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Патент USA US2408059

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24,1946;
H_ o,_ FARMEIQ
v2,408,057 I
INTERNALLCOMBUSTION ENGINE-OF ‘THE FREE PISTON TYPE '
Filed March 9., 194a '
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Sept. 24, 1946.
H. o. FARMER I
2,408,057
INTERNAL‘COMBUSTION ENGINE OF THE FREE PISTON TYPE
» Filed March 9, 1943
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Sept. ‘24, 1946.
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H'. o, FARMER
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2,408,057
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE OF THE FREE PISTON TYPE _
Filed March 9, 1943
10
4 Sheets-Sheet‘ 5
Fig. 9.
45
(I.
(NVELNTOE
65%;
~21” ATTY
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
2,408,057
UNITED STATES: PATENT- OFFICE? 4
2,408,057
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE {OF THE
FREE PISTON TYPE
Harold Oatridge Farmer, Hounslow, England, as;
signor to Alan Muntz & Company Limited, ’
Hounslow, England, a company of Great Britain
Application March 9, 1943, Serial No. 478,503
r
1
In Great Britain March 2, 1942 i
19 Claims. (01. 123-46’)
.
This invention relatesto internal-combustion
engines of the free-piston type. The primary
moving parts of such free-piston engines consist
‘ of a piston assemblyror usually an opposed pair
of such assemblies and the connecting linkage
which constrains them to move in synchronism.
These parts are unconstrained by any continu
ously rotatable crank-shaft, though the synchro
2
subsequent part of the same stroke, meansbeing
provided which co-operate with the inertia mem
ber by'retardinglit at a. predetermined point in
such overrunning motion and using the kinetic
energy thereby taken from the inertia member
to perform an auxiliary function, such for exam
1 ple as to operate a fuel-injection pump or to time I
at least “one of the ‘limits of the delivery period
nising linkage may include a crank-shaft which
of fuel-injection means.
is arranged to oscillate through a limited angle. 10
Another object is to provide means for con
Generally this angle is less than 180", so that
trolling the movement of the inertia member as
neither the inner nor the outer dead point of
it approaches each end of its stroke.
the motion of the piston assemblies is ?xed by
Another‘object is to provide a compact and
the synchronising linkage.
Dead points which
are not so ?xed will hereinafter be termed “in
robust mechanism incorporating the inertia
member and the means for driving it and for
determinate” dead points. In special cases the
crank-shaft may be arranged to oscillate through
causing it to perform the auxiliary function.
an angle between 180° and 360°, in which case
one of these dead points is ?xed by the synchro
‘ tion will be apparent from the following descrip
Further objects and advantages of the inven
tion of “an embodimentof the invention given
nising linkage and the other is indeterminate.
20 with reference to the accompanying drawings, as
The primary moving parts come to rest in the
applied‘ to the ‘drive of'a fuel-injection pump of
dead points, and for short periods on each side
‘ a two-stroke compression-ignition air-compres
of indeterminate dead points the speeds of all
sor of the opposed-piston type. In the ‘drawings:
these moving parts are relatively very low. Fur
Fig. l is a diagrammatic sectional side elevation .
thermore, with engines operating on a variable 25 of the air-compressor,‘ I
_
.
load, the positions occupied by these parts at in
Fig. 2 is. a side elevation of part of the com
determinate dead points vary with variation in
pressor shown in Fig. 1,. with part of the casing
the operating conditions of the’ engine. Conse
broken away and with the fuel-injection pump
quently such moving parts cannot be employed
directly to operate auxiliary mechanism, such
for example as a fuel-injection pump of a com
pression-ignition free-piston engine, which is re
quired to function at an accurately determined
instant in the engine cycle at or near an inde
terminate dead point.
‘
An object of this invention is to provide an im
proved method and means of overcoming this
di?iculty.
According to this invention, an operation re
drive unit removed,
.
a
Fig.‘ 3 is an end elevation of the same com
pressor, some parts being shown in section on
the line 3.—-3 in Fig. 1,
.Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 show diagrammatically the
fuel-injection pump and its drive mechanism in
35 four different positions.
‘
Fig. 8 is a graph (not to scale) illustrating the
operation of this drive mechanism,
Fig. 9. is‘a sectional side elevation, taken on the
lines 9-9 in Figs. 3 and 10, showing this drive
quired to take place at a time including or near 40 mechanism in more detail,
‘
an indeterminate dead point in the cycle of a
Fig. 10 is a sectional end elevation taken on the
free-piston engine is performed by the agency of
kinetic energy which is transferred from the
primary moving parts of the engine during their
acceleration and which is thereafter stored. dur
ing the subsequent retardation of such parts un
til the operation takes place.
A free-piston engine according to this. inven
line 10-10 in Fig. 9, and
Fig. 11 is an inverted plan in section. On the
line llé-? in Fig. 9.
'
The air-compressorshown in Figs. 1, 2 and ‘3
is generally of known type andincludes a power
cylinder ‘20 having inlet ports 2| and exhaust
ports 22. A. casing 23 surrounding‘ the power
tion includes an inertia member operatively con-.
cylinder. forms a scavenge ‘air receiver communi
nected to the primary moving parts of the en 50 cating directly with the inlet ports 2|. At one
gine in such a manner that the inertia member is “ end of the casing 23 is a compressor cylinder
accelerated by the motion of said parts during
24, and at the other end a‘pneumatic cushion ‘
the ?rst part of one of their strokes that pre
cylinder 25.
>
.
cedes their occupation of an indeterminate dead
The primary moving parts of the compressor
point and is free-to overrun said parts during a 55 consist of two opposed free-‘piston assemblies and
2,408,057
4
3
driver is ?xed as an abutment passing with clear
ance through an eye 56 in the inertia lever. A
the synchronising linkage which constrains them
to reciprocate equally and oppositely. One of
these piston assemblies consists of a power piston
26 controlling the inlet ports 2|, and rigidly cou
pled by a rod 2] ,to a compressor piston 28 oper
ating in-th'e 7‘cylinder 24. 'I'h‘eiother pisto‘n‘as
semblycon'sists 6f a power piston‘29 controlling
the exhaust ports 22 and rigidly coupled by a
rod 33 to a cushion piston 3| operating in the"
cylinder 25.
_
The synchronizing linkage includes t'wo‘levers
32 and 33 capable of oscillating equally and op
positely about their mid points on~acommon hori
zontal axis which is perpendicular'to the ‘com
weight 57 is rigid with the inertia lever 53 and
is disposed on the side of the eye 56 remote from
the pivoted connection 55.
,
_
The} axis of avertically‘displaceableEtappet 58
actuating ‘the fuel-injection'pump '45‘is perpen
dicular to the axis of the shaft 52, and is roughly
‘perpendicular to the longitudinal centre line of
"the driver '53‘when the latter is in the position
"shown in Fig. 6 corresponding to inner dead point
at full load. The tappet 58 is so connected to
the inertia lever’ 54‘that it is constrained to follow
the vertical‘co'rnponent of the displacement of
mon ‘longitudinal centre line of the two piston 15 the point on the inertia lever that traverses the
axis of oscillation of the driver. Thus the tappet
assemblies. The ends of the-leveril32are con
nected by connecting rods 34 and 35 respectively
to two crossheads 36 and 31 ?xed to the piston
"is coupledito the inertia lever by a connecting
link-??lone end of which is carried on a ring
journal 63 co-axial with the eye 56 in the inertia
rods 21 and 30 and maintained horizontal by arms I
lever and ‘the other end of which is pivotallycon
3.8 and 39 sliding in guideways 40 and 4| formed
'nected at'?l to the‘ tappet,
"the‘casing' '23. The ‘ends _of the‘ lever' 33' are
I
‘
The buffer for checking the‘movement of ‘the
inertia lever'54 at the end of the stroke in which
' respectively‘ to the 'crossheads' 36 ‘and 31.
_
‘fueleinjection'occurs, consists of "a laminated
-' A’ fuellinjection' nozzle 44 is ‘suppli'e'd'b'y a fuel
“in'jéction ‘pur'n'p45 of known' typefprdvided with 25 cantilever‘ spring 62, ?xed‘ to the driver‘53 and
positioned to ‘be engaged by a pinv 63 on the in
' the‘ usual ‘adjusting member 45 for'control' of the
“likewise ‘connectedby‘lconnecting rods 42 ' and" 43
ertia lever ‘as the latter comes near to one end
"quantity injected. The‘compressor cylinder 24 is
of its displacement relative to the driver.
The ‘buffer for checking the movement of ‘the
" as“"41 'and“ delivers it through‘valves such as} 48 30 inertia lever in the ‘opposite sense is a hydraulic
dash-pot device having one element‘ 64 mounted
"to"a"conipre‘s‘se‘d'-‘air receiver ‘(not 'sohown),'while
on the driver and the other element 65 coupled
the inner facev of ‘this ‘piston draws in scavenge
"doubleacting; the ‘outer face‘ of the compressor
piston 28 draws in air through inlet 'valves'such
fair through valves'such"as“49i and delivers ‘it to
"the; scavenge 'air receiver through ‘valvessuch
‘ as
50.
.
to‘a pin‘ 66‘ on‘ the inertia lever by a connection
" E‘i providing lost motion, the arrangement :being
35 such that the ‘dash-pot imposes a resistance- to
the movement of the'inertia lever relative to the
Figs.‘ I and 2 show the‘ compressor: at the inner
' dead‘ point ‘of the ‘free pistons.
driver as the former comes near to‘ the other end
During the ex
of its displacement.
"The fuel injection pump 45 has an inlet ‘port
' chronihinglevers 32 and 33 are‘ ?rst accelerated
"counteri'clockwise and clockwise respectively as 40 681 controlled byits ‘plunger 63, which is urged
in the direction of ‘its suction stroke by a spring
"vviewéd-in'Figs.‘ 1’ and‘ 2,v and thereafter retarded,
35. ' During the delivery stroke of the‘ plunger,
' their angular‘ velocity b'eing'roughly directly pro
m'panision stroke of the power‘ pistons, the ‘syn
portional 'to‘ the _linear‘velocity 'of the free pis
“t‘ons. "When' ‘the free pistons, attain'their’outer
deadpoint,’ the synchronising ‘levers, will have
Qbeendisplaced through ‘roughly a right angle.
‘ after the-inlet port 58 has closedi fuel‘is delivered
“through a‘lnonéreturn valve ll until a spill port
1 ‘12in the plunger ~comes=into register with'a spill
' portv ltiinithe pump body; thus relieving the de
livery pressure.
,~The"pow_er 'cylinden'z? having’ib‘een scavenged,
the 'free'ipistons execute their in_ stroke, under the
influence of the energy stored,‘ during their out
' stroke,'in the air compressed in the cushion cyl
inder 25 "and‘in the ‘clearance ‘volume of the outer
end'of the compressor cylinder 24, the synchro
levers‘32 and‘33 returning to the positions
“shown at‘an angular velocity varying roughly in
direct proportion to the"'linear*velocity of the
‘free pistons. ’
I
The“ drive mechanism "forthe fuel-injection
_
The'operation of the'ffuel-pump drive mecha- ’
~nism4will be described'with reference to the graph
innFig. 8,“inY-'whic'h- are plotted, on a time base
“showingbne complete cycle from an‘outer dead
pointiO. -D.- P.) through the subsequent inner
dead- point (I. DTP.) to'thenext‘outer dead point:
'fAngular displacement of'the-driver 53 denoted
by DD, .
I ‘Y Angular - displacement of ‘the ‘inertia lever 54
denoted 'by'
by'Vw,
to refer to Fig. 6, Which-shows the con?guration
‘Fe. ‘and
"at the inner vdead point of ‘the _free pistons, cor
irespondingtouFigs. 1 and 2. A driver 53, shown
fjdiagrammatically‘by heavyblack lines, is rigid
'{with?thelshaft 52,‘ so'that its angular velocity'is
'oalso'i roughly directly proportionallto- the linear
locity of‘the free pistons. i"I‘he‘inertia lever
"54;‘,-’whi'ch is arranged to move in a plane parallel
" to‘ the plane‘ of movement of thev driver 53, has
one‘endu'pi'votally connected at'55' to'the' driver
"at’a'point displaced from the axis of oscillation
of the‘ driver. Relative ‘movement betw‘e‘e?'the
5driver~53and the fineruaiever 54 'is limited by
“arranging‘the oscillating shaft '52‘to’ which the
'
'
Angular velocity of the driver denoted by VD,
‘Angular velocity 'of the inertia lever denoted
pump :45is contain'ed'in a case 5| (Fig. 3) and
‘is actuated by a pivot shaft ‘52 of the synchronis
‘ing lever 33. Figs. 4 to 7‘ show this mechanism
‘in ‘different configurations, ‘and it is convenient
Angular acceleration of the driver denoted by
_--Angular- acceleration of the inertia lever de
noted by'Fw.
’
' At 1‘the (outer dead point of the -free ' pistons
(OLD'L‘PI. in‘F‘ig. 8) ‘the driver 53 is‘stationaryin
the position shown in" Fig.‘ 4- and it has a high
acceleration ‘in a ‘positive sense (counterclock
wise asfseen inxFig. 4); and the inertialever '54 is
"at’what' will be termed the trailing limit of its
range of movement relative'tothe driver. The
’ driver therefore accelerates the inertialever up
tolits' maximum angular velocity (ii in ‘Fig. 8).
When. the acceleration of the‘ driver becomes
negative," which "occurs ‘early ‘in "the'second "half
‘72,468,057
6
For- the compression stroke, the weight 51 on the
in such a manner that a substantially uniform
inertia lever continues to move at an angular
force is imposed as the relative speed of the in
ertia lever and the driver‘ falls. This is indicated
by the horizontal portion of the curve Fw between
5‘velocity which‘falls relatively slowly, with the
result that the inertia lever begins to move, rela
tively to the driver, about its pivoted connection
55 to the latter, advancing the fuel-injection
pump tappe‘t'58 and‘the plunger 69, and com
pressing the plunger spring ‘10. After this tappet
has moved through a predetermined distance, the
fuel-injection period commences, at time 152 in Fig.
8, the power required to actuate the pump being
‘supplied by the kinetic energy of the weight 51
‘which is thereby retarded. Fig. 5 shows the con
?guration at the beginning of the fuel-injection
period; 'I'he'fuel-injection period continues while
rthe'pistons pass through inner dead point (Fig.
6)‘, until the tappet has advanced through the
‘further distance required to open the spill ports
is and tv in Fig. 8.
v10
'
.
The inertia lever consists of two arms 54A and
54B ?xe'dto a pivot pin 55 which is rotatable. in
bearing in the driver 53, and these arms carry
‘respectively two weights 51A and 51B which are
'
bridged by the pins 63 and 66. Each of the arms
54A and 54B is provided with a hollow boss (Fig.
‘ 10) the interior surface of which‘ forms the eye
56 that co-operates with the shaft 52 to limit the
relative displacement of the inertia lever and the
15 driver; the exterior surfaces of these Ibosses form
the ring journals for the big ends of twin con
necting rods 59A and 59B actuating the fuel
12; and 13. The end of the fuel-injection period
pump tappet 58.
_
The buffer spring 52 that is mounted on ‘the
occurs at time is in Fig. 8. Thereafter the weight 20 driver is supplemented by a pair of buffer springs
'51 continues to move at a substantially constant
88A and 88B which‘ are mounted on the case 5|
Uvelocity for a short distance. At time ii in Fig.
and which co-‘operate with lugs 89A and 893
8, before the inertia lever has reached the lead
formed on the rods 59A and 59 .
'
ing‘limit of its range of movement relative to the
“The
mechanism
described
by
way
of
example‘
driver, the buffer spring 62 is engaged by the pin
has‘ the advantage that it can be designed to
163 and the weight is accordingly subjected to a
short but high negative acceleration. The weight
‘is thereby arrested and immediately moved at a
"rapidly increasing velocity in the opposite direc
tion.. When the inertia lever disengages from the
buffer spring at time is in Fig. 8, the weight con
tinues to. move at a substantially constant ve
locity, catching up the driver. In the latter half
of. the expansion stroke the driver is again sub
'ject' to acceleration in the positive sense, and at
‘time’ is inFig. 8 the pin 66 takes up the lost mo
tion in the connection 61 (Fig. 7) and the inertia
lever is prevented by the dash-‘pot device 64, 65,
operate with‘ standard types of fuel-injection
pumps that are now commercially available.
The'invention may be similarly applied‘ to a
timing device for determining the beginning or
the end or both of a fuel-injection‘ period in a
free-piston engine having a fuel-‘injection device,
the pump of which is operated by means other
than the inertia member, such" for example‘ as a
small gas motor energised by the working fluid
compressed in the engine combustion chamber,
such as described for example in my co'pending
U. S. patent application Serial No. 376,259, filed
January 28, 1941, now Patent No. 2,351,414, June
from returning with ‘excessive shock to the trail
13, 1944.
'
ing limit of its range of travel relative to the 40
I claim:
‘
‘
i
driver. The inertia “lever and the driver begin to
1. An internal-combustion engine having ‘a
move in‘unison again at time is in Fig. 8.
power cylinder, a compressor cylinder, primary
- ‘Figs. 9, 10 and 11 show the fuel-injection pump
moving parts including a power piston and a
drive mechanism in‘ greater detail, the con?gura
ition being-‘that at inner dead point at full load _ ‘compressor piston co-operating with said cylin
ders respectively and connected together for, op
‘of the airrcompressor. The pivot shaft 52 of the
eration in unison as a ‘free-piston assembly ca
synchronising lever 33, which oscillates in syn
pable of reciprocating through a variable stroke,
chronism with the engine pistons, is journalled at
such that at least one of its dead points is inde
14in the case 5| and at 15 in a cover 16 of this
case. The driver 53 has a hub portion 11 provided 50 terminate, an auxiliary member for performing
a function auxiliary to the operation of said en
with internal splines engaged with a splined por
gine,
an inertia member, an operative connection
tion of the shaft 52, so that the driver 53 and
between said inertia member and said primary
the lever 33 are constrained to oscillate in unison.
moving parts for imparting to said inertia mem
‘Oil under pressure is admitted at a union 1B in
ber an acceleration by the motion of said‘ parts
the cover 16 and flows, through a bore 19 and a
during the first part of one of their strokes that
port 80 in the shaft 52, and through a non-return
precedes their occupation of said indeterminate
‘valve 8! and a duct 82 in the driver 53, to the
dead point, said connection serving to permit said
cylinder 64 of the dash-pot device. Since oil can
inertia member to overrun said parts during ‘a
?ow freely into the head of the dash-pot cylinder,
subsequent part of the same stroke, and means
the device imposes no resistance to outward move
operatively associated with'said auxiliary mem
ment of its piston 65. This piston is hollow and
ber and capable of co-operating with said inertia
its‘ head is provided with a leak port 83 co-operat
member by retarding it at a predetermined point
ing with a tapered needle 84 ?xed to the cylinder
in such overrunning motion and using the kinetic
head. This port opens into a hollow non-return
‘valve 85, and an exhaust port 86 in the piston _
- registers with an exhaust port 8'! in the cylinder.
. The non-return valve 85 prevents air from being
sucked into the dash-pot cylinder during outward
movement of its piston. During inward move
ment of the piston the oil trapped in the cylinder
(by the non-return valve 8| is forced to flowv
through the leak port 83 and the valve 85, and
the needle“ is so shaped as to vary the effective
.area, of the leak in accordance with the relative
; displacement of the piston 65 and the cylinder 64, 75 ‘
energy thereby taken from said inertia member
to actuate said auxiliary member.
2. An internal-combustion engine having a
power cylinder, means for injecting fuel into said
cylinder, a compressor cylinder, primary moving
parts including a power piston and a compressor
piston co-operating with said cylinders respec
tively and connected together for operation in
unison as a free-piston assembly capable of recip
rocating through a variable stroke such that the
inner dead point of said power piston is indeter
minate, an inertia member, an operative connec
12,498,057
reciprocating~ through aivariable stroke-such that
.tion between said 1 inertia , member and said, pri
at least one of its-dead points is indeterminate,
an auxiliary member ;_for performing ,a function
auxiliary ;to the operation of said engine; an
' mary .‘moving parts‘ i or imparting , to a, said‘ inertia
fimember an accelerationibv the motion ,of said
,parts during, the ?rstpart-of one Qftheir strokes
that precedes their occupation‘ of said indeter
hrninate dead point, said ‘connection serving to
permit said inertiamember to overrun said parts
5 - oscillable: inertia ;member, an operative , connec
tion including-an oscillatory driver ‘between said
inertia member andsaid primary moving-parts
for imparting to said inertia member an accelera
tion. bythe motion‘ of said partsduringthe ?rst
jection , means , ‘and capable 10f co-yoperating with '10 part ‘of one of their strokes that precedes their
occupation of said; indeterminate-dead point; said
.said inertiajmember byretardingit at a prede
‘ driver providing lost motion-gtopermit said inertia
ltermined'pointin such ,overrunning motion and
member to overrun said parts during _.a;subse
usingthe kinetic?energy thereby taken from said
, quent part of the same stroke‘, means operatively
._inertia member to .actuate said ,iuel-injection
associated ‘with said auxiliary memberv and capa
ble of co-operating ‘with-said inertiamember-by
.,3. _An internal-combustion engine :having a
during a subsequent part of the same stroke,anid
‘means voperatively associated “with said ,iuel-in
lmeans.
'
‘
'
retarding .it at a , predetermined point in such
power _;cylinder, awsystemjior injecting fuelwinto
overrunning ‘motion and using- theskinetic' energy
said cylinder, said system including, means for
thereby‘, taken from said'inertia member toactu
,timing at least one or the limits ‘of the. delivery
period of said system,‘ a c0mpressor cylinder, pri-d 20 " ate said v‘auxiliary member-and .at" least one buffer
arranged to reactyon-said oscillatory driver for
;ma_ry moving parts including apower; piston and
.checking movement of, said inertia; member- as it
;a compressor piston co-operating with said cylin
~ ‘approaches each'end of its stroke:
- '~ '
ders respectively and connected together for op
:eration in unisonas a, lfreefpiston assembly ca
pable ofrreciprocating through, a variable stroke,
r 66. An internal-combustion "engine havingv ;a
25 power cylinder, a compressor cylinder,-primary
‘moving parts including a' power piston‘ and ,la
, such thatthe inner ‘dead point of said power pis
compressor piston ‘cooperating :with said cylin
ders respectively and connected together?‘ for
operation in unison asafree-piston assembly
capable of reciprocating throughavariabl'e stroke
tonhis indeterminate, an inertia member, an op
;erative ‘connection between said inertia member
and said primary movingv parts for imparting t0
,;saidiner_tia member anaccelerationby the mo-
such‘ that at leastjone ‘of itsf'dead points, iSLin
\ tionrof said partsduring the ?rst part of one of
theirrstrokes that precedes their occupation of
,_ said: indeterminate ‘dead point, ' said ‘connection
determinate, an' auxiliary member forperform
ing a ‘function auxiliary to ‘the operation of said
engine,’ an oscillable inertia member, an ‘operative
, serving, to permit said inertia member to over
run said parts duringa ‘subsequent part of the
same stroke, and means operatively associated
; with said timing means and capable of co-operat
ing with said inertia member ‘by retarding it at
35 ' connection including an ‘ oscillatory driver be
tween said inertia member and "said‘primary
moving parts for imparting to‘ said inertia mem
ber an acceleration by‘the motion'ofsaid-parts
during'th‘e ?rst part3 of one or their strokes'that
a predetermined point in such overrunning mo
tion, and using the kinetic energy thereby taken 40 precedes their occupation of said? indeterminate
‘dead point, said- driver providinglost motion<to /
.vfrom said inertia member to. actuate said timing
permit said inertia member to‘ overrun said'parts
‘during a‘ subsequent r‘partof'the" same stroke,
means operatively associated with said auxiliary
,powericylinder, va compressor 'cylindenprimary
moving, parts including a power piston and a com 45 member and capable’ of co-operating .with‘sa'id
,pres's'or, f piston eta-operating‘ with said cylinders ‘inertia member‘ by retarding it-at a'predeter
mined point in such" overrunning 'motionx-and
respectively and cdnhé?'?d together for operation
using the kinetic energy thereby taken from said
"in. unison as a nee-piston, assembly ‘capable of
.mméansw
,
.
.,
l
i
.7
.,
‘ ’ 14fAn .internal-combustion- engine having a
lreciprocating'j through a variable ‘stroke such that
» inertia‘member to actuate said auxiliaryrmember,
‘at least one‘of'its dead points is ‘indeterminate, 50 ' and 1a resilient- buffer arranged: to react" on said
oscillatory driver for :checking such: overrunning
.an'auxiliary, member for performing a 'function
,auxiliary .tothe ope'ration‘of said engine, an‘os'cil
' motion of ‘said, inertia member relative 'to .said
liablev inertia ' member, ‘ an operative connection
.oscillatory driver.
between saidinertia member andsa'id primary
gm‘oving partsifor'impartingto said inertia mem
"ber an acceleration k'bythe'rnotion ofv said parts
sdur'i'ngthe?rst part of one of their s‘tr‘okes‘that
precedes their occupation of, ‘said indeterminate
dead vpoint, said connection, servingto permit
' sjai'dl'inertia member to overrun ‘said partsfdur
finga subsequent part of‘ migraine stroke, means
‘
' '7.‘ An‘ internal-combustion
60
-
‘
‘
*
'
engine ' having a
power cylindena compressor cylinder;-primary
moving parts including a'power piston" and a
compressor piston, co-operating with said cylin
ders respectively and‘connectedv together for-op
eration in unison asa free-piston’ assembly‘ capa
ble of reciprocating'througha variable: stroke,
such that at ‘least one-of its ‘dead. points .is-in
operatifvelyj‘associated’ with said‘ auxiliary 'inem
determinate, can‘; auxiliary ' member for? perform
’ her and capable of co-operatirig with said inertia
'ing' afunction auxiliary to rthe'operatiorl'of said
‘engine, an oscillable inertia member, an operative
in such overrunning motion; and using the kinetic
65 ‘connection including an. oscillatory driver-‘be
tween said inertia a member-"and 'said ‘primary
lfrnember'bj retarding
at a predetermined point
energy, thereby ‘ taken from’ said inertia _ member
'to actuate said auxiliary memberand at least
one buffer for checking movement of said inertia
moving parts fori'imparting to‘ said inertiarnei'h
ber' an acceleration‘iby the motion-of said? parts
'"member as it approaches ‘each end. of itsv stroke.
during the ?rst party of one‘ of their strokes-that
power cylinder, a compressor. cylinder, primary
"dead point,‘ said driver providing ‘lost "motion-‘Ito
_ 5. An internal-combustion‘, engine..;havi_ng a 70 ‘precedes their occupation of ‘said? indeterminate
, moving parts including'iaypow‘ertpiston and a com_
,prelssor piston ,c’o-operating withisaid cylinders
. .réi-pwillélyend ¢°11ilecfedmgéihsr for, operation
. imllsison, case lfi‘seqpieton- assembly ramble; ‘of r
permit said'inertiamembe'r'to overrunisaid parts
during: a subsequent partxofi thief-same ‘stroke,
means operatively: associated with said, auxiliary
member :and‘ ’capable of:- co-operatin'gWithsaid
2,408,067
:19'
‘10
inertia member by retarding it at 1a predeter
mined point-in suchjoverrunning motion‘ and
using the_:kinetic energy thereby taken from said
inertia member to actuatefsaidauxiliary member,
inertia'member to actuate said auxiliary mem
ber, a resilient buffer arranged to react on said
oscillatory driver for checking ,such overrunning
motion of said inertia member relative to said
oscillatory driver, a stationary part,'and a sup
a‘ resilientbuifer‘ arranged to react on said oscil
latory‘driver for checking such overrunning mo‘
plementary buiier arranged to react on said sta- .
tion of said inertia member relative to said oscile
tionary part for checking said overrunning mo
latory driver, and a buffer in the'form of a??uid
dash-pot device arranged to react on ‘said oscil
10. An internal-combustion engine having a
latory driver for checking the returnmotion im 10 power cylinder, a compressor cylinder, primary
parted to said inertia member by said resilient
moving ‘parts including a power piston: andla:
compressor piston co-operating with ‘said cylin
, 8. An internal-combustion engine having a
ders respectively and connected together for op,
power cylinder, a compressor cylinder, primary
eration in unison as a free-pistonassembly capa
moving parts including a powerpiston and a com
ble of reciprocating‘ througha variable stroke
pressor piston‘ co-operating with said cylinders
such that at least one of its dead points isinde
respectively and, connectedv together for opera
terminate, an auxiliary member ‘for performtion in unison asxa ,free-piston .as'semblycapable
ing a function auxiliary; tothe operation .of said
of reciprocating through a variablestroke such
engine, an oscillable inertia ‘member, an opera
that‘ at least one of its dead points is indetermi 20 tive connection including an oscillatory, driver
tion.
buffer.
'
'
"
.
_
.
i
_
.
1
'
l
‘
nate, an auxiliary member' for performing a
between, said , inertia member ‘and said, primary.
function auxiliary to :the operation of said engine,
moving parts forimparting to said inertiamem
her an acceleration‘by' the motion of ‘said parts:
an oscillable inertia member, an operative con
nection including an ‘oscillatory driver between
said inertia member and said primary moving parts for imparting to said inertia member an
acceleration by the motion of said parts during
the ?rst part of one of their strokes that precedes
their occupation of said indeterminate dead
point, said driver providing lost motionto per 30
mit said inertia member to overrun said parts
during a subsequent part of the same ‘stroke,
during the ?rst part of 10116 of their strokes that
precedes their occupation of said indeterminate
dead point, said driver: providing lost motionv to
permit said inertia member to overrun, said parts
during a subsequent part of, the, same stroke,
means operatively associated with said auxiliary
member and capable of co-operating with said‘
inertia member by retarding it at_~a ‘predeter
means operatively ‘associated with saidauxiliary ‘
mined point in, suchl overrunning», motion, and
using the kinetic energy thereby taken fromsaid;
inertia" member to actuate said auxiliary ,mem-,
member ‘and capable‘ of co-operating with said
inertia member by retarding it at‘ a predeter 351 ber,- a, resilient buffer arranged to react on said
mined point in such overrunning motion and
oscillatory ‘driver for checking such overrun:
using the kinetic energy thereby taken‘ from said
ning motion of said inertia member‘ relativerto;
inertia member to actuate said auxiliary member,
said oscillatory driver, a bu?er inthe form oi’ a
a resilient buffer arranged to react on said oscil
?uid dash-pot devicevarranged, to reaction ‘said
latory driver ‘for‘checkin’g ‘such overrunning mo £10 oscillatory driver for checking the return-motion
tion of said inertia member relative to said oscil
imparted to'said inertia member by said resilient
latory driver, and a bu?er in’ the form of ,a ?uid
dash-pot device arranged to react on said oscil
buifer, a stationary part, and a supplementary
' buffer arranged to ‘react 1on1 ‘said stationary part
latory driver for checking the return‘ motion im-,
parted to said inertia member by said‘ resilient
for checking said overrunning motion.
buffer, said dash-pot devicehaving an automati
cally variable leak calibrated to maintain a sub
stantially uniform resistance as the relative speed
of said inertia member and said oscillatory driver
falls.
‘
‘
,
power cylinder, ‘ a compressor- cylinder, ‘primary
compressor piston co-operating with said cylin
ders respective1y,'and connectedtogether forpp-l
50 eration in unison as a free-piston assembly cap_a-;
ble 'of reciprocating through a. variable stroke
such that at least one of its dead points is indeé‘
terminate, an auxiliary memberior perforininga
function auxiliary to the operation of saidene;
55 gine, ‘an oscillatory driver operatively connected
eration in unison as a free-piston assembly capa
ble‘ of reciprocating through a *variable stroke,
such that ‘at least one of its dead points is inde
terminate, an‘ auxiliary member for performing
a function auxiliary‘to‘the operation of said en to
gine, ‘an oscillable inertia member, an operative
connection including‘ an oscillatory driver be—
tween said'inertia member and ‘said primary
moving parts for imparting to said inertia mem-v
M
moving partsv including‘ ‘a ‘power- piston- and; a
9. An internal-combustion engine having a
power cylinder, a compressor cylinder, primary
moving parts including a power ‘piston and a
compressor piston‘ co-operating with said cylin
ders respectively and connected together for op
_
> 11. An internal-combustion engine -having;a‘
with said primary moving parts, an inertia mem-,
her in the ‘form of ‘a relatively, massivelever
which is pivotally connected ‘to said oscillatory
driver in such a manner that at such pivotal con;
nection said lever is reciprocated substantially~
transversely to its length,gmeans for limiting dis-,
placement of ‘said levergrelativeeto saidoscillaé
tory driver, and, means operatively associated.‘
with said auxiliary member, and capable ,of- co-'
her an acceleration by the‘motion of said parts 65 operating with said- lever by retarding its mo
during the ?rst part of one of their strokes that
tion, and thereby transferringenergy fromsaid
precedes their occupation of said indeterminate
lever to actuate said auxiliarymember. , ‘. ,.
dead point, said driver providing 10st motion ‘to
12. An internal-combustion engine having a
permit said inertia member’ to overrun said parts
power cylindena compressor ‘cylinder, primary‘
during ,a snbsequent‘pant of the same stroke, 70 moving parts, including a power piston and a,
means-toperatively associated with said auxiliary
member‘ and capable of ,co-operating with said,
inertia member by retarding ittat a predeter
compressor, piston ‘co-operating with said cylin
ders respectively and connected together for op
mined pointQin- such overrunning, motion and
eration in unisonas a free-piston assembly‘capaa
ble of reciprocating‘ through a Variable, stroke,
using thekinetic energy‘ therebytaken, from said
such that atleast one of its ‘dead points‘j'is
2,408,057
11
its-free end projecting‘vbeyond the‘ axis of; said
determinate," an auxiliary ~member- for-perform
ingiia' functionv auxiliary totthe operationpf said
engine, an 'oscillatoryurdriver' operatively: icon
crank? on" they side ‘thereof opposite to said- ' pinl,
anrabutment member: co-axial with said crank, a
ring‘ journal'rigidwith said lever and forming
ang'eye’ co-operating with said abutment member
fortlimiting angular displacementv of said ~~lever
relative to said crank,~and a'linkconnecting said
nectediwithvsaid primary moving-‘parts, an in;
ertia member in the-form" of a, relativelymassive'
1 lever ‘which is pivotally connected to said "oscil
latory driver in such'a manner that at such'piv
auxiliary‘ member to‘ said ring journal. »
- 1
otal connection said lever is reciprocated sub
‘471-6. An internal-combustion engine‘ having a
stantially transversely to its length, means for
limiting displacement of. .said‘lever relative to 10 power Gy1inder,la‘ compressor cylinder, primary
moving parts including a: power piston anda“
s'aid'oscillatory driven-and means operatively as-V
compressor piston co-operating with said: cyl
sociatedv with said auxiliary member‘ and, ‘piv
inders respectively and connectedv together for
otally connected to apoint on said ‘lever ‘located
operation in unison as a free-piston assembly ca
between said pivotal connection and-the free end
of, said. ‘lever, said last-mentioned means being 15 pable of reciprocating-through a variable stroke
such that at least one of its dead points-is in:
responsive .to" transverse‘ displacement‘ of‘ said
determinate, an auxiliarymember for performing
point for transferring ‘energy from said lever to
actuate sai’d auxiliary member;
'
'
a function auxiliary to the operation» of said en-v
‘
gine, an-oscillatory crank having a crank pin
and‘v operatively connected‘ with said primary
moving parts, a relatively massive lever pivotally
mounted-on the pinofl'said crank .with itsvfree
end projecting beyond? the’ axis of said crank on
respectively-and connected‘ together for operation
the side thereof opposite to said pin, meansfor
iniunison' as a‘ free-pistonv assembly capable of
reciprocating through 'a variable Str0ke,'such that 25 limiting displacement of said'vlever relative to
said crank, and means for-operatively connecting
at‘ least one of its :dead'points is‘indeterminate,
said auxiliary member and said lever and capable
a‘n‘auxiliary‘member for performing a‘function
of following a‘ component‘ ofthe motion‘ of a
auxiliary to the operation of said engine,‘ an
point on said lever that is capable of coinciding
oscillatory crank vhaving'a crank'ip-in and opera
tively connected with 'said' primary-moving parts, 30 with the axis of said crank, the'relationship of
said crank to said; primary moving parts being
a ‘relatively massive lever pivotally mounted on
such that said last-mentioned-meansare ar
the pin‘of said crank 'With' its‘free end projecting
beyond the axis of ‘saidcrankson‘ the side thereof ' ranged to be displaced‘ substantially normally to
--i1-3.1‘An internal-combustion engine having‘ a
power cylinder,‘ a compressor cylinder, primary
moving parts including a'p'ower piston and a com
press'or‘. piston‘ co-operating with a said cylinders
QDPOSité to‘ saidpin, meansfor limiting displace‘
a plane containing the'axes-of said crank and its
means for 'operativelyconnecting'“ said‘ auxiliary
member and said leverand capable of following
ing to an‘indeterminatedead point.
m'enti-of said lever ‘relative to said» crank, and 35 pin‘when said crank is inthe position correspond
-
Y 17. An internal-combustion engine having? a
power cylinder, avsystem~for injecting fuel into
said cylinder, said system including means for
40 timing at leastoneof the limits of the delivery
period of said system, a compressor cylinder, pri-i
14; ‘An internal-combustion engine having a
mary moving parts including a power piston and
power-cylinder, ‘_a ‘compressor cylinder, primary
a compressor piston co-operating with said cyl
moving parts including a-power piston and ‘a
inders respectively; and connected together for
compressorpist'on 'co‘eoperating with said cyl
operation‘ in unison; as .a free-piston assembly
inders respectively and ‘connected together for
operation in unison as a free-piston assembly‘cag ‘ capable of‘ reciprocating lthrough a zvariable‘
stroke such that the inner dead point of said
pableiof reciprocating through‘ avvariable stroke,
power piston is indeterminate, an. oscillatory
such‘ that at least‘ onev of itsv dead- points is in
crank‘ having a'cranklpinand operatively con
determinate,'~ an ‘ oscillatory auxiliarymember for
nected with said primary moving parts, a rela
performing a 'f'unctionauxiliary tovthe operation
tively massive .lever pivotally mounted on the pin
of saidiiengine, an- oscillatory crank having a
of said crank with its free end projecting beyond
crank pin and operatively- connected with said
the axis of said crank on the;s-ide thereof oppo
primary moving parts, a‘ relatively massive lever
siteito said pin, ‘means for limiting'displacement
V pivotally mounted on- the p-in' of-saidcrank with
' of said lever. relativeto, said crank;,_=and means.
its‘ free end=projecting’vbeyond/ the axis of said
connecting’ said timing. means and said lever-and
crank- on the side'there'o'f ‘oppositelvto said pin,
capable ‘of following a component of the motion
means‘ for~limiting=displacement‘ of said lever‘
a- component ‘ofithelmotion‘ of a point ‘on said
lever that is‘ capable of coinciding'with the axis
o'f's'aidicrank;
7,
-
‘a
‘v
i
»
V
relative tov said‘ crank; andla member , connecting
of a point on said lever that is capable of coin
such that at least one of its deadpoints is inde
- primary moving parts includinga power piston
ciding with the axis of > said crank and. ‘thereby
with‘ said auxiliary member and pivotally con
nected-tosaid lever at an axis capable of coin; 60 imparting to said timing means a .controlmove
merit from said lever while it is‘overrunning said»
ciding‘with‘ the axis‘of said crank.
i‘
:
r
crank during the latter part of ‘the strokeof said
' ‘15.jA1'1 ‘internal-combustion’ engine having a
pistons immediately preceding their occupation of
power cylinder,a compressor cylinder, primary
said indeterminate inner-dead point.
p
moving parts including a power piston and a
18. An‘ internal-combustion engine having a
compressor piston co-operating- with said cyl
power cylinder, a fuel-injection nozzle opening
inders respectivelyand connected together for
into said-power cylinder, a fuel-'injection-wpump
operation inv unison as a free-piston assembly ca
for supplying said nozzle, a compressor cylinder,
pable of reciprocating through a variable stroke
performing a" function auxiliary to the‘ operation
and a compressor piston co-operating with said
cylinders respectively and connected together for
of ‘ said engine‘, an oscillatory crank having a
operation in unison as a free-piston assembly ca
crank’ pin .and' operatively ‘connected with said
primary moving parts,"a relatively massive lever
pivotally mounted on the pm of said crank with
pable of reciprocating through a variable stroke,’
and means connecting said fuel-injection pump‘
and said lever and capable of following a com‘
terminate, an oscillatory auxiliary'member for
13
2,408,057
ponent of the motion of a point on said lever that
is capable of coinciding with the axis of said
crank, and thereby imparting to said pump a con
trol movement from said lever While it is over
running said crank during the latter part of the
stroke of said pistons immediately preceding their
occupation of said indeterminate inner dead
point.
19. An internal-combustion engine of the free
14
an indeterminate dead point, a driver operatively
connected with said piston, an inertia member
co-operating with said driver for receiving accel
eration therefrom duringr the ?rst part of a stroke
immediately preceding said indeterminate dead
point, and means for performing an operation
auxiliary to the working of said engine, said in
ertia member being capable of imparting motion
to said last-mentioned means during the second
piston type as hereinbefore de?ned having a 10 part of said stroke.
power cylinder, a power piston slidable in said
H. O. FARMER.
cylinder through strokes of variable length with
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