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Патент USA US2408077

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‘Sept. 24, 1946.
Filed Aug. 12, ‘1941
2 Shéets-Shéét 1
F IG.2.
671/15 143/”
Sept. 24, 1946.
2 S'héets-Sheet v2
Filed Aug. 12, 1941
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'£/7/LE LAB/N
Patented Sept. 24, 1946'
2,408,076 "
2,40%.076v .
Emile :L'abin, New‘ York, N. Y., ass'ignor to Inter
‘national Standard Electric Corporation, New 4
York, N. ,Y., ‘a corporation of Delaware
Application August 12, 1941, Serial No. 406,499
10 Claims.
(Cl. 250-36) 7
l .
The present invention relates generally to ap
paratus for producing brief trains of oscillation
and particularly to apparatus for producing brief
high power trains of high frequency oscillations.
There are many uses for such'a source of brief -~
trains of high frequency oscillations, among them
- being their use in distance ?nding apparatus for
generating high power impulses. In distance
?nding apparatus it is necessary and desirable to
produce wave trains of large peak power so that;
these wave trains may be ‘directly radiated with
out ampli?cation, while still giving a large amount
of radiated power and hence a large useful oper
ating range for the. apparatus.
It is an object of my invention to provide an;
e?icient apparatus for delivering brief wave trains
of high power'waves.
' It is a further object to provide such an appa
i I be as much as ten times the plate supplyvoltage.
The negative grid voltage consequently must be
raised to several times the normal cut-off vvalue
to insure that thetube is‘blocked duringthe dis
charge or pulsing period.
It is both di?icult and expensive to build an
ampli?er which will pass a wide band of fre
quencies (to allow a very fast blocking action),
deliver alarge amount. of power into a low re
sistance and supply a high negative voltage to
an in?nite resistance.
For medium power installations it is possible
to reduce some of the above di?iculties by em
ploying'a?pentode tube as the ampli?er tube con
nected to the inductance. . However, for ‘high
power applicationspentodes are costly and in
troduce circuit complications.
It is an object of_ my invention to provide a
source of brief waveftrains of high power‘ and
ratus suitable for delivering high power brief
wave trains of ultra-high frequency waves, the. 20 it high ‘frequency waves while'avoiding the di?i- '
wave trains being of accurately controlled length
, culties above mentioned.
J 'According to my invention, I provide as the
' It is a further object to provide such an appa
‘source of plate supply for a high frequency oscil
ratus which when powered by a plate supply
lator an impulse generator comprising an, ampli
source of given voltage is capable of delivering #25 ?er tube having an inductance coil in its output
wave trains of substantially higher power than
circuit and means for coupling the inductance
could be delivered by conventional .apparatus
. coil to the grid circuit of the ampli?er tube. In
using a plate supply of said given voltage. ,,
the preferred embodiment of my invention I em
' It has: heretofore. been proposed to produce
ploy a triode as an ampli?er tube.
high power trains of oscillations by applying to 130 .It is a further object of my invention to provide
the plateof a suitableoscillation generator. tube,
an improved impulse generator capable of pro
brief high power impulses derived from ‘a B sup
ducing ‘impulses of high peak power.
ply of moderate voltage by a controlled ampli?er It is another object of my invention torprovide
having an inductance in its output circuit. In
a self-excited impulse generator capable of pro
. accordance with thissystem the current in an'
ducing impulses of high peak power.
inductance connected in the plate circuit of the
vIt is another object of my invention to employ
ampli?er tube is interrupted by means of control
in said high power ‘impulse generator a triode
signals of the desired form applied to the grid
as an ampli?er-generator tube.
of this tube and obtained from a separate low
It is another object of my invention to pro
power impulse generator. This system operates 40 vide apparatus for accurately controlling the
fairly satisfactorily, but it has;several disad
duration of high frequency pulses. .
Myinvention will be more clearly understood
(a) During the period of charging current flow , ‘by referring to the accompanying drawings
in the inductance, a high positive voltage must
.be applied to the grid of this ampli?er tube in 45 Fig.’ 1 illustrates an impulse transmitter for‘
order that the plate current may approach the
delivering brief wavetrains of high power in
maximum emission current of the tube.
, (b) Because of the grid current which ?ows
during the charging period, the ampli?er or gen
accordance .withmy invention; >
, erator which drives the ampli?er in 7(a) ,must 50
- supply a considerable, amount ofrpower to a/low
impedance (the effective grid resistance at this
‘time being from 100 to .500 ohms).
. .
Fig. 2 is a diagram used in explaining my in
Fig. 3 “shows a circuit employed in operation
Figs. 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d are diagrams used in
describing the operation of the impulsegenerator
(0) During the period of discharge of the in
ductance, the instantaneousplate voltagefmay 55 Fig.5 illustrates an embodiment of my inven
of myinvention;
tion wherein a high frequency oscillator is con
trolled by both positive and negative impulses
from an impulse generator.
Fig. 1 discloses an impulse generator connected
as the power supply for an oscillator. The im
pulse generator comprises a vacuum tube 2 hav
ing a plate 3, a control grid ii and an electron
Although impulse generators and oscillators
are both known, I shall describe the impulse gen
erator employed in accordance with my invention
in more detail in order that my invention may be
more clearly understood.
The use of inductive coupling between the plate
andgrid circuits has the effector" shunting the
.linductance with a negative resistance. For the
emissive cathodei5=which may be directly Or in
present purposes'the circuit shown in‘Fig. 1 may
directly heated. ‘An inductance 6 is connected in
10 be considered during the charging period as
series with the energy source 1' in the plate cir
"equivalent to an inductance in parallel with a
cuit of the tube 2 between the plate 3 and the - vnegativeresistance and with the capacities of the
cathode 5.
components of the circuit.
circuit and the grid circuit is obtained by means
‘ 'A circuit‘ consisting of inductance, capacity and
of coil 8 which is inductively:coupled-tojthe-in
resistance, which'is capable of oscillating at high
ductance B and which may be considered'as ‘one .15' values of resistance, may become aperiodic if the
coil of the transformer 6, 8. The pulsing rate ' resistance is;small, even though negative. If Re
is primarily determined by the ‘capacity-resist- '
is the resistance for critical damping, the circuit
ance timing circuit consisting of condenser 9 and
'will be aperiodic as long as the shunt or parallel
resistance l0. As shown, the condenser}! and re
resistance remains between +Rc and >—-P.c. When
sistance H! are in series with the grid 4, but 20 the circuit is made aperiodic by damping with a
they may, instead, be connected‘in series with the
negative resistance (-Rc), the operation is not
cathode 5.
at all normal. Any small current increase de
-When the inductance F6 is charging, "that is,
velops into a very rapid and large exponential
‘when current is ‘?owing in tube»2,'- the platelend
From the moment at which the cur
of the inductance is negative with-respect tothe 25 increase.
rent begins to rise, it continues to‘rise to its ab—
other end of the inductance. 1When the induct
solute limit, always in the same direction and
ance is‘ discharging (no tube current), the .re
with'increasing speed. Similarly, a decrease in
'verse polarity exists.
-In practice, the load 'resistanceifor - inductance
'6 will vary between 10,000 ohms for 10 to 15 micro
second impulses, and 2,000ohms for -l_to.2 micro
current vwill also follow an exponential law.
When the inductance 6 is vcharging and this
inductance is connected to the oscillator as a
plate supply for the tubes-thereof, the e?ect of
the oscillator tubes may vbe'neglected since, as
pointed out above, the‘ polarity of the potential on
monly employed oscillator tubes. ‘In the pre
the inductance is such that the plates of the tubes
ferred embodiment of my inventioml employ the
are at a negative potential with respect tothe
impulse generator as ‘the ;plate voltage supply
cathodes and the resistance of the tubes may,
for an oscillator. The impulse generator .may
therefore, be consideredas in?nite. When, how
alsoact as'the power supply for. any other power
ever, the inductance discharges, its-‘polarity re
velectrode-such as the screen grid of the oscillator
verses, and the inductance discharges into the
tube. 5In Fig. 1, one end of the inductance 'coil v40 tubes as well as the circuit components of the
6 of the impulse generator IlSCOIlIlECtEdTtO the
generator itself. During the discharge, the os
mid-point of a pair of lecher Wires 36zand 31.
cillator tubes act substantiallyas a ‘resistance
Thesevlecher wires 35 and B'Lserve to tune :the
plate circuit of the tubes 38 andi139, .and-the
second impulses. 'Thisload resistanceis of'lthe
same'or'der as the plate resistanceof‘manycom
‘The discharge 'of the inductance begins .at
lecher wires arev connected to ‘the ‘plates ;or:power .7145 the instant that the .plate current is blocked.
electrodes 40 and Moi the tube. The grids :or
The plate current of the tube .12 having :been
control electrodes 42~and 43 areconnected to .a
blocked,.the resistance of tube .2 ‘may be con
'pair of lecher wires M1 and 45 ‘whichserve‘to
sidered as in?nite, and consequently, the .zcir
tune the grid circuit =0f't1l6'tubeSl38.» and;39. “A
"50 cuit consists of the inductancev Gin parallel with
resistor '46 serves as a'biasing resistor.
theiinherent resistanceof the oscillator (if sub
odesor electron emissive electrodes 1'48 ‘and '49
stantially resistive) and a-capacity consisting
are connected to a common returnlpoint.
substantially of the ‘capacities of tube 2 and the
During the charging and steady state .pe
oscillator, the.distributed'capacity'of.coils 6 and
riods of the impulse generator the "oscillator
8, condenser élnand other capacities to ground.
comprising the tubes
the ‘theory of parallel inductance, capac
tive. When the inductance 6 discharges, .the
resistance circuits, it is known that the
‘tubes 38 and 39 and their. accompanying cir
discharge of the .inductancev? into the oscillator
cuits are energizedandoscillations are;produced.
It will thus be seen that high frequency energy
islproduced for an interval substantially equal
to the discharge itimelof theinductancecoil 6.
Actually the oscillator will cease to oscillate'be
fore the inductance coil '6 is completely dis
charged, and the high frequency pulse'w'ill-be a
'little shorter than that delivered by'the induct 65
ance coil 6 to a resistance load.
The oscillator ‘stage is preferably coupled to
transmitting system directly, .but it may also be
coupled to an ampli?er or ampli?ers and then» to
1a transmitting system. .As. shown iniFigg-ljthe
oscillator is coupled by means of loop 35 tothe
transmitting system I. It is to be understood
(considered as a 'load) will be made in a mini
mum time and with a maximumpeak power if
the circuit constants are given critical values
which satisfy the equation.
‘Under these conditions, the discharge of the in
ductance will follow a curve l'ike‘that shown in
Fig. 2.
For-abetter understanding of the operation of
the impulse generatorla cycle of operation will be
described as follows:
(a) Charge.-As soon asrithergrid condenser
'9 almost completely discharges through the re
sistance l0, ‘plate current will ‘begin to ‘flow.
vthat although'I have shown a push-pull'oscillator
This ‘current will increase continuously to a
as a preferred type other types of'osc-illator's'fmay _ value 'near= the'satur-ation current value “iorwthe
"be employed. ~
-: 2,408,076
t'ubezi. _ At‘thefsame'timethe' voltage at the
gtheshigh- vacuum diode '20 in. series therewith
vJplata'alil will decrease dueto the reactance drop
'. form a .load for the inductance. Resistance 30
»- across inductance. 6; andthegrid' voltage will in
in parallel-with condenser 29 serves asa timing
'- crease positivelyudue to the feedback‘between
circuit to control the impulse frequency. .Source
.the. grid, and plate circuits giving a ‘large grid 5 1.2.1, which maintains a potential of about 350
current ?ow. The power furnished to the grid
.lvolts, serves as a power supply for the generator.
circuit is obtained from the plate voltage source.
.1 Meters 3|. and 33 serve to indicate thecurrents
(b) Discharge.,—-The increase in plate cur
uinsthe respective circuits, and resistances 32 and
rent will cease when the plate current approaches
Y34. are'providedas voltage sources for an oscillo
“the. saturation current of the tube. At this time
_ the grid voltage, which has been held at a high
..Yalue ,due to the inductive coupling between the
. plateandgridjcircuits, will begin to decrease
The operating char
Plate resistance _______ _____ohms__ 2000
Hajhigh voltage'at theterminals. of the inductance
6.-;_If;,the coupling between coils 6 and 8 is
Ampli?cation factor _________ __,___
negative. Theiresultis that the, plate current
tured by, N. V. {Philips’ Gloeilampenfabrieken
- grid voltage will decrease and ?nally become
proximately equal to the, instantaneous plate
voltagelwill be produced at the grid 4, and this
negative voltage will be sufficient to block the
plate current during the discharge of the in
I of Eindhoven, Holland;
Yerse,1and this effect becomes cumulative caus
inggthe platecurrent to decrease rapidly. The
, properly adjusted, a highrnegative voltage ap
‘‘Tube '22 I 'a,_'type ‘ Ell-'3 " receiving tube manufac
:causing a decrease in the'plate current. The di
. rection of plate current; variation will then re .15
be‘ stopped in a Very short time producing
. In the circuit-of Fig. 3 the-following elements
were employed:
Grid resistance____. _______ __do____
Plate voltage____________ __volts__
[Tube 20 a recti?er of the so-called “80- type”
, which is widely sold in the United States.
Condenser 29 a 1 mfd. condenser
' Resistance 30 a rheostat variable from 1000 ohms
to 200,000 ohms.
Resistances 32 and 34—4 ohm ?xed resistors.
Resistances I'Sand 2| loading resistors. '
(c) Steady state.—During ;the~,,charge of the
inductance 6, the grid current of tube .2,’ will 30 . henrys and requiringa critical resistance of
charge condenser 9 with'such a polarity that the
' W about_8,000 ohms. .'
vplate of the condenser 9 connected to the grid 4
will be negative. At the end of the discharge of
With the above apparatusrit ‘has been found
'pQSSlbIB to'produce currents of about 1 ampere
' the inductance there will be no voltage across
coil 8, and therefore, dueto the charge on con 35. and; peak voltages as high as 6,000 volts, the peak
power being about {i kilowatts. V The development
denser 9, plate current will notflow. ‘ The con
denser will discharge through resistance l0, and
of 4 kilowatts peak power with’ a small receiving
tube and a 350 volt plate supply illustrates the
?nally plate current will again ?ow and the cycle
.advantage of, the present invention. These re
will ,be repeated.
For best operation the tube 2 shouldhave a. 40 sults for a small tube were duplicated on a much
;,larger scale with larger triodes such' as the Eimac
~ high saturation current to allow high values of
- charging current, shouldv have a highmutual
' tube T2,000 manufactured by Eitel-McCullough,
._ conductance to provide properdamping for cir-'
~In_c.,jofi San Bruno, California. Tubes of this
_ cuit component impedance values-other than the
_' latter type, using. my circuit, can deliver 3 micro- '
. critical values and for negative resistance values 45' second pulses of 30,000 volts in a 3,000 ohm re
and should be well evacuated in order to with
stand the high peak voltage which is producedv
sistance with a D. 0. power supply of only 6,000
< volts; Thiscorresponds ,to-pa peak power of. 300
during the discharge of. 00116. It may be seen
that with the exponential variations which take
- With the circuit shown in Fig. 3, a transforma
place the inducance will store alarge. amount of 60 tion ratio of 0.5 and a coupling coe?icient of 0.8,
~ energy during its charge, and this energy will be
' the oscillograms shown in Figs. 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d
released during a very short period. A peak volt
were obtained. These oscillograms show that
at'the time A, the grid condenser, has discharged
age‘ as high as 20,000 volts may be realized across
sufficiently for plate current to ?ow. The ?ow- »
the plate inductance coil with a power supply
voltage of only 1000 volts. Accordingly, the cir 55 in plate current decreases the plate voltagejdue
cuit, components of the impulse generator and
to the drop across the inductance 26 and-causes
the grid voltage to become positive. At this time
associated apparatus must be carefully insu
_ lated, and one of the chief points of concern is
.7 .the insulation between the plate lead of the tube
- and other apparatus. It has been found possible
» with well evacuated low power tubes having
thoriated' ?laments to use peak currents and
peak voltages from 10 to 20 times the normal
operating values without damaging the tubes or
> grid current Will begin to ?ow.
' During-the time interval from B to C, the plate
current‘ approaches saturation, the plate voltage
1 approaches the voltage of the plate supply, the
grid voltage reaches a positive maximum and
. the grid current remains substantially constant
. at its original value. When plate current sat
Y shortening the lives of the tubes. These. values 65.. uration isreached at the point C, the induc
correspond to peak powers from 100 to 400 times
~the normal. tube rating.v
.In order to' observe the operationof the im
.-pulse. generator ‘an oscillographic analysis was
. made. with the ‘circuit shown in- Fig. 3.
In this
?gure 22 is a high vacuum tube having a plate
"or anode 23, a grid 24am a cathode 25. Con;
; 'nected to the anode 23is an inductance 26, and
.' ‘- the grid 24.; is coupled to. the-inductance, 26 by coil
.128Ishunted‘by resistance 2| .'. @Resistance [9‘ and:
tance Z?discharges producing amaximum of
voltage, the grid voltage suddenly becomes neg-,
ative and "the flow of grid current is stopped.
., After the discharge of the inductance 26 all of
the current" and'voltages except the grid voltage
assume their steady state value, the grid voltage
reaching its steady state value only after-the
' discharge of the grid condenser.
These oscillo
grams bear ,out the series of operations set forth
; in connection withFig. -1.
‘.frequency1 oscillator Piss controlled‘ by ». a negative
impulse '1 from the Iimpulse “generator. 1L In .this
?gure the. oscillator and ? generator rarer substan
{ratio of transformation .and the ccoupling .co
:.tially .theisamez asithose showniin Fig. .1. . Since
:ef?cient 'ihave .considera'blelinfluence :on the Yep
' eration .of .the generator. .It1was.:found:.that ‘for 5 :the negativegimpulsei produced .at the. gridIA-and
\During :the, .oscillographic analysis of itheiim
‘pulselgenerator ‘operation, it wasgfound thatlthe
the positive ‘impulse produced by the coil Glare
..*small .values :of "transformation ratio the grid
produced simultaneously, ‘the Lnegative impulse
.current is excessive;andsubtracts from the‘ plate
‘which is Iappliedto'ithe oscillator must bedelayed.
current. .For large valueskof transformation ratio
The negative ‘impulse ‘may, -.for . example; be. ap
the grid excitationisinsumcient. InJorder to
obtain a maximum value of peak plate current, 10 pliedlto the grids 42.=and'43zbyimeans_of block
.ing condenser :B?iandthettime delay :circuit con
.Iiprefer to use ‘transformation :ratios ‘between
0.5 and 0.8.
sisting oficoil 5| :and :condenser "52 ~ connected
toJcne-end ofresistahcel?. The time delayin
:The leakage reactance-of-the coupling trans
-troduced 'may :be regulated 'by :adjusting the
,fo'rmer .a?ects both'theclengl'th oflthe charging
,period and‘ the ratio of ithe, plate voltage to. the 15 .values rofithezcoil-‘iliand the condenser 52. ‘The
ratioiof the coil ‘5| to the condenserf52iis pref
grid voltage. 'I“ have 'found that .thelbestoper
- erably i substantially equal to ‘the squared 1 value
ating results are not obtained with coupling
vofi‘the resistanceill?. ‘The/condenser '53'is aiby
values near unity. -By1-lowering thecoe?icient
:pass vcondenser. Although I: have shown'the
of ‘coupling ‘slightly-that is,’by introducing an
appreciable amount of leakage reactance, the 20 v'timinglcircuit 9, ill! in ‘series ‘with '~ the cathode,
itisitobeiunderstood that I stilllconsi‘der that
moment at which the grid voltage reaches its
the inductance 6 and the source'l ‘are connected
peak value ‘will be retarded. It is desirable that
in serieszbetweenzthe-anode 3 and-‘the cathode 5.
the grid voltage and the anode voltage increase
.While I'have'described particular embodiments
simultaneously 'for under this condition .high
‘peak currents are obtained. The leakage reac 2510i myinvention, forx'purposes of illustration, ‘it
will be understood that warious modi?cations
tance provides a convenient means for regulat
thereof maybe made without departingirom the
ing the relation between the anode voltage and
scope of my invention.
the grid voltage. I have found that preferable
, .values for the coe’?icient of coupling arebetween
approximately 0.6 and 09.
If the transformer has a transformationratio
of approximately 1/2 and if no precautions are
‘ What I claim is:
-1. A pulse‘ transmitter comprising an ‘oscillator
comprising a vacuum :tube‘having-alpower elec
trode,_an electronemissive electrode and a con
trol electrode, an output circuit coupled-to-said
“taken-the grid'voltage'during the discharge of
‘power-‘electrode,v an? input "circuit ‘coupled to "said
‘the-inductance ~26 w'ill'be approximately equal
‘to done-half oithe-instantaneous plate voltage. 35 contro1'electrode and=meansforieeding energy
from'i'said output-tolsaidlinputr‘circuit, means for
‘Suchahigh grid voltage=wil1~ cause arc-over vbe
‘ supplying operatingipotential Ito-said! power’ elec
tween-the ?lament and the grid. of the tube and
trodes comprising an impulse generator compris
‘willllower the maximum peak voltage obtain
ing a vacuum tube having ani'lanode, arcontrol
able. ~For cut-oi? at the peak plate voltagev it is
*only necessary that the grid voltage'be ‘equal 40 electrodeand an electron emissiveelectrode, an
vto-the peak'plate divided-by the ampli?cation
i output circuit coupled to‘ said anode, “an input
‘factor or the‘ tube.
» circuit coupled t'o'said grid‘ and means for feeding
The ampli?cation 4 factor of
energy lfromisaidlast+mentioned output circuit
to said last-mentioned ‘input circuit, anddirect
‘the-‘grid voltage may be'reduced to-a'valuelless v45 current/#eonnections ‘for coupling said last-men
tubes commonlyemployed‘iniamplifiers is usu
‘ally < considerably more — than two.
" than< one-half'of- the - anode voltage.
'In accordance with'my invention, I provide
a resistance 2| connected across the terminal ‘of
tioned - output circuit to‘ the‘ power electrode of
_»said oscillator.
. 2. 'A pulse transmitter comprising an'oscillator
comprising " a vacuum vtube having .an :anode, a
the-‘grid coil128 of the transformer~-2B—‘-‘28 shown
‘in -Fig.'~3. Due tothe effect vof the transformer '50 control-grid and a'cathode, a- tuned‘input circuit
‘leakage reactance, the resistance T2! across the
‘grid ‘coil will cause the negative grid" impulse vto
I connected to said control grid, a tuned'output cir
cuit connected ‘to said anode-and meansv for .feed
ing‘ energy from said output‘circuit to said input
v.circuit, ‘an impulse ‘generator ‘comprising ‘a vac
‘55 ‘uumitube-having-Ian anode, a- controlgrid and a
~~ coil; 26.
“cathode, an Zinductanceconnected in series with
‘The 'use‘of the resistance "2| ‘in the grid cir
said generator anode and cathode, means for
“cuithas the added advantagethat-oscillations
v‘be'lli-rnited'to‘the desired value-‘without changing
‘the maximum voltage obtainable‘across the‘ plate
in the grid circuit‘may'be ‘substantially elim
coupling said ‘inductance 'to said generator grid
"inated. It has been» found‘ that unless a resistance
a-anditirning means vconnected between a said gen
‘similar to the‘resistance 2| is-employed,.oscilla 50 erator. gridian'd cathode, and direct vcurrent con
vtions‘may continue in the grid circuit after'the
--'discharge of the inductance ~26. With the ‘re
---sistance it in the ‘circuit, the grid voltage will
.vnecting ‘ means for .connecting in coupling rela
> tioni-said ‘oscillator anode tov the junctionotsaid
inductance andisaid generatorv anode.
3. A pulse Itransmitter according to :claim
‘increase-smoothly'in the positive direction after
‘the 'discharge’c‘f the inductance,<~and'therefore, 65 wherein’ said means for coupling :saicl inductance
"the ‘regularity of the'pulsing cycle'will be as
and said ‘timing’. means ‘arefrespectively 'a- coil in
ductively coupled to saidifinductancev'anda con
The? length of ‘the ‘transmitted ‘ high frequency
- denser and i’resistance.iin-rparallel, ;-said :coupling
pulse" may be controlledby applying 'a negative
.imeansi and said timing emeans ;being.connected
“impulse'to the grid of the-oscillator. Therefore, 70 :in series between ;said generator :cathode rand
. said generator grid.
1-in1accor’dance with affurther'feature of my in—
4. A: pulse Ltransmittericomprising . a'.push-pu1l
vverition I -'-employ the negative impulse which
V oscillator-comprising! a - pair ofivacuum tubes .each
controls the impulse generator for controlling
having Jan vIanoole, Ia “grid. ‘and :a 1 cathode, :.said
the high frequency oscillator. ‘Fig. '5'i1lustrates
one embodiment of my invention wherein high 75 "anode and 'said .gridlbeing :capacitively xzcoupled.
tuned lecher wires connected between the anodes
of said tubes, tuned lecher wires connected be
tioned coil to the magnitude of said further con
tween the grids of said tubes, biasing means con
nected between said grid lecher wires and a com
mon ground point and means for connecting said
cathodes together and to said common ground
point, an impulse generator comprising a vac
value of the magnitude of said biasing resistance.
8. A pulse transmittercomprising an oscillator
comprising an input circuit, an output circuit,
denser being substantially equal to the squared
a vacuum tube having a power electrode, means
for connecting said circuits to said vacuum tube
uum tube having an anode, a grid and a cathode,
and means for feeding regenerative energy from
an inductance coil connected between said gen
said output circuit to said input circuit, an im
erator anode and said common ground point, a 10 pulse generator comprising a vacuum tube hav
resistance and a condenser in parallel forming
ing an anode, a control electrode and a cathode,
a timing circuit, a coil inductively coupled to said
means for coupling said anode to said control
inductance, a resistive impedance connected in
electrode, an inductance, a source of direct cur
parallel with said coil, said coil and resistive im
rent energy, means for connecting said source
pedance vforming a coupling circuit and said cou 15 and said inductance in series and to said anode,
pling circuit and said timing circuit being con
said impulse generator producing a series of im
nected in series between said generator grid and
pulses having a ‘peak voltage greater than the
said generator cathode, a source of energy supply
and means for connecting said source between
voltage of said direct current source and means
for feeding said impulses to said power electrode
said generator cathode and said common ground 20 of said oscillator comprising a conductive connec
point, and means for connecting for direct cur
tion ‘from said power electrode to the end of said
rent coupling the end of said inductance con
nected to said generator anode to said anode
lecher wires.
‘ inductance connected to said anode.
9. A pulse transmitter comprising an oscillator
comprising a vacuum tube having an‘ anode, a‘
5. A pulse transmitter comprising an oscillator 25 control grid and a cathode, a tuned input circuit
connected between said cathode and said grid, a
tuned output circuit connected between said cath
cuit connected to said control grid, a tuned out
ode ‘and said anode, and means for feeding re
put circuit connected to said anode and means
generative energy from said output circuit to
for feeding energy from said output circuit to 30 said inputcircuit, an impulse generator com
said input circuit, an impulse, generator compris
prising a vacuum tube having an anode, a con
ing a vacuum tube having an anode, a control
trol grid and a'cathode, an inductance, a source
grid and a cathode, an inductance connected in
of direct current energy, means for connecting
series with said generator anode, means for cou
said source and said inductance in series be
pling said inductance to said generator grid and 35 tween said anode and said cathode, a coupling
timing means connected at the cathode terminal
coil inductively coupled to said inductance, the
of said generator to control the potential of said
transformation ratio and the coe?icient of cou
generator grid, direct current connecting means
pling between said inductance and said coil
for connecting said oscillator anode to the junc
being between 0.5 and 0.8 and 0.6 and 0.9 re
tion of said inductance and said generator anode, 40 spectively, a timing circuit comprising a con
comprising a vacuum tube having an anode, a
control grid and a cathode, a tuned input cir
and a time delay network connected between said
oscillator grid and said generator grid.~
6. A pulse transmitter according to claim 4
further comprising a time-delay network con
nected between said grid lecher wires and said
generator grid, said net-work comprising a block
ing condenser and a coil connected in series be
tween said generator grid and said grid lecher
wires and a further condenser connected between
said last-mentioned coil and said common ground -
7. A pulse transmitter according to claim 4
wherein said oscillator biasing means comprises
a resistance and further comprising a time-delay ~
network connected between said grid lecher wires
and said generator grid, said network compris
ing a condenser and a coil connected in series
between said generator grid and said grid lecher
denser and a resistance connected in parallel,
means for connecting said coil and said circuit
in series between said grid and said cathode,
a further resistance, means for connecting said
further resistance in parallel with said coil,
means for connecting said oscillator anode to the
end of said inductance connected to said gen
erator anode, and means for connecting said os
cillator cathode to the other end of said induct
10. A pulse transmitter comprising an oscillator,
a vacuum tube in said oscillator having a power
electrode, an electron emissive cathode and a con
trol electrode, an impulse generator, means for
feeding positive impulses from said generator to
said power electrode and means for feeding
negative impulses to one of said electrodes, said
latter means comprising a time delay circuit to
delay said negative impulses with respect to said
wires and a further condenser connected between
said last-mentioned coil and said common ground 60 positive impulses.
point, the ratio of the magnitude of the last men
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