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’ Sept. Z4, 1946..
E-„LABIN ET AL
2,408,079
PULSE DIscRIMINAToR
Filed June 19, 1944 `
3 Sheets-Sheet l
Sept. 24, 1946.
E. LABIN Erm'.
2,408,079
PULSE DISGRIMINATOR
Filed June 19,*1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
vB,ñi
¿umum-Q .â.
BY
Sept, 24, 1946.
‘
_
' E. LABIN ETAL
PULSE
`
DISQRIMINATOR
.
v
Filed June 19, 1944 '
2,408,079
,
_
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
BY
l
‘
ATMP/VW
2,408,079
3
output pulse wave form which may be present in
the mixer output due to the combination of the
signals from clippers 4 and 5. Any signal thus
obtainable from filter 3 is then utilized as a
deblocking signal in combination with the orig
inal input pulses applied to a mixer circuit 9.
The signal obtained in this manner is, applied
4
pulse frequency bears a functional relationship
t0 the pulse shape characteristics, as is well
known by the Fourier teaching. It becomes ap
parent from the preceding, therefore, that, for a
given frequency F1 for the tuned. circuit 2|, the
amplitudes of the sine Waves are a function of the
ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity (W/T) .
to a demodulator Ill which acts to demodulate
It will be noticed that the sine waves due to
to audio the incoming time-modulated pulse sig
nals, the desired ratio of pulse width to pulse
pulses I4 and Iâ have been shown to have the
same amplitude although pulse I6 has double the
width of pulse I4. Pulses I4,1I5, I6 and I'I are
seen to occur with the frequencies F1, F2, F3 (equal
cadence of which is now properly distinguished
from pulse series having other ratios that may be Y
present.
In order to be able to accurately synchronize
the deblocking signal with the desired incoming
pulse seriesy the delay circuit 3, which is adjust
able, is employed to shift the phase of the sine
to 1/2‘ F1) and F1, respectively. Since the output
of the circuit 2| will contain substantially only
the F1 component, that being its tuned frequency,
any variations in the amplitude of the various
sine waves will loe a function of the ratio of pulse ~
Width-to-periodicity, as explained above. The
amplitude of the Wave Iâb will therefore be sub
As an illustration of a specific embodiment of 20 stantially equal to that of I4b, since the charac
teristic ratio of width to period for the pulse
the invention, the circuit of Fig. 2 will now be
series I4 and I5, is identical. Assume, however,
described:
.
that the ratio of width W1 to pulse periodicity T1
The incoming pulse train may consist of sev
is the desired ratio, since rpulse series I4 and I6
eral dilferent pulse series as exemplified in curve
are both of this ratio, the pulses thereof will be
a of Fig. 3 by pulses I4, I5, I6 and I1, the differ
segregated from the train of pulses of curve a.
ent series differing in pulse widths W1 and W2
wave output of the selector circuit 2 with respect
to the original pulse signal.
It is to be noted that the Waves shown in curve
and repetition rates indicated by the periods T1,
b represent a steady state condition attained in
T2, and T3, as shown. For illustrative purposes,
the` circuit ZI after a period of operation. The
W2 has been chosen as being twice that of W1,
while T2 is a fraction larger than T1, T3 being 30 sinevvaveform obtained from the circuit 2|, is
passed through the phase shifter 3, which is de
equal to twice T1. By means of the screen grid
coupled from the circuit 2I by means of the re
tube II, the pulses applied thereto through cou
sistance 20 and may comprise, in addition, as
pling elements I2 and I3, are subjected to a peak
shown in Fig. 2. a capacity `23 and a variable re
limiting action, whereby the amplitudes of the
pulses may be reduced to a uniform maximum 35 sistor 24 employed for effecting the adjustment
in phase, as referred to above.
value indicated by line I9 in curve 3a. The uni
Sine wave energy from the phase shifter 3 is
form amplitude pulses coming out of tube l I are
applied rby means of leads 25 and 26 to the gate
applied to a tunable circuit 2l, comprised of a
clipper circuits 4 and 5. respectively. Each of the
variable capacity C and an inductance L. The
circuit 2l which has preferably a high Q, may 40 gate clippers comprises a nair of negatively biased
clipper tubes in cascade. the tubes of gate 4 being
be tuned to a frequency F1 represented by the
indicated by references 21 and 28. while those of
period T1 where the pulse series I4 or I6 is
gate 5 are referred to by 29 and 3B. respectively.
desired.
The action of the gate clippers is quite conven
The individual pulse series are each effective in
tional and is illustrated in curve c. where it is
exciting the tuned circuit ZI to produce a sine
shown applied to the sine wave energy output oi'
wave having a frequency F1 and having an ampli
the tuned circuit 2l. For the purpose of facili
tude which is proportional to the ratio of pulse
tating the explanation of the clipping action. the
width W to the period of recurrence T. Sine
sine waves at different levels of amplitude have
waves, such as effected |by the pulses of curve a.
are shown in curve h being designated by I4b, 50 been shown in curve c as being in phase.
gate clipping action of clipper 4 is effective be
i517. Ißb and I'Ib, respectively, This will be un
tween the levels (I) and (2). while the clipper 5
derstood when it is recalled that in accordance
acts between levels (3) and (4). these effects be
with the teachings of Fourier’s wave analysis, pe
ing achieved lov the appropriately adjustable grid
riodic or cyclical voltages or currents having some
other shape than a pure sinusoid will have the 55 biases, as indicated at C-m, C---m` C-m and
C-(ii, respectively. It is to be noted that the
same total effect in setting up currents or other
action of the gate clippers is to be thought of as
responses as that obtained by combining the indi
being effective with respect to each of the sine
vidual responses due tc the individual component
waves separately since only one pulse series at
pure sinusoids, into which the non-sinusoidal
60 a time is accepted bv the circuit due to the reflex
voltage may be resolved.
blocking action indicated in the circuit diagram,
The pulses may be thought of as having been
The Width of the respective sine wave sections
broken down into sinusoidal wave components of
obtained from the clippers may be varied within
various frequencies, only the F1 component of
given limits by adjusting the bias accordingly.
which, however, appears across the tuned cir
The significance of this ability to adjust the
cuit because of the highly selective response of
widths of the clipped sections will become ap
the circuit 2I with respect to frequency F1. The
parent at a later point.
sine wave output for any pulse of a given width
From inspection of curve c, it will be apparent
will be proportional to the magnitude of its re
that the gate clipper 5 will not be productive of
spective F1 component, which becomes greater
the closer Tp, i. e. the pulse periodicity, ap 70 any output unless the sine Waves applied thereto
have an amplitude at least extending above level
proaches T1, the period to which the selective cir
cuit _is tuned.
(3), while clipper 4 is effective only with repect
The other factor aifecting the sine wave out
put is of course the Width W of the pulses. The
to sine waves extending above the level (I).
The output of `clipper 5 is fed to a polarity in
version circuit ß which may take the form of a
amplitude of the harmonics of the fundamental
2,408,079
5
6
conventional .amplier tube I3tl, as shown.' The
outputs of tubes 128 .and 3`l,`as obtained from the
tion ion the 4scope of the invention ras set Vforth
in .the objects and‘in the accompanying claims.
We claim.:
.1. A system for segregating -a pulse series hav
ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse peri
l‘"'odicity from a train of mixed pulse series of
same sine wave, are then .applied to ¿the .control
grids of tubes 32 andßìrespectively, of the mixer
circuit 'l'. The tubes 32 and 33, ‘making :up the
mixer combination, are connected in push-pull
input fashion, but with `the .outputs in parallel,
various -.ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity
so that their combined output will be the sum
comprising -means tunable for producing waves
of a selec-tedfrequency in response to the pulses
of the two input signals.
~
^ f
'I'he combination of the gate clip-pers 4 and >El,
with the inverter E, and the mixer 1, which indi
of said waves being. equal to or some division of
vidually, of course may take other suitable forms,
are thus seen to produce an outputv only for sine
" waves having their peaks between levels (l) and
the pulse periodicityv of the pulse series having
-said given ratio and the amplitude of each wave
being determined by the pulse width land peri
of the `different series'in said train, the period
(3) `of the clipper circuits 4 and 5.' `'I‘hisis ap
15 odicity of the corresponding pulse series, means ,
.. for segregating from said waves, portions of the
parent, since the clippers eliminate >anyfsignal be
low level (l), and the signal resulting vfrom tubes
wave resulting from the pulse series of said
3l and 28, for any :sine wave extending above
given ratio, means for 'mixing said portions with
level (3), will balance out due to inversion by
~ the pulses of said train, and means_for clipping
circuit G of any output of clipper -5 and its com 20 the resulting pulse energy when pulses of said
bination with a substantially equal and opposite
train coincide with said wave portions.
output fromclipper 4.
^ '
'
2. A system for segregating a pulse series hav
ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse peri
' This is illustarted by curves d to h, where (d)
and (e) show the output of clippers 4ïand 5 re
odicity from a train of mixed pulse series of
spectively, for an input corresponding to the sine 25 various ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity
waves l4c and |60, the resultant at the mixer out- .
comprising means tunable for producing waves
put terminals «being that shown in curve d. ` in
of a selected frequency in response to the pulses
of the different series in said train, the period
of said waves being equal vto or some division of
curve f is shown the output pulse due to sine
wave llc of rclipper 4 which, when combined with
the inverted output of clipper E, as -seen in >curve
` 30
g, results in a high frequency ripple output (curve '
the pulse periodicity of the pulse series having
said given ratio and the amplitude of each wave
h). By passing the output of the'rnixeri ‘7 through
the low-pass ñlter 8, any such high frequency
being determined by the pulse width and peri
odicity of the corresponding pulse series, means
components are eliminated.
, i
including a gate clipping circuit for segregating
A tetrode 34 may perform the function of a 35 from said waves, portions of the wave having
mixer for serving to combine the pulse coming
amplitudes above a given lower level and less than
from the nlter 8 and the original signal by their
a- given upper level; and means for clipping the
application to grids 35 and 35 of the tetrode‘34
resulting pulse energy when pulses of said train
through leads 3l and 38, respectively. Byproper
coincide with said wave portions. .
‘
adjustment of the phase shifter control' 24, device 40
3. A system for segregating a pulse series hav
»3, Figs. 1 and 2, the pulse ’from filter 8 may be
made to assume the correctçphase relation with
respect tothe original incoming pulses so that it
may properly fulfill its function as a'deblocking
pulse for the pulse signal of the desired ratio,
ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse perio
dicity from a train of mixed pulse series of vari
ous ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity com
prising means tunable for producing waves of a
selected frequency in responseto the pulses of the
as indicated in curve i. As regards the pulse train
of curve a the system will separate bot-hof the
pulse series i4 and i6 as is clearly `apparent from
waves iâ‘b and |519 of curve b. The >clipper circuit
waves being equal to or some division of the
given ratio and the amplitude of each wave being
_4 is so designed as to provide the deblockingsig
nal with the properly adjustable width vfor 'the'
determined by the pulse width and periodicity of
the corresponding pulse series; iirst gate clip
different series in said train, the period of said
pulse periodicity of the pulse series having said
' pulse to assume any position with respect there
per means for acting on a relatively lower sec
to within the time modulation interval indicated
by t, (curve i), without ‘impairment of its de
blocking function. Y The clipper 5 is similarly'ad
tion of said waves; second gate clipper means for
acting on‘an Yupper section of said waves; means
55
justa'ble in order to facilitate the» balancing out
of its output with that of clipper 4.
_
to' segregate from the output o_f said two gate
. f
The desired incoming signal thus selectively
deblocked, is then applied to a demodulator I il,
, which. may be of any known form capable' of
co
translating time displacement modulation into >
, amplitude displacements for reproduction of the
audio in the usual manner. The »bias of the mixer
tube Sil may lbe made such- as to apply a threshold
clipping operation to the deblocked pulses as in
dicated at 46.
l
`
'
f
From the foregoing description, it is clear that
any pulse sequence ¿havingia given ratio of width
to-periodicity may be selectively deblocked Yfor
any desired utilization thereof. '
'
'
f
While we have discussed our invention in con
for combining'the outputs for any wave of said
ñrst and said vsecond gate clipper means; means
means, sections of waves having amplitudes at
least Within said lower section and less than said
upper section; and means for clipping the ren
sulting pulse energy when pulses of said train
coincide with said wave portions.
`
4. A system for segregating a pulse series hav--
ing> a given ratio of pulse width to pulse perio
dicity from a train of mixed pulse series of vari
ous ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity com
prising means tunable for producing waves of a
Y selected frequency in response to `the pulses of
the different series in said train, the period of
said Waves being equal to or some division of the
pulse periodicity of the pulse series having said
given'v ratio and the amplitude of each wave being
determined by the pulse width and periodicity of
the corresponding pulse series; first gate clipper
nection with a specific circuit> arrangement, it
should-be distinctly understood that »this embodi
ment of the invention is “not ‘intended as a limita 75 means for acting on a relatively lower section of
2,408,079
7
8
said Waves; second gate clipper means for acting
applying the resultant as a deblocking signal to
on an upper section of said Waves; means for
the original train of mixed pulse series.
1l. A method of selectively segregating a pulse
series having a given ratio of pulse width to pulse
inverting in phase the output of said second
named clipper means; means for combining the
outputs of said first clipper means and said phase
inverting means, whereby sections of waves Will
be segregated due to Waves having amplitudes at
least within said lower 'section `and less than said
upper section; and means for clipping the re
periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series of
various ratios 0f pulse width to pulse periodicity,
comprising limit clipping the train of pulses to
provide constant amplitude for the pulses, shock
exciting by means of the pulses a resonant cir
sulting pulse energy when pulses of said train 10 cuit tuned to a frequency the period of which is
equal to or some division of the pulse periodicity
coincide with said Wave portions.
'
of a pulse series having said given ratio to pro
5. The system defined in claim 3, wherein said
vide as a steady state condition a plurality of
first named gate means comprises a first level
sine waves at the tuned frequency which are ’
and a second level clipper means for obtaining
a lower section of the sine waves, and said sec 15 proportional in their amplitudes to the respective
ratios of pulse Width to pulse periodicity, gate
ond named gate means comprises a third level
and a fourth level clipper means for obtaining
an upper section of said sine Waves,
clipping each sine wave at a given level to elimi
nate the waves having an amplitude less than said
given level, gate clipping each sine wave at a
6. The system defined inclaim 4, wherein said
phase inverting means comprises an amplifier.
20 higher level than said given level, inverting in
phase the result of said higher level gate clip
7. The system deñned in claim 3, wherein said
ping operation,V combiningA the signal obtained
means for combining comprises a mixer circuit.
from said first clipping and the phase inverted
8. A system for segregating a pulse series Ihavsignal of the higher level gate clipping operation
ing a given ratio of pulse Width to pulse perio
dicity from a train of mixed pulse series of vari 25 to effect a balancing out of any signal due to
waves having an amplitude high enough to be
ous ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity, com
productive of a signal after the higher level gate
prising pulse peak limiter means; tuned frequency'
clipping, filtering out any high frequency compo
circuit means for providing sine waves at the
nents that may result from the balancing out
tuned frequency in response to said pulses in
operative connection with said first named 30 operation, and combining the original pulse train
with the product of the filtering operation to
means; sine wave phase adjustment means; lower
thereby selectively deblock the pulse train with
respect to those pulses having the desired ratio
of pulse width to pulse periodicity.
of said two gate clipping means being connected
to receive its input from said phase adjustment 35
l2. The method defined in Claim ll, including
the step of adjusting the phase of the deblocking
means; means for inverting in phase the output
section sine wave gate clipping means, upper sec
tion sine Wave gate clipping means, at least one
of said upper section gate means; means for com
signal With respect to the pulse train for selec
bining the outputs of said ñrst named gate `clip
tive deblocking thereof.
'
per means and said phase inverting means; loW
13. The method defined in claim 1l, wherein
pass filter means for receiving the output of said 40 the pulses are signal modulated in respect to time,
means for combining; mixing means for combin
including the step of making the Width of the
ing the signal from said fil-ter means with the
signal from said source; and means for clipping
the resulting pulse energy.
9. In a system having a resonant circuit for>
selectively segregating a pulse series having a
deblocking signal suflicient to accommodate any
shift of the signal pulses due to time modulation.
14. A system for segregating pulse series hav
ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity
from a train of mixed pulse series of various ra
given ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity
tios of pulse width to pulse periodicity, compris
from a train of mixed pulse series of various ra
ing means for translating the pulses of the dif
ferent pulse series of said train into waves, the
amplitude of each Wave being proportional to the
relationship of the ratio of theV corresponding
tios of pulse width to pulse periodicity, the meth
od comprising tuning said resonant circuit to a
frequency the period of which is equal to 0r some
division of the pulse periodicity of a pulse se
ries having said given ratio, the amplitude of
each wave being determined by the pulse width
pulse series With respect to said given ratio,
means yfor obtaining from said waves, pulse por
tions of the wave resulting from pulse series hav
and periodicity of the corresponding pulse series, 55 ing said given ratio, and means responsive to said
segregating from said waves, portions of the wave
pulse portions for separating from said train pulse
resulting from the pulse series of said given ratio,
series having said given ratio.
mixing said portions with the pulses of said train
15. A system for segregating energy of pulse
to elevate the pulses thereof occurring in coinci
series having a given ratio of pulse Width to
dence with said portions, and clipping the ele 60 pulse periodicity from a train of mixed pulse
vated pulse energy, thereby obtaining pulses of
series of various ratios of pulse width to pulse
the series having said given ratio.
periodicity, comprising means for translating the
10. A method of selectivity segregating a pulse
pulses of the different pulse series of said train
series having a given ratio of pulse Width t0 pulse
periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series of 65 into Waves, the amplitude of each Wave being pro
portional to the relationship of the ratio of the
various ratios of pulse Width to pulse periodicity,
correspondingpulse series withl respect to said
comprising generating Waves of a frequency the
given ratio, and means for obtaining from said
period of which is edual to or some division ofthe
waves, pulse portions of the Wave or waves re
pulse periodicity of a pulse series having said
given ratio in response to said mixed pulse series, 70 sulting from pulse series of said given ratio.
16. A system according to claim l5 further in
said waves having amplitudes proportional to the
cluding means for mixing said pulse portions with
respective ratios of pulse Width to pulse peri
said train of pulses for segregation of the pulses
odicity, segregating for separating purposes por
of those series having said given ratio and means
tions of Waves having amplitudes above a given
lower level and less than a given upper level, and 75 to shift said waves in phase to align said pulse
2,408,079
10
18. A method of selectively segregating energy
of pulse series having a given ratio of pulse width
portions With the pulses of those series having
said given ratio.
‘
17. A method of selectively segregating pulse
to pulse periodicity from a train of mixed pulse
series having a given ratio of pulse width to pulse
periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series
' series of various ratios of pulse Width to pulse
of Various ratios of pulse Width to pulse peri
odicity, comprising translating the pulses of each
each series into a wave, the amplitude of each
Wave being proportional to the relationship of
the ratio of the corresponding pulse series with
respect to said given ratio, obtaining from the
resulting Waves pulse portions corresponding to
the pulse series having said givenV ratio, and em
ploying said pulse portions for selective segrega
series into a Wave, the amplitude of each Wave
being proportional to the relationship of the ra
tio of the corresponding pulse series with re
spect to said given ratio, selecting from the re
sulting waves, pulse portions thereof correspond- '
ing to the pulse series having said given ratio,
and applying said pulse portions to the train of
mixed pulse series for segregating the pulses of 15
the pulse series having said given ratio.
periodicity, comprising translating the pulses of
V tion.
EMILE LABIN.
DONALD D. GRIEG.
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