Sept» 24', 19%. L. A. DE ROSA \ 2,408,049 INTELLIGENCE TRANSMISS ION SYSTEM Filed June 18, 1943 _s sheets-sheet 1 „î f. UNNW È „mi JI Ll Jl. L. . sept. 24,1946. I ' ' L. ADE RosA I¿4083349 INTELLI~GENCE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Filed June la, 1943 ‘ I 3 sheets-Sheet 2 208 © i I@ @f CIRCUIT“ 4.45 C/IFCUIT To TRAysM/rrfR @0' 405 404 ' 268 44d » _ ¿figg? INVENTU'R. ¿ou/5 A. „Pats/1 ATTÚRNEY Patented Sept.` 24, 1946 ' 2,408,049 UNIT-Eo srArss .PATENT .OFFICE . t 12,408,049 INTELLIGENCE ‘TnANsMI's'sioN SYSTEM Louis A. de lRosa, ‘_West Brighton, Staten'lsland,` AN. Y.,-as’signor to Federal Telephone-,and Radio Corporation, Newark, N. J., fa corporation j‘o'i' ‘ Delaware Application Juneis, 1943„scria1 No. 491,288 r6 claims. (ci. 17e-ecol This invention relates to improvements-‘in i'n telligence transmission systems, and more ‘par ticularly to systems in which’intelligence is trans -the derivation-ofiseduentiallyltimed pulses from a master electronic counter circuit, divided into ' a ïnumber 'of sub-counter circuits >corresponding to the number `OfJbands _used informing a ’char mitted in the form of pulses, >and received -and converted into visual intelligence. . acter, eachofsaidfsub-counter circuits, in turn, Systems have been heretofore proposed in which intelligence in the form of Apulses or a series of pulses 'is transmitted directly or by car comprising- a number» of `gaseous discharge tubes corresponding to the maximum >number of .pulse forming `sections -`of leach band, together _with rier wave to a receiver where `such` pulses Aare controllable means «for applying chosen pulses converted into visual intelligence either by means 10 from `each bandito-‘a transmitting and character 'ofV controlling1 the vpattern on `'the screen ofja reproducing system. - Y cathode ray tube ‘or‘b‘y impressions 'upon a mov These and other Lfeatureszoiî the invention will ‘ing tape. In some systems the character? to be be best'unders'tood "andiappreciated "from the .fol transmitted is divided Y_up into several transverse lowing `-description«of a preferred embodiment bands `suchga‘siive orV sevencf _several Vgroiïips 15 thereof, «described lior ‘purposes :of illustration „and cf‘pul'ses each, the number 'and position of'pulses shown -in :the ,i accompanying4 drawings in which: ’ in each band determining the ‘formation of *the Fig. Ã1 is. a ‘block circuit diagram of g the 'pre transmitted character. ‘The pulses. maybe sent ferred ‘form 'of pulsegeneration,,selectionand at a common frequency, or, it is sometimesça‘d vantageoiis to> transmit each band 'of pulses' at 20 "different frequencies. transmitting: ystem according totheA presentin ` In allsuch systems _the time interval between ` tially ‘in block form„o'f the-pulse deriving-¿and pulses or sets 0f pulses is determin'ative ‘of the character to be reproduced atïthe receiver, and controllingsystem showninçEig. 1; Fig.`3 -lis a circuit diagramillustrating further various Ameans have been propose‘d‘to produce 25 details of` some of, the electronic `counter circuits sets of such timed pulses in accordance withthe ‘ sh'own‘in Figsßliand 2; ‘characteristics of the intelligence to'be 'trans v-`Figari showsexamples ofìintelligence inggthe mittedysuch as a Vletter or numeral. ` In ¿prior form~ ofV letters `and;numerals; of the ¿type _pro duced byïtheisystemillustratedinzFígs. _1, 2 and 3; Vsystems. it has been usual’t'o pre-form mechanical ’patterns which, through the use of light-respon 30 Fig. . 5 is .a vv.block circuit diagram; of , agreceiving ‘sive tubes‘or similar means "form series ofç'puls’es ` systemiadapted to "be 'usedwith 4the transmitting corresponding to the `»letter to bejtransinitte’d, 'the `system„illustrated-‘in Eigs. l, 2.a`nd3. pattern chosen being controlled -b'y a keyboard or similar means. Such systems and such means ‘Generally` speaking, ` the. preferred :arrange ment `for producing character-forming _pulses:acare described, for example, inthe copendin'g ap 435 cording fto the. present invention, and illustrated plications of Edmond M. Deloraine, S. N. 415,554,A in Fig, 1, will-«consistnof a switch,operating-` key ñled October 18, 1941, and Edmond M. ‘Deloraina board "-10 »provided with a plurality of keyshav et al., S. N. 469,056, ñled December 15, 11942. ying indiciathereon corresponding ïto the >char It is one of the objects of the present invention acter -toèbe‘- produced. .The ¿switch mechanism of to eliminate the use of mechanical devices 'previ ously necessary in producing the timed pulses 40 the keyboard l0 lis isupplied with, pulses from a master electronic .counter 4control circuit icon used 'as a basis for the formation of character identifying signals. ` sisting "of> ` lplurality` Vof _subf‘electronic ‘counter and 'controläcircuits l,la,~l,|b„ `Ilc, lid, Ile, Ilf Another object .of my invention is directed to and - l ly, îthe ‘l number of¢ these ‘_subfcounter » cir ward the use 'of an electronic counter circuit 'in 45 cuits dependingîupon‘theinumber of transverse connection with what may be termed anV elec ‘ bands" into which the charactersito be ‘reproduced trical pattern for deriving sequentiallyV timed are divided. The: various sub-‘counter ‘ and `conpulses in an intelligence transmissionsystem. trol circuits Hato VI Itri-inclusive are serially con -A further object of this` invention is to pro nect'ed`- with ¿one another with- means being pro vide an> electronic `counter Acircuitïfor "deriving sequentially timed pulses in an 'intelligence transmission system, together with controllable means for starting and stopping ‘said f‘co‘unter .rMorefspeciíicallm this invention contemplates 50 vided ’forßre-actuation of the circuit Ila by the last circuit Iïlgft'o „for-m a -'continuously lrotating master > counter Y circuit. HThe Aoutputsî of' the j vari ` ous, countercircuits as controlled bythe’switches 55 2,408,049 3 four periods; in .the ñfth and sixth bands by the single pulse occurring in the ñrst period only; frequency oscillator 24. The output of the gate tube is connected to a transmitter and modu~ and for the seventh band sequential pulses occur lator 26 which may be supplied by a carrier wave ring throughout the entire period. In order to source 33. While the invention is particularly energize the transmitting means by sequential adapted for use in the radio transmission of sig 5 .pulses >to spaced and timed as to form a connec nais, it will be ¿clear` to those skilled inàfthis art étionïsuch. astheletter “EL” it will be necessary that a direct rwire transmission wither without a carrier can be utilized, if desired. As will be seen in Figs. 2 and 3, each of the" electronic counter and controlcircui-ts consists to form the proper connections between the in `vdividual electronic counter and control circuits 10 with the actuating circuit of the gate tube. The Y is sponding to the letter “E” is depressed, switches 40a, 40h, 46c, 45d, 40e and 43j will be closed to respectively interconnect output leads from manner in which this is accomplished can bestl _ ber’understood, for example, by a study of FigsrZ and 3. For example, if one of the keys 38 _corre of an electronic counter circuit from vwhich are derived output leads whichV are' controlled bythe keyboard switches, such control 'being'varied _in dependence upon the individual’switchoperated. Since the outputs from any one counter circuit may be applied -tora large number of- switches, „ the electronic counter circuits 12a .to l2g inclu- ' ' each output lead is separated through suitable ' sive, to the actuating circuit of the gate tube 22. As also previously pointed out with respect to isolating resistors into a plurality of output coni-ii , ductors connected to individual switches. For ex the letter “E” a series of sequential pulses are ample, the electronic counter-and control circuit Vnecessary throughout lthe entire period of the Ha will consist` of; an electronic countergcircuit `first character-forming band or, in other words', .12a 'from the individual'tubes of which are de .the first electronic counter circuit must supply rived output leads which, in turn, are each fur ' a continuous sequence of timed pulses for this ther divided by. resistor banks suchias la, 2a, 3a, . period.y Therefore, the output leads from each 4a, 5a, Scand 1a..,Similarly„the electronic coun 25 `of the gaseous ‘discharge tubes Ma of the counter ter. circuit |21) has associated therewithîresistor -`circuit 12a are connected together to a common Y banks lb to 'Ib inclusive, counter _circuit I2C with resistor banks vlc toflc inclusive, etc. The various electronic ‘counter `circuits illustrated by way of_ `leadj'350 _through a resistor of each resistor bank ía >to la inclusive. Closure'of the switch 4Min terconnects this common lead 350 withfthe con trol supressor gridof the gate tube 22 through the common control lead 268. To form theV next band ofV the letter “EL” it is only necessary .to apply a single'pulse during the firstportion of this second band. Accordingly, the switch 40h example are similar in arrangement and opera f tion `to thev “Electronic switchingl system’f de lscribed, in U. sfpatent to> Shumard 2,146,862, -issued February 14, '1939, although other Yequiva lent electronic Acounter circuits lcould be used. / ¿ i' As previously noted,‘the electronic 4counter cir cuits are serially connected with one another with .Y closes a circuit from the ñrst gaseous discharge tube ofthe electronic counter circuit 12b through a connection from the last countery circuit lead , a resistor of resistor bank Ib1 conductors 354 and 352 and thence to the conductor 268 leading to „ ing back to the ‘flrst'i so that when the master counter circuit is 'once energized it willl continue,l to 'operate' leach counter‘circuit as best seen from Fig. 3, and Willvpreferably consist o_f a plurality ' the gate tube. Likewise, for band three, only the output from theñrst gaseous discharge tube of Í¿ electronic counter circuit I2C is utilized and clo- ' sure .of v'the switch 40C will establish a circuit this tube through a resistor of resistor bank ,. from ' Ic, conductors 358 and 356 and thence through of gaseous discharge tubes so interconnected _with one another ina manner known »to the ar-t that ' vwhenV a ñred vtube isenergizedr it will/cause enï. ergization of the next succeeding tube-which,` in turn, will extinguish the Vprior tube of the series. 'A pulse may be derived `from the cathode ofeach ' tube in each electronic/counter> circuit'.v The in ' dividual electronic counter» circuits _themselves " are serially interconnected with one anotheras by coupling condensers so that the ñrst, tube of ' each counter circuit will, after a predetermined short interval be energized by the »last tube of the »prior counter circuit and will, in turn, then extin guish that tube. In accordance with the present the-switch to normal conductor 263, For the fourth band, the output of the ñrst'four tubes of . electronic counter circuit I2d is utilized. Thus, Í the output leads from the first -fourtubes of this electronic counter circuit are connected through individual resistors of banks» Id, 2d, 3d and M to .common> conductor 360 and thence through the switch 40d to the common gate tube’lead ZIB. For the iifth band, again it is only necessary vto 55 derive a pulse from the iirst tube of electronic counter circuit l2e and closure of the switch 40e will establish the necessary connections. VThe invention there are a number of individual elec tronic counter circuits corresponding to the num ber of bands into which a character is to-be di circuit may be, traced through a resistor of re quentially energized gaseous discharge tubes cor sistor bank Ale, conductors 364 and 362, Ithe switch 40e and the common gate tube conductor 2768. Likewise, for the sixth band, closureof responding to the number' of divisions in each band. In accordance with the form of inven _of resistor bank lf and thence through conduc tors 310 and 368 to thecommon conductor ,2168. vided, while each electronic counter circuit itself containsv a number_of serially connected, se 60 switch 40j establishes acircuit from a resistor .tion shown for purposesof illustration, theichar acters will 'be dividedinto seven-bandsconsist ing of seven sections each, as will be more read > ily apparent from a study of Fig. 4. showing ex amples of typical characters to be transmitted For the seventh band, it is necessary to derive a fcontinuous sequence of pulses from all of the ` gaseous discharge tubes of electronc counter cir , cuit I2g. Accordingly, the outputs of all lof these and reproduced. For example, it willbe seen that .,ì . tubes are connected -together through individual the letter.“E” `is formed of seven bands. The 70 >resistors of banks lgto 'Ig inclusive to common , Aconductor 314 and thence through conductor 312 Y Yfirst band may be formed by a s_eries of sequential ' pulses extendingy throughout the ,entireV band.. V In ' .the~ second and _third bands,>however,-g the letter is formedbyvpulses in ‘the first periods only; in -« the fourth band by sequential pulses for the iirst . andthe switch 40g to the common gate tube con ductor 268. . , In the‘formation of certain charactersit may be necessary to utilize different and separated l @108,049 pulses of each electronic counter circuit. This âllâland resistor banks Ib, 2b and 'Ib for counter circuit |2b and switch 44h; conductors 400, 405, will become apparent, for vexample, if an attempt is made to trace the required control circuits to `form the numeral “2,” shown in Fig. 4‘ (B). For example, if the switch 38 corresponding to this numeral is depressed, pulses are derived from the electronic counter circuit |2a and applied to the gate tube 22 for the second to the sixth periods «4M and 353 and resistor banks Ic, 3c and 1c for counter circuit |2c, and switch 44o; conductors 405, 483 and ‘4|D and resistor banks ld, 4d and 'ld -for `counter circuit |211 and switch 44d; con ductors 364, cl2, 4I4 andMG and resistor banks le, 5e and le for counter circuit |2e and switch 411e; conductors 31D, 4|8 and 42E) and resistor 10 banks lf, 6j and 'if for counter circuit I2]c and -iswltch 44j; and conductors 422 and 424 and re »sistor banks Igto 'lg for counter circuit |29 and inclusive. rl‘hus itis necessary to-connect the outputs of the second to the sixth gaseous dis charge tubes of electronic counter circuit |2a together, but in order to prevent confusion with other control circuits, these are again brought through isolating resistors in resistor banks 2a to 5a inclusive. The common lead 315 from the ‘resistors in these banks will be connected upon closure of switch 42a to the common conductor 263 for controlling the gate tube 22. In the case of >thefsecond band forming numeralr“2,” it will be noted that a single pulse is required for the ñrst period of this band, then there is hiatus, then a series of three sequential pulses dur "ing the fifth, sixth and seventh bands. The switch` 42h, therefore, closes two contacts be tween the electronic counter circuits |217 and the control lead 268 for the gate tube. The first contact 318 may be connected to the lead 354 îswitch 44g. sequence of pulses beginning with the ñrst tube of the first counter circuit l2a and ending with the last tube of the counter circuit |2g,` it is pref erable that each letter be traced several times for the sake of'V clarity, and for this reason it 20 wasipreviously mentioned that the counter cir cuit I2a is re-started after the last counter cir .cuit l'êg to form a continuously rotating master lcmintercircuit. However, means must be pro vided forV starting the ñrst tube of the ñrst 25 counter circuit |2a and, eventually, means must alsov be provided for stopping rotation of the master counter circuit after a predetermined number of desired traces have been made for ` which also is connected to the switch 4Gb for forming the letter “E” since the two characters Vhave this portion of the second band in common. The second connection, however, may be traced ' ‘- While a character can be formed by a single each letter. For this reason,` each of the char so acter-identifying keys 38 operates another switch 30 which controls starting and stopping means for the master counter circuit. It will be under stood from a study of Figs. 2 and 3 that when the keys are raised, the switch 3B does not com frcmconductor 383 to individual resistors of re sistor banks 5b, 6b and 1b which are fed from the last three „gaseous `discharge tubes of the electronic counter circuit |2b. Switches 42o, 42d, 42e, and 42f will control the application of elec tronic counter circuits |2c, l2`d, |2e, and |2f to plete any control circuit. One-direct-ion-oper `switches are already known. However, as akeyfis depressed it first wipes a pair of contacts -l the control of the gate tube 22 in a similar man to‘rnomentarily close one circuit, While in the ner as previously described above. For example, final 'depressed position of the key, the switch the lead 382 to switch 42o is connected to resistors 40 completes a second circuit. From the following in resistor banks 4c and 5c of the counter circuit it will be obvious that this -wiping action of the |20 to provide two sequential pulses during the contacts must be brief enough so that the ground third bank. Conductor 384 for switch 42d is con L connection is not present when tube Ma is renected to individual resistors of resistor banks stored after the following tube has operated. Ac ^ 3d and 4d of, counter circuit |211, conductor 386 cordingly, as the key is depressed and the switch for switch d2? is connected to individual resistors i momentarily-closes the first circuit, the grid :of of resistor banks 2e Yand 3e of counter circuit |2e, the i'lrst tube ida of the electronic counter circuit and conductor 338 to switch 42f is connected - lila ls momentarily connected to ground through A to individual resistors of resistor banks |f and 2f for the flrst`two tubes ofV counter circuit |2f. .50 4conductor Zit, thus reducing the negative grid bias onthis tube to render the same conductive. Since the last band for the numeral “2” is the ' When this tube becomes conductive the remain same as the last band for the letter “E” previously \ ing tubes of this counter circuit and thence the - described, the switch 42g may be connected to the conductor 372 of switch 49g through _lead tubes of the following counter circuits will be cated letters, however, `it may be ‘necessary to start and stop the application of pulses to the counter circuit |2g through a conductor 208 and , come sequentially conductive. In the final de 399. Other letters and characters can be built 55 pressed position of each key, however, the switch up from sequentially timed pulses in the manner r30 will close a circuit from the grid of the iirst described in connection with the letter “E” and tube Illa of the electronic counter circuit I2a to the numeral “2.” In some of the more compli the cathode of an additional tube |4’y of the _ gate tube as much as three times in a single band. 60 a condenser 209. When a tube of the counting chain such as tube Ilia ñres, its cathode poten This is true for the letter “N” shown in Fig. 4 tial jumps from a slightly negative value (due - (C), particularly for the third, fourth and fifth to the C battery bias) to a highly positive value bands thereof. This only necessitates further control switches or further control contacts on (due to the fact that the cathode is in the series 65 path between ground and B battery). This jump individual switches. For example, it will be noted that in the form of invention shown, the switches ¿4a to 44g inclusive all have at least two contacts for connection with the cornmon‘gate> tube conductor 25B, the switches 44o, c4d and 44e 70 having three contacts apiece. If desired, the specific circuits for the formation of a letter “N” may be traced through conductors `392 and 3,94 in potential is transmitted to the preceding tube cathode, by means of the commutating condenser, to raise that cathode to a potential above that of the B battery and thereby extinguish the tube. The jump in cathode potential is transmitted to l the> grid of the succeeding tube (via a> resistive l network) and to the cathode of the succeeding tube (via another` commutating condenser) to and resistor banks la and 'la for the ‘counter` cir Vraise-both 4gridand cathode in potential posi cuit |2a and the switch 44a; conductors 396‘and ,i _ tively; The succeeding tube therefore does not y this time, but as the charge -onthe Vcom liireiat .'rnutating‘condenser leaks oiï the cathode 'of the >succeeding. tube becomes more negative. The vgrid yof the succeeding tube, however, continues to remainat ‘the same positive'potential, s'o that eventually the succeeding tube breaks-down, eX tinguishing the' present tube. In the `case of tube Nia, the grid israised to this positive poten tial by a surge flowing through the isolating "actin l»synchronisrn with the generator 292 and -operating -agsecond saw-toothgenerator 323. A -phaser V293 V'may be 4used vto control the oscillator n285 so that the picture ofthe received character may >be properly positionedupon the screenv of the cathode ray tube. synchronizing means other than the phaser'2981willïnot be required. rEhe receiving system just described forms no - speciñcpart of the present-invention andis dis closedfin more `detail in the copending applica condenser .2@9. This condenser, after starting 10 -tion of E. M. Deloraine and the present appli initially discharged (because of resistor 2H) >cant; S1 N. 489,760, ñled June 5,1943.V gradually» acquires a biasing charge so that even -Itwill also be obvious to-those skilled in this tually the iirinfg of the preceding tubeld’g 'will . art that thesignals‘may be reproduced by means Ma to a sufficiently high »not raise the grid `of V`other than acathode raytube for example, upon Ivalfueto.nre tube lita. The counting then ceases Va moving tape. .In .such vcases each band of the -withítube lii’gignited, Tube Mfg is later ex letter Vwould be controlled by an individual pencil 'tingnished when tube vMaires >upon the grid of or. other marking «device and instead of `using `a tube common to all ofthe electronic ' #tube ma being grounded by the `operation of Va keyJSû.' So far as concerns tube M’Q, it is known single ‘gate rsh'c'wn the Adrawings in which case tube l4’9 ï would become conductive‘in regular course'and "dividual gate tubes corresponding to each band ~ of theA character-to be formed is to be found in. circuits,l -each electronic counter circuit `that' such tubes may .be self-extinguishing if the .20 vcounter Ycould operate its individual gate tube whose out 'external res istance . in the cathode-anode circuit puts-would be -separately'transmitted toV the re "be »adjusted sufficiently high for that purpose. cei‘ver. Tapeqeproducing devicesiof this char-Y lIt iscustomary however, 'to provide a resistance acter `are rknown tothe art andV need not therefore to»ground connection for the .cathodes as 1s :be described 'in detail.v A system for utilizing in -‘ remain so’ till operation Aof Vthe 'next key where Aupon tube ldlc at the beginning of a new cycle more detail inthe aforesaid copending Deloraine 1de Rosaapplication, and, also the application of de Rosa alo-ne, S. N. 491,287, ñled June 18, 1943. »Íebservedt'hat tube 145g is a special tube with no 30 CertainY details ofv construction rwhich -would Yno’nir-iections for Vkey switch control. The number be iobvious to thoseskilled in this art have not ' 'of-_»revclution`s of the master counter circuit which been `minutely îdescr'ibed since they themselves y eancccur before` this conditionis established are not .considered to `form rany part of the jin 'will depend 'upon the >value of the condenser 209 vention. >For example, meanswill Ybe provided and, Viin accordance with the present invention for releasingV a depressed key of the keyboard, `may be of .such value as to pro-` ' this condenser without. pressing -some other character-forming duce a ciear, readable image of the transmitted key. While I have illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3 character.' Inpractice it has been found that the use of switch means for each key to start Áthe condenser 229 is discharged slowly through and "stop 'the master counter circuit,‘it will be 40 associated wiring so that in the l"the leakage of understood that such-- switch means maybe in the Vlapse of time before a secondakey is depressed form of `a separately actuated key if desired. Fur it is discharged and in condition to take part ‘entinguishestubeïlii’g. In this connection it is zin Vthe.‘subsequent cycle. In order however to "assure this result 'the usual practice has been l followed inshunting the condenser with the high 'resistance '2i l. With present reproducing ap *paratus the image of each character must remain for cnewhalfto one second'for'continuous read thermore, while I ’have illustrated as .an l example ïof‘this invention a keyboard in'which the keys ’ directly operate switches for interconnecting'the ' outputs of the masterV counter circuit .with the gate ‘tube/it will be vunderstood by those skilled >in this art I‘that individual keys may actuate re _la'y'sio'r applying this directly insteadiofindi but less time'is required if the image is photographed. In view of .this small Y50`> rectlfy._` ’The for-'m of switchïmechanism illustrated Ah‘as‘only been given by way of example and itfis >length of time, the characters maybe transmitted not intended that this invention be'limited ‘to »by depression of the individual keysV without re any 4particular type of keyèoperated switch mech gard to the time it requires for the desired num amsm. ber of revolutions of the master counter circuit. r`No means have been illustrated for deñnitely By the time an ordinary operator depresses a ¿ synchronizing the receiver with the transmitter second. key the letter or character formed by rea system. As previously stated, such synchroniza son of the depression of a prior key will already tion‘is not _necessary in most cases and the mere be 'faded out since the master counter circuit adjustment of thescanned voltage by a phaser, will already have stopped. It is to be under stood, of course, that in accordance with the con 60, as described,.to bring the picture of the charac struction of ordinary keyboards, means will be ter-to the center- of the screen is'usually suf provided for preventing the depression of more Aíicient. However, if positive synchronization is ' ing `by an operator, than one key at a time. desired, for'example, in the case of a tape re l - Means for receiving the character-'forming sig ' >nals generated by the system illustrated in Figs. 65 " l, 2 and 3 and for reproducing thesersignals as 'visual intelligence are illustrated in Fig. 5. Such fa` include a broad band pro'ducer, this'may be effected by the transmis sionv andv reception of an additional synchroniz . ingxpulse in any manner known to the art. `Whi1e I` have shown and described one em receiving system~ may bodiment of my invention it is to be understood lreceiver 399 acting through ’an amplifier 322 di that it may be >embodied in other forms without 'rectly'upon the control grid 232 of a cathode ray 70 _ ' ‘tube 25d.. A horizontal sweep Voltage may be ‘ “derived from an oscillator 296 acting through a ¿clipper V21288 and a diiferentiator29ll upon a saw while vertical sweep voltage ` 'may be derived from an oscillator 294 keyed to 'departingfrom Vthe principles thereof and that "this ldescription is made only by way of example andnot as a limitation on the scope of `‘rny‘in- ` ‘ventionfias'iiset forth in the objects and thea-c-l » 2,408,049 10 sub-counter circuit with the first4 tube of the iirst l. A pulse intelligence transn'iissionV `system comprising character-identifying elementsl and sub-counter circuit, whereby said master counter means -controlled therebydor establishing an circuit will operate in a continuously rotating fashion and wherein said starting and stopping electric pattern 'correspondingV to` `>a respective, ‘ character, a means including an electric dis means includes a condenser and a ground, means charge'` device counter circuit operating ' during each cycle thereof to scan' saidA pattern: and de rive thereby a series of sequential `pulses peculiar to each character, means foriseparately transmit ting said pulses of said series and means for ena the grid potential thereon and rendering said 10 bling a predetermined repetition of‘the scanning of each character pattern'.4 connecting the grid off-the nrst tube ci the nrst sub-counter circuit `»to the ground for reducing iirst tubeconductive, and means for connecting the grid of thesaid ñrstV tube and the cathode` of said additionalltube `to ,ground through said condenser to build up suñicientpotential on said condenser-after a number of cycles of operation` , 2. A pulse intelligence transmission system of-said `master,counter .circuit to extinguish said comprising character-identifying elementsv and 15,. additional tube.«without re-energizing the grid means controlled thereby for establishing an elec of said iirst tube, whereby said master'counter tric pattern correspondingito a respective char circuit willcease to operate.` act-er, means including an electric‘discharge de vice counter circuit operating >during eachlvcycle said ser-ies. ` , S. A puise intelligencetransmission system ac cording to§claim~2 including meansfenabling aI tube interconnecting` thellast tube of thelast sub ‘counter circuit withthe first tube of` the first sub-counter-circuit, whereby said counter circuit will operate in a continuously `rotating fashion, in which said switching means comprises'a key-Á 25 board provided with a plurality: of control-keys` predeterminedrepetition of the scanning‘of each character pattern, » , , ` combination with i ari-additional. gaseous r discharge thereof to `scan said pattern, means controlling` the scanning device to derive sequentially pulses timed relatively to represent said character and means for separately transmitting the pulses of i 9. The combination according` to. claim 5,- in 1 `each having indicia thereon corresponding toa character to be- transmitted, and switches inter,-` mediate said pulse-derivingmeans and said trans-1 4. A pulse intelligence transmission system ac mitting means operated` by -said keys, and` in cording to claim- Zwherein the scanning means 30 which said starting and stopping means includes operates effectivelyto scan the circuit iieldin two` ‘a condenser, aground, negative‘grid biasing directions. . V 5. An intelligence transmission system utilizing pulses so related that. the conñgurations of char acters transmitted by the pulses are represented by ' ’ means on said ñrst tube of theflrstsub-counter circuit, an additional switchopcrated by- each switch, and conductors interconnecting each of selections therefrom arranged in successive bands, said additional switches ¿toisaid grid„said„con denser and thev grid of -saidfl'irst `,tube and the` the combination of a master electronic counter cir cathode of said additional tube, so that when- a cuit comprising a pluralityof sequentially ñring gaseous discharge tubes, said master electronic key is depressed each key ñrst, momentarily, con nects the grid of said iirst tube to ground for re counter circuit being divided into a plurality of so moving the grid biasing means therefrom to start serially connected sub-counter circuits corre the master counter circuit operating, and then in spending to the number of bands for forming the the ñnal depressed condition each switch con characters, and each sub-counter circuit con nects the grid of the said ñrst tube and the taining a number of gaseous discharge tubes cor cathode of said additional tube through said con responding to the assigned number‘of pulses for denser to prevent starting the ñrst tube after a each band, means deriving pulses from each gase number of cycles of operation of the master ous discharge tube, means for transmitting pulses, counter circuit. means for starting and stopping said master elec 10. In a system for the transmission and re tronic counter circuit, and controllable switch ception of intelligence, the combination of a plu means interconnecting said pulse-deriving means rality of serially connected counter circuits with to said pulse transmitting means to apply sequen the last counter circuit connected back to the tially timed pulses thereto in accordance with ñrst counter circuit to form a rotating master the shape of a desired character. counter circuit system, each of said counter cir 6. The combination according to claim 5, in cuits including a plurality of sequentially ñring which said switching means comprises a keyboard ,~ provided with a plurality of control keys each having indicia thereon corresponding to a char acter to be transmitted., and switches intermedi ate said pulse-deriving means and said transmit ting means operated by said keys. ’1. The combination according to claim 5, in which said switching means comprises a keyboard provided with a plurality of control keys each having indicia thereon corresponding to a char acter to be transmitted, and switches intermedi ate said pulse-deriving means, operated by said keys, and in which said starting means includes an additional switch actuated by each key con nected to the grid circuit of the first tube of the gaseous discharge tubes, means deriving a series of sequentially timed pulses from said serially connected counter circuits, a normally non-con ductive gate tube, a high frequency energy source for said gate tube, an actuating circuit for the gate tube, means for starting and stopping said series of counter circuits, variable switching means intermediate said various pulse-deriving means and the actuating circuit of said gate tube to apply sequentially timed pulses thereto in ac cordance with the intelligence-signifying signals. 11. The combination according to claim 10, in combination with an additional gaseous discharge which said switching means comprises a keyboard provided with a plurality of control keys each having indicia thereon corresponding to a char acter to be transmitted, and switches intermedi ate the pulse-deriving means and the actuating circuit of said gate tube, operated by said keys. 12. The combination according to claim 10, in which said switching means comprises a key tube interconnecting the last tube of the last` board provided with a plurality of control keys first sub1-counter circuit, and means controlled by said additional switches for momentarily in creasing the grid potential of said first tube. 3. The combination according to claim 5, in 11Y 2,408,049 each having indicia thereon corresponding to a character to be transmitted, and switches inter- ` mediate said pulse-deriving means and the actu ating circuit of said gate tube operated by said 15. The combination according to claim 13, in `which said switching means comprises a key board provided with a plurality of control keys each having indicia thereon corresponding to a keys, and in which said starting means includes Ul character to be transmitted, and switches inter mediate said pulse-deriving means and the actu f an additional switch operated by each key con ating circuit of said gate tube operated by said ' nected to the grid circuit of the'iirst tube of the keys, and in which said starting means includes firstA counter circuit and means controlled by an additional switch operated by each key con said additional switches for momentarily in creasing the grid potential of said first tube. 13. In a system for the transmission and re ception of intelligence, the combination of a plurality of serially connected electronic counter 10 nected to the grid circuit vof the first‘tube of the iirst counter circuit, and means controlled by said additional switches for momentarily in creasing the grid potential of said ñrst tube. 16. The combination according to claim 13, in circuitswith the last counter circuit connected back to the ?lrst counter` circuit to form a rotat 15 combination with an additionalv gaseous dis charge tube interconnecting the last tube of the ing master counter circuit system, each of said last electronic counter circuit with the ñrst tube counter circuits including a plurality of sequen of the first electronic counter circuit, whereby tially ñring gaseous discharge tubes, means de said master counter circuit 4will operate in a riving a series of sequentially timed pulses from said serially connected counter circuits, a nor 20 continuously rotating fashion, and wherein said starting and stopping means `includes a con mally non-conductive gate tube, a high fre denser, a ground connection, means providing a quency energy source for said gate tube, an actu negative grid bias on the‘flrst tube of the ñrst ating circuit for said gate tube, means for start electronic counter circuit, means connecting the l ing and stopping said master counter circuit and variable> switching means intermediate said 25 grid of the said tube to ground for reducing the grid bias thereon and rendering said first tube pulse derivingmeans and the actuating circuit conductive, and means for connecting the grid of said gate tube to apply sequentially timed of said first tube and the cathode of said addi pulses thereto in accordance with the intelli tional tube through said condenser to build up gence-signifying signals. 14. The ycombination according to claim 13, in Y 30 suiiicient potential on said condenser after a \ number of cycles of operation ‘of the master which said'switching means comprises a key counter circuit to prevent re-energizing the grid board provided with a plurality of control keys of said first tube, Wherebysaid master counter each having indicia thereon corresponding to a circuit will cease to operate. ' character to be transmitted, and switches in termediate the pulse-deriving means and the actuating circuit of said gate tube, operated by said keys. LOUIS A. DE ROSA.