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’ Sept. Z4, 1946.. E-„LABIN ET AL 2,408,079 PULSE DIscRIMINAToR Filed June 19, 1944 ` 3 Sheets-Sheet l Sept. 24, 1946. E. LABIN Erm'. 2,408,079 PULSE DISGRIMINATOR Filed June 19,*1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 vB,ñi ¿umum-Q .â. BY Sept, 24, 1946. ‘ _ ' E. LABIN ETAL PULSE ` DISQRIMINATOR . v Filed June 19, 1944 ' 2,408,079 , _ 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 BY l ‘ ATMP/VW 2,408,079 3 output pulse wave form which may be present in the mixer output due to the combination of the signals from clippers 4 and 5. Any signal thus obtainable from filter 3 is then utilized as a deblocking signal in combination with the orig inal input pulses applied to a mixer circuit 9. The signal obtained in this manner is, applied 4 pulse frequency bears a functional relationship t0 the pulse shape characteristics, as is well known by the Fourier teaching. It becomes ap parent from the preceding, therefore, that, for a given frequency F1 for the tuned. circuit 2|, the amplitudes of the sine Waves are a function of the ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity (W/T) . to a demodulator Ill which acts to demodulate It will be noticed that the sine waves due to to audio the incoming time-modulated pulse sig nals, the desired ratio of pulse width to pulse pulses I4 and Iâ have been shown to have the same amplitude although pulse I6 has double the width of pulse I4. Pulses I4,1I5, I6 and I'I are seen to occur with the frequencies F1, F2, F3 (equal cadence of which is now properly distinguished from pulse series having other ratios that may be Y present. In order to be able to accurately synchronize the deblocking signal with the desired incoming pulse seriesy the delay circuit 3, which is adjust able, is employed to shift the phase of the sine to 1/2‘ F1) and F1, respectively. Since the output of the circuit 2| will contain substantially only the F1 component, that being its tuned frequency, any variations in the amplitude of the various sine waves will loe a function of the ratio of pulse ~ Width-to-periodicity, as explained above. The amplitude of the Wave Iâb will therefore be sub As an illustration of a specific embodiment of 20 stantially equal to that of I4b, since the charac teristic ratio of width to period for the pulse the invention, the circuit of Fig. 2 will now be series I4 and I5, is identical. Assume, however, described: . that the ratio of width W1 to pulse periodicity T1 The incoming pulse train may consist of sev is the desired ratio, since rpulse series I4 and I6 eral dilferent pulse series as exemplified in curve are both of this ratio, the pulses thereof will be a of Fig. 3 by pulses I4, I5, I6 and I1, the differ segregated from the train of pulses of curve a. ent series differing in pulse widths W1 and W2 wave output of the selector circuit 2 with respect to the original pulse signal. It is to be noted that the Waves shown in curve and repetition rates indicated by the periods T1, b represent a steady state condition attained in T2, and T3, as shown. For illustrative purposes, the` circuit ZI after a period of operation. The W2 has been chosen as being twice that of W1, while T2 is a fraction larger than T1, T3 being 30 sinevvaveform obtained from the circuit 2|, is passed through the phase shifter 3, which is de equal to twice T1. By means of the screen grid coupled from the circuit 2I by means of the re tube II, the pulses applied thereto through cou sistance 20 and may comprise, in addition, as pling elements I2 and I3, are subjected to a peak shown in Fig. 2. a capacity `23 and a variable re limiting action, whereby the amplitudes of the pulses may be reduced to a uniform maximum 35 sistor 24 employed for effecting the adjustment in phase, as referred to above. value indicated by line I9 in curve 3a. The uni Sine wave energy from the phase shifter 3 is form amplitude pulses coming out of tube l I are applied rby means of leads 25 and 26 to the gate applied to a tunable circuit 2l, comprised of a clipper circuits 4 and 5. respectively. Each of the variable capacity C and an inductance L. The circuit 2l which has preferably a high Q, may 40 gate clippers comprises a nair of negatively biased clipper tubes in cascade. the tubes of gate 4 being be tuned to a frequency F1 represented by the indicated by references 21 and 28. while those of period T1 where the pulse series I4 or I6 is gate 5 are referred to by 29 and 3B. respectively. desired. The action of the gate clippers is quite conven The individual pulse series are each effective in tional and is illustrated in curve c. where it is exciting the tuned circuit ZI to produce a sine shown applied to the sine wave energy output oi' wave having a frequency F1 and having an ampli the tuned circuit 2l. For the purpose of facili tude which is proportional to the ratio of pulse tating the explanation of the clipping action. the width W to the period of recurrence T. Sine sine waves at different levels of amplitude have waves, such as effected |by the pulses of curve a. are shown in curve h being designated by I4b, 50 been shown in curve c as being in phase. gate clipping action of clipper 4 is effective be i517. Ißb and I'Ib, respectively, This will be un tween the levels (I) and (2). while the clipper 5 derstood when it is recalled that in accordance acts between levels (3) and (4). these effects be with the teachings of Fourier’s wave analysis, pe ing achieved lov the appropriately adjustable grid riodic or cyclical voltages or currents having some other shape than a pure sinusoid will have the 55 biases, as indicated at C-m, C---m` C-m and C-(ii, respectively. It is to be noted that the same total effect in setting up currents or other action of the gate clippers is to be thought of as responses as that obtained by combining the indi being effective with respect to each of the sine vidual responses due tc the individual component waves separately since only one pulse series at pure sinusoids, into which the non-sinusoidal 60 a time is accepted bv the circuit due to the reflex voltage may be resolved. blocking action indicated in the circuit diagram, The pulses may be thought of as having been The Width of the respective sine wave sections broken down into sinusoidal wave components of obtained from the clippers may be varied within various frequencies, only the F1 component of given limits by adjusting the bias accordingly. which, however, appears across the tuned cir The significance of this ability to adjust the cuit because of the highly selective response of widths of the clipped sections will become ap the circuit 2I with respect to frequency F1. The parent at a later point. sine wave output for any pulse of a given width From inspection of curve c, it will be apparent will be proportional to the magnitude of its re that the gate clipper 5 will not be productive of spective F1 component, which becomes greater the closer Tp, i. e. the pulse periodicity, ap 70 any output unless the sine Waves applied thereto have an amplitude at least extending above level proaches T1, the period to which the selective cir cuit _is tuned. (3), while clipper 4 is effective only with repect The other factor aifecting the sine wave out put is of course the Width W of the pulses. The to sine waves extending above the level (I). The output of `clipper 5 is fed to a polarity in version circuit ß which may take the form of a amplitude of the harmonics of the fundamental 2,408,079 5 6 conventional .amplier tube I3tl, as shown.' The outputs of tubes 128 .and 3`l,`as obtained from the tion ion the 4scope of the invention ras set Vforth in .the objects and‘in the accompanying claims. We claim.: .1. A system for segregating -a pulse series hav ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse peri l‘"'odicity from a train of mixed pulse series of same sine wave, are then .applied to ¿the .control grids of tubes 32 andßìrespectively, of the mixer circuit 'l'. The tubes 32 and 33, ‘making :up the mixer combination, are connected in push-pull input fashion, but with `the .outputs in parallel, various -.ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity so that their combined output will be the sum comprising -means tunable for producing waves of a selec-tedfrequency in response to the pulses of the two input signals. ~ ^ f 'I'he combination of the gate clip-pers 4 and >El, with the inverter E, and the mixer 1, which indi of said waves being. equal to or some division of vidually, of course may take other suitable forms, are thus seen to produce an outputv only for sine " waves having their peaks between levels (l) and the pulse periodicityv of the pulse series having -said given ratio and the amplitude of each wave being determined by the pulse width land peri of the `different series'in said train, the period (3) `of the clipper circuits 4 and 5.' `'I‘hisis ap 15 odicity of the corresponding pulse series, means , .. for segregating from said waves, portions of the parent, since the clippers eliminate >anyfsignal be low level (l), and the signal resulting vfrom tubes wave resulting from the pulse series of said 3l and 28, for any :sine wave extending above given ratio, means for 'mixing said portions with level (3), will balance out due to inversion by ~ the pulses of said train, and means_for clipping circuit G of any output of clipper -5 and its com 20 the resulting pulse energy when pulses of said bination with a substantially equal and opposite train coincide with said wave portions. output fromclipper 4. ^ ' ' 2. A system for segregating a pulse series hav ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse peri ' This is illustarted by curves d to h, where (d) and (e) show the output of clippers 4ïand 5 re odicity from a train of mixed pulse series of spectively, for an input corresponding to the sine 25 various ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity waves l4c and |60, the resultant at the mixer out- . comprising means tunable for producing waves put terminals «being that shown in curve d. ` in of a selected frequency in response to the pulses of the different series in said train, the period of said waves being equal vto or some division of curve f is shown the output pulse due to sine wave llc of rclipper 4 which, when combined with the inverted output of clipper E, as -seen in >curve ` 30 g, results in a high frequency ripple output (curve ' the pulse periodicity of the pulse series having said given ratio and the amplitude of each wave h). By passing the output of the'rnixeri ‘7 through the low-pass ñlter 8, any such high frequency being determined by the pulse width and peri odicity of the corresponding pulse series, means components are eliminated. , i including a gate clipping circuit for segregating A tetrode 34 may perform the function of a 35 from said waves, portions of the wave having mixer for serving to combine the pulse coming amplitudes above a given lower level and less than from the nlter 8 and the original signal by their a- given upper level; and means for clipping the application to grids 35 and 35 of the tetrode‘34 resulting pulse energy when pulses of said train through leads 3l and 38, respectively. Byproper coincide with said wave portions. . ‘ adjustment of the phase shifter control' 24, device 40 3. A system for segregating a pulse series hav »3, Figs. 1 and 2, the pulse ’from filter 8 may be made to assume the correctçphase relation with respect tothe original incoming pulses so that it may properly fulfill its function as a'deblocking pulse for the pulse signal of the desired ratio, ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse perio dicity from a train of mixed pulse series of vari ous ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity com prising means tunable for producing waves of a selected frequency in responseto the pulses of the as indicated in curve i. As regards the pulse train of curve a the system will separate bot-hof the pulse series i4 and i6 as is clearly `apparent from waves iâ‘b and |519 of curve b. The >clipper circuit waves being equal to or some division of the given ratio and the amplitude of each wave being _4 is so designed as to provide the deblockingsig nal with the properly adjustable width vfor 'the' determined by the pulse width and periodicity of the corresponding pulse series; iirst gate clip different series in said train, the period of said pulse periodicity of the pulse series having said ' pulse to assume any position with respect there per means for acting on a relatively lower sec to within the time modulation interval indicated by t, (curve i), without ‘impairment of its de blocking function. Y The clipper 5 is similarly'ad tion of said waves; second gate clipper means for acting on‘an Yupper section of said waves; means 55 justa'ble in order to facilitate the» balancing out of its output with that of clipper 4. _ to' segregate from the output o_f said two gate . f The desired incoming signal thus selectively deblocked, is then applied to a demodulator I il, , which. may be of any known form capable' of co translating time displacement modulation into > , amplitude displacements for reproduction of the audio in the usual manner. The »bias of the mixer tube Sil may lbe made such- as to apply a threshold clipping operation to the deblocked pulses as in dicated at 46. l ` ' f From the foregoing description, it is clear that any pulse sequence ¿havingia given ratio of width to-periodicity may be selectively deblocked Yfor any desired utilization thereof. ' ' ' f While we have discussed our invention in con for combining'the outputs for any wave of said ñrst and said vsecond gate clipper means; means means, sections of waves having amplitudes at least Within said lower section and less than said upper section; and means for clipping the ren sulting pulse energy when pulses of said train coincide with said wave portions. ` 4. A system for segregating a pulse series hav-- ing> a given ratio of pulse width to pulse perio dicity from a train of mixed pulse series of vari ous ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity com prising means tunable for producing waves of a Y selected frequency in response to `the pulses of the different series in said train, the period of said Waves being equal to or some division of the pulse periodicity of the pulse series having said given'v ratio and the amplitude of each wave being determined by the pulse width and periodicity of the corresponding pulse series; first gate clipper nection with a specific circuit> arrangement, it should-be distinctly understood that »this embodi ment of the invention is “not ‘intended as a limita 75 means for acting on a relatively lower section of 2,408,079 7 8 said Waves; second gate clipper means for acting applying the resultant as a deblocking signal to on an upper section of said Waves; means for the original train of mixed pulse series. 1l. A method of selectively segregating a pulse series having a given ratio of pulse width to pulse inverting in phase the output of said second named clipper means; means for combining the outputs of said first clipper means and said phase inverting means, whereby sections of waves Will be segregated due to Waves having amplitudes at least within said lower 'section `and less than said upper section; and means for clipping the re periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series of various ratios 0f pulse width to pulse periodicity, comprising limit clipping the train of pulses to provide constant amplitude for the pulses, shock exciting by means of the pulses a resonant cir sulting pulse energy when pulses of said train 10 cuit tuned to a frequency the period of which is equal to or some division of the pulse periodicity coincide with said Wave portions. ' of a pulse series having said given ratio to pro 5. The system defined in claim 3, wherein said vide as a steady state condition a plurality of first named gate means comprises a first level sine waves at the tuned frequency which are ’ and a second level clipper means for obtaining a lower section of the sine waves, and said sec 15 proportional in their amplitudes to the respective ratios of pulse Width to pulse periodicity, gate ond named gate means comprises a third level and a fourth level clipper means for obtaining an upper section of said sine Waves, clipping each sine wave at a given level to elimi nate the waves having an amplitude less than said given level, gate clipping each sine wave at a 6. The system defined inclaim 4, wherein said phase inverting means comprises an amplifier. 20 higher level than said given level, inverting in phase the result of said higher level gate clip 7. The system deñned in claim 3, wherein said ping operation,V combiningA the signal obtained means for combining comprises a mixer circuit. from said first clipping and the phase inverted 8. A system for segregating a pulse series Ihavsignal of the higher level gate clipping operation ing a given ratio of pulse Width to pulse perio dicity from a train of mixed pulse series of vari 25 to effect a balancing out of any signal due to waves having an amplitude high enough to be ous ratios of pulse width to pulse periodicity, com productive of a signal after the higher level gate prising pulse peak limiter means; tuned frequency' clipping, filtering out any high frequency compo circuit means for providing sine waves at the nents that may result from the balancing out tuned frequency in response to said pulses in operative connection with said first named 30 operation, and combining the original pulse train with the product of the filtering operation to means; sine wave phase adjustment means; lower thereby selectively deblock the pulse train with respect to those pulses having the desired ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity. of said two gate clipping means being connected to receive its input from said phase adjustment 35 l2. The method defined in Claim ll, including the step of adjusting the phase of the deblocking means; means for inverting in phase the output section sine wave gate clipping means, upper sec tion sine Wave gate clipping means, at least one of said upper section gate means; means for com signal With respect to the pulse train for selec bining the outputs of said ñrst named gate `clip tive deblocking thereof. ' per means and said phase inverting means; loW 13. The method defined in claim 1l, wherein pass filter means for receiving the output of said 40 the pulses are signal modulated in respect to time, means for combining; mixing means for combin including the step of making the Width of the ing the signal from said fil-ter means with the signal from said source; and means for clipping the resulting pulse energy. 9. In a system having a resonant circuit for> selectively segregating a pulse series having a deblocking signal suflicient to accommodate any shift of the signal pulses due to time modulation. 14. A system for segregating pulse series hav ing a given ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series of various ra given ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity tios of pulse width to pulse periodicity, compris from a train of mixed pulse series of various ra ing means for translating the pulses of the dif ferent pulse series of said train into waves, the amplitude of each Wave being proportional to the relationship of the ratio of theV corresponding tios of pulse width to pulse periodicity, the meth od comprising tuning said resonant circuit to a frequency the period of which is equal to 0r some division of the pulse periodicity of a pulse se ries having said given ratio, the amplitude of each wave being determined by the pulse width pulse series With respect to said given ratio, means yfor obtaining from said waves, pulse por tions of the wave resulting from pulse series hav and periodicity of the corresponding pulse series, 55 ing said given ratio, and means responsive to said segregating from said waves, portions of the wave pulse portions for separating from said train pulse resulting from the pulse series of said given ratio, series having said given ratio. mixing said portions with the pulses of said train 15. A system for segregating energy of pulse to elevate the pulses thereof occurring in coinci series having a given ratio of pulse Width to dence with said portions, and clipping the ele 60 pulse periodicity from a train of mixed pulse vated pulse energy, thereby obtaining pulses of series of various ratios of pulse width to pulse the series having said given ratio. periodicity, comprising means for translating the 10. A method of selectivity segregating a pulse pulses of the different pulse series of said train series having a given ratio of pulse Width t0 pulse periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series of 65 into Waves, the amplitude of each Wave being pro portional to the relationship of the ratio of the various ratios of pulse Width to pulse periodicity, correspondingpulse series withl respect to said comprising generating Waves of a frequency the given ratio, and means for obtaining from said period of which is edual to or some division ofthe waves, pulse portions of the Wave or waves re pulse periodicity of a pulse series having said given ratio in response to said mixed pulse series, 70 sulting from pulse series of said given ratio. 16. A system according to claim l5 further in said waves having amplitudes proportional to the cluding means for mixing said pulse portions with respective ratios of pulse Width to pulse peri said train of pulses for segregation of the pulses odicity, segregating for separating purposes por of those series having said given ratio and means tions of Waves having amplitudes above a given lower level and less than a given upper level, and 75 to shift said waves in phase to align said pulse 2,408,079 10 18. A method of selectively segregating energy of pulse series having a given ratio of pulse width portions With the pulses of those series having said given ratio. ‘ 17. A method of selectively segregating pulse to pulse periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series having a given ratio of pulse width to pulse periodicity from a train of mixed pulse series ' series of various ratios of pulse Width to pulse of Various ratios of pulse Width to pulse peri odicity, comprising translating the pulses of each each series into a wave, the amplitude of each Wave being proportional to the relationship of the ratio of the corresponding pulse series with respect to said given ratio, obtaining from the resulting Waves pulse portions corresponding to the pulse series having said givenV ratio, and em ploying said pulse portions for selective segrega series into a Wave, the amplitude of each Wave being proportional to the relationship of the ra tio of the corresponding pulse series with re spect to said given ratio, selecting from the re sulting waves, pulse portions thereof correspond- ' ing to the pulse series having said given ratio, and applying said pulse portions to the train of mixed pulse series for segregating the pulses of 15 the pulse series having said given ratio. periodicity, comprising translating the pulses of V tion. EMILE LABIN. DONALD D. GRIEG.