective rotation
of said aerial system, means comprising a saw
tooth oscillation generator having a period equal
to a predetermined number of rotations of said
beam for causing a velocity modulation of said
beam, means for producing a rotation of said
beam to produce a lateral deviation of said beam,
cathode ray beam in timed relation with eiîective
rotation of said aerial system, means comprising 15 a source of indicating voltage, and means for ap
plying indicating voltage from said source to said
a saw-tooth oscillation generator having a period
cathode ray tube to produce an indication.
equal to a predetermined number of rotations of
said beam, for causing a velocity modulation of
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