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Патент USA US2408087

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Sept. 24, 1946.
2,408,086
L. A. MEACHAM ETAL
IMPULSE SYSTEM
Filed’ June 5, 1941
L.A.MEACHAM
INVENTORS‘: M. E. MOHR
‘
I By C.“ PAR/(ER
w?'zvfwg
ATTORNEY
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
- 2,408,086
UNIT so STATES ‘PA-TENT _ OF Fla-CE ;
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‘
7
2,408,686
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'7
I IMPULSE SYSTEM
Larned A. Meacham, Summit, N; ‘3., ‘Milton
'Mohr, Jamaica, N. Y., and Carlylei V. Parker,
Washington, D. .C., assignors to‘Bell‘ Telephone~
Laboratories;Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a '
’ corporation of New York
,
~ ~
‘ , ‘ ApplicationJune 5, 1941,’Serial"No.*3§6,688
9 Claims,
.
~1
(01. 2'50——:27 )
.
This invention relates to impulse systems and
particularly to impulse generating systems.
The‘ objects ‘ of the invention are to obtain
i'ngr condition until all tubes'in the series ‘have
operated‘ and'i‘n' 'Whicha vcontrolling tube, 1o
‘catedat ‘the?’ end 'of "the series, ' discharges "after
the Ia‘st‘impulse'tube’of the series has operated
:greater accuracy and uniformity in the produc
tion of impulses; to simplify the means used for 5 and in so doing 'quenches all of the operated
tubes. ‘by lowering the voltage. applied to them
generating the impulses in series; to enable the
below the sustaining Ivalue. Thus 1 the impulse
generating'means to repeat its cycle automati
cally; and to effect economy and other improve
ments'in impulse systems and devices.
'
A featureof the ‘invention is ‘an impulse gen
producing tubes‘ar'e restored to'norrnal at vthe
'end'bf ?ea'ch'cycle_
“orde'rthatthe'y may pro
10 ' cée'd'with the nextsucceeding cycle’ of ‘operation.
‘Another feature is’ "an impulse generator’ in
which two series of tubes are arranged to operate
alternately, each series vof tubes ‘producing its
"own/seriesof impulses,"and‘ i’njwhich' the control
timed impulses, in ‘which thecondensers associ
ated with the ?rst and all, succeeding tubes are 15 ling tube ofeach'seri'es'serves'toiquenchalliof
erating system comprising a series of space dis
charge tubes and‘ a corresponding series of con
‘,densers for producing a succession of accurately
charged isimultaneously'to. an initial potential
the operated tubes in the series and 'also‘ to
‘condenser at a de?nite ‘rate from its initial'or
"be quenched“ to'allfow‘ its ‘associated impulse tubes
“quenchrthe'controlling tube of the other'series.
value insui?cient to operatethe tubes, the suc
"Each‘acontroll'ing'tube, once operated to quench
ceeding’conden'sers all remaining-at this inter
~its associated impulse tubes, remainsppe'rat‘ed to
mediate potential until ‘the condenser for the
‘?rst tube in the series'reaches the tube operat 20 lm‘aintain ‘them disabled‘ whil'e‘the'other series
' of tubes Yar'eproce'eding- through their cycle. vThus
»ing potential, whereupon. the ' ?rst tube dis
:the' operatedcontrolling tube'of one series/must
charges 'and'increases ‘the charge on'the second
to becomelenabled asiso’on as the alternate‘seri'es
potential of the associated second tube in the 25 ‘has ‘completed vits cycle, andthisf'is‘accomplished,
as "above noted, by the discharge of the‘ control
series. The second tube. now. discharges and
ling tube of the altern'ate series; By‘ these means
causes the-third condenser'to increase its charge
the generator is capable of resettin'gitself ‘auto
:from 'the initial value 'to the operating potential
‘ matically to réprodu'ce'the irn‘pulse'cycle' inde?
:of'theiassociated tube.' Thus the tubes are dis
charged in succession to producea series of timed 30 nitely'without‘the‘assistance of éxternal‘a‘g'en‘cie's.
These and other‘fe'atures of the invention"will
vimpulses, and these impulses are delivered to
be described more fully in’ the following detailed
corresponding impulse ‘conductors v‘from which
Ethey may be taken/and utilized for any'desired
‘The drawing accompanying the vspeci?cation
purpose. An advantage of this ‘feature isthat
the initial intermediate charge on each condenser 35 ‘discloses an ‘impulse’ generating system compris
ingtwo ‘series of'discharge tubes -T¥—| and T-‘-2
‘assures that said condenser will reach a'charge
with’associated'condensers and resistors. 'The
su?icient to ionizenthe associated tube when the
intermediate potential value to the operating
:speci?cation.
'
-
r
1
’
'
series Tél may'include any desired number of
preceding tube discharges and causes the con
impulse tubes,'it being assumed for the‘ purpose of
denser to resume its charging operation.‘ “Thus
the condenser can be depended upon‘ to rise to 40 illustration that ten‘ of these tubes, l,'2, 3, '. . . l9,
vvare provided. The tubes illustratedare‘of the
the ionizing voltage of the tube,-although in prac
‘well-known gas-?lled cold cathode type, each
tice the tubes ‘may 'vary somewhat in ionizing
having a main anode, 'a' main cathode, and a
values. Another: of the advantages of this fea
starting electrode.
'
ture is the high degree ofu'accuracy'that is ob
tained by giving the condensers an initial charge 45 ‘ 'The'main‘anodes l'l, f2, [3, etc.,‘are all'con
vnested over ‘the common conductorZl to ‘one ter
‘before the tubes are operated. Since each con
minal of the common resistor‘ZZ and'to'one ter
denser ispartially charged in advance, greater
accuracy may be ~' had :in'the measurement of
‘mirial'of the common condenser~23. ' The; main
ingtube.
Another feature
"
of the‘ invention ~ is an impulse
of battery 25. For example, the ‘cathode l4
of tube‘ [is connected through. the individual re
"si'stor. l5v to‘the common conductor 24. Likewise
cathode of each tube is connected through 'an
the interval between the operation of‘ the pre
ceding tube and the increase of thecondenser 50 individual resistor a‘nd'the'n'ce‘over the common
conductor v"lltwto the "grounded or negative pole
charge to the» operating. potential of the succeed;
generator in'which each of ‘the successive tubes
‘in theseri'es‘ operates vand ‘remains? in " ‘a’ conduct
55 the cathode l'6 of the next tube 2, is connected
2,408,086
3
.
to the individual resistor H to the common con
ductor 24, and the same is true with respect to
the remaining impulse tubes in the series. The
4
tubes disabled until the alternate series T—~| has
performed its impulse generating cycle.
The operation of the impulse generating sys
starting electrodes of the tubes are connected ~
tem will now be described. To start the genera
individually through two resistors in series to
tion of the impulses the switching relay 42 is
the common conductor 2|. For instance, the
starting electrode 26 of the tube | is connected
operated in any suitable manner to close its con
tacts. As soon as the relay 42 operates, a circuit
is completed from the positive pole of battery 25,
contacts of said relay, common resistor 22 and
through resistors 21 and 28 to the common con
ductor 2 | .
Each tube in the series T—| is provided with 10 thence in parallel through resistors 28, 3|, 35
a time measuring condenser for measuring the
etc., and the respective condensers 29, 3t, 34, etc.,
interval between one impulse and the next. The
to thecommon conductor 24 which is connected
condenser 29 of the ?rst tube is connected be
to the negative pole of battery 25. The condensers
tween the common conductor 24 and the junction
are charged in this circuit at a rate determined
of resistors 21 and 28. The next condenser 3|! is
by the values of they associated resistors. Since
connected between the common conductor 24 and
condenser 29 is included in series only with the
the junction point of the potentiometer formed
common resistor 22 and the individual resistor
by resistors 3| and 32. The other terminal of the
28, it will continue to charge until it reaches a
resistor 32 is connected to the cathode l4 of the
potential sufficient to cause the ionization of the
preceding tube. In like manner the next con 20 control gap formed by the electrodes l4 and 26
denser 34 (and the same is true of the succeeding
of the tube |. The second condenser 33, however,
condensers in the series) is connected between
is connected to the potentiometer formed by re
the common conductor 24 and the junction point
sistors 3|, 32 and I5. This condenser, therefore,
of the potentiometer formed by the resistors 35
will cease to charge as soon as it has reached an
and 36.
intermediate potential which is substantially less
than the ionizing potential of the associated tube
2. Likewise, each of the succeeding condensers
r
The impulses are produced by the discharge
current ?owing in the main gaps formed by the
anodes and cathodes of the tubes.~ These im
pulses appear on the impulse conductors 38, which
are connected through individual condensers 39, 30
49, 4|, etc, to the cathodes of the respective
tubes.
‘
The energy for charging the condensers 29, 30,
34, etc., is supplied by the battery 25 through the
common resistor 22 when the switch relay 42 is
operated.
The series of impulse tubes T-—-| is provided
with a common control tube 43_ the purpose of
which is to quench all of the tubes of the series
will cease to charge as soon as it has reached the
intermediate potential.
The condenser 29 will, as noted, continue. to
charge until it reaches the ionizing. potential of
the tube I, whereupon the control gap of this
tube ionizes in a circuit traceable from one pole
of condenser 29, resistor 21, electrodes 25 and I4,
resistor |5 to the other pole of the condenser.
As soon as the control gap ionizes, ‘ionization
transfers to the main anode | |, and the main dis
charge current flows in a circuit‘ from the positive
pole of battery 25, contacts of relay 42, resistor 22,
T-| at the end of their cycle and to maintain 40 conductor 2|, anode l l, cathode l4, resistor f5 to
them disabled until the alternate series of tubes
the grounded conductor 24. The potential of the
T-2 has performed its impulse generating cycle.
cathode I4 is transmitted through the condenser
The anode 44 of tube 43, like the anodes of the
39,v and an impulse is delivered to the conductor
impulse tubes, is connected to the common con
19 while the condenser 39 is becoming charged.
ductor 2|. The cathode 45 is connected through
The ?ow of current through the resistor |5 also
the biasing battery 45 to the ground conductor
increases the potential of the junction between
24. The starting electrode 41 is connected
the resistors 3| and 32, and the charging of con
through resistor 48 to one terminal of the con—
'denser 30 is resumed, raising its potential from
denser 49, the other terminal of the condenser
the intermediate value at which it initially stands
being connected to the common conductor 24.
toward the ionizing value of the tube 2. The rate
The other series of tubes T—-2, which is identi
at which the condenser 30 charges from its in
cal with the series T—|, comprises ten impulse
termediate value to the ionizing value of the tube
tubes 5!, 52, 53, 54, 55 . . . 50. The tubes of this
is accurately ?xed by the Values of the associated
series are also provided with condenser BI, 62, 63,
resistors. At the end of this measured interval
etc., and with resistors corresponding to those of
' the condenser 30 reaches the ionizing potential,
the series T—-|. The common conductor 64, to
and the control gap of the tube 2 ionizes. There—
which the anodes of the tubes 5|, 52, etc., are
upon discharge current flows in the main gap
' connected, is joined to one terminal of the com
circuit of the tube, including the anode l2, cath
mon resistor 65 and also to the common condenser
ode IB and the resistor H. The potential of the
23. The other common conductor 66, to which GO cathode l5 caused by the discharge of the main
the condensers and the cathodes of the tubes are
gap causes the delivery of an impulse through
connected, is, like the common conductor 24 of
the condenser 49 to the impulse conductor 1|.
the series T—|, connected to the negative or
Also the potential of the cathode raises the po
grounded pole of battery 25. The battery 25
tential of the junction point of resistors 35 and
serves to charge the condensers 6|, 62, 63, etc,
36, and the next condenser 34 resumes its charg
through the common resistor 65 when the switch
ing operation and raises its potential from the
ing relay 51 is. operated.
intermediate value to ‘the value required for the
The impulses generated by the series T—2 are
ionization of the associated tube 3. In this man
delivered to the impulse conductors 58, which
her the impulse tubes are discharged at regular
are connected individually through condensers to
ly measured intervals, and the impulses are
the cathodes of the tubes 5|,‘52, 53, etc.
- produced in the associated conductors 38.
The series T--2 is also provided with a com
Each one of the tubes that discharges remains
mon control tube 59 which serves to quench all
in its discharged condition until all tubes have
of the operated tubes in the series at the end
been operated. Following the operation of the
of the generating cycle and to maintain these
last impulse tube ID in the series, charging cur
2,408,080;
6
that.;the=,system; disclosed, provides a; means’; for
rent.:.?ows from, the . cathodes 12.:throngh;.resistor
generating marge numbenof impulses - withrac
1Stand:condenser;ll?rtooondilotbh?l Condenser
curacy andeconomy of-equipment. By giving
thecondensers an initial chargeit is possible
to bring .eachpcondenser fully up; to the ionizing
voltage of theassociated tube in‘ response to oath?
taicharges :until’. its potential; when-added >to-.;the
voltage = of ss-battery; '46 ,; is v.~ sufficient; to . ionize.v the
' control: tube/4,31, Assoon. asthe, control-1' gap. of:
the»;tub:e» 43:;- ionizes; a; low..-impedan.ce circuit: is
ode; ‘potential; produced by the operation of.:the>
closed: from. common. conductor 21', anode 4.4;
preceding‘ tube. This; insures a su?icient ?nal
voltage on eachjco-ndenserto operate itsassoci-v
atedtube, although the tubes-may vary in prac
tice.. Moreover, the method of measuring the
interval. of time between-pulses by the resumed
cathode A5,. battery 46 atozthe > grounded conductor;
24:‘. The: currentn?owing: imthis low; impedance
path-lowers. vthe .- potential of. "the - anodes; of .1 all' of 10
the: impulse tubescto v.aipoint,insuflioient to. main.
tain. ionization of: the. main discharge; gaps;
charging of. a condenser, gives; greateriaccuraoy to;
Thereuponthetubesgl', 2:, .35; .. l?f are; quenched.
the measurement, since. the charging operation is,
The, control tube 43:, however; continues. to con
duct; current ; and? in- so; doing- maintains :the .po-v 15 taking place on thesteep :part. of- the time-voltage
characteristic = of ; the , condenser.
tentialson conductor 2 {below-ahe- operatingrvalue
~ What; is: claimed is:
ofzthe impulsetubes; Hence the series~.'I‘.:-.l, hav
1-.‘ The. combination in animpulse systemgof-fa;
ing,- completed an. impulse'tgenerating; cycle, is
series of" discharge devices, a‘ series of condensers
maintained disabled by the control tube 4.3;.in_
ordenthat the=alternate series JI‘éZ may perform 20 associated:respectively; with said‘ discharge. de
vices, meansfor. charging a ?rst one of said con-v
itszcycle.
densers. to vthe operating potential of the;asso-.
oiatedi discharge device, means. for charging. the
succeedingcondenserssimultaneously to an‘ ini~
I tial potential which is below the operating poten-'
tial of the-associated discharge devices, means
Attany suitable time the ~ switching relay- 61:15‘
energized“ to initiate ‘ the operation; of the: series
1+2‘; When:v the relay. 6:1: attracts its armature,
atcircuitisolosedrfrom; the positive poleof bat
tery; 25; contacts-of relay 61, common resistor
65:.tothe conductors“. In the manner already
described‘ the tubes 51 , 52;. 53 :of.=the series >T'-.-2;are
operated; in- succession to. produce measured im
pulses in: the. impulse conductors 68;
When» the: last impulse tube 60' has operated;
condenser 14: charges and causes, the - ionization;
of? the controlcltube v6'9; Discharge current'now
flowsroverwthe- common conductor 64 through the
maingapiofthe tube 69,:batteryv151to conductor ,
66:. This .flow oft'currentlowers thepotential on
COIldllCtOI'?GA'ftOu quench all ‘of the? operated tubes
OfithB series :T;2 andito-mainta-in themin awdis
a'bled'icondition in order that the series T—-l Imay
perform the next ~ impulse cycle.
, The dischargeof’thecontrol tube Minot-only.
2.. The-combinationin, an impulse system'of. a '
seriesof discharge devices, a series of condensers
associated respectively’ with, said discharge de
vices, means for-ichargingrat?rst. one of, said con‘
densersto the operating potential of. the asso
oiated» discharge device, means .for charging the
succeeding condensers- simultaneously. to an ini
therelayw 6]: operated‘ to. start'_the: cyclev of? the
series T+2 ‘a- circuit was .closed‘from. the positive
pole- of‘battery-25; oontactsaof relay 61; resistor ,
B5; condenser‘ 23, conductor 21.‘, anode 4A3, cath
ode=-45‘,'battery 46 tothegrounded conductor: 24‘;
ouit= while the impulse :series- T;—.-.-2 , is ‘performing
effectiveinresponsetothe operation of said sec
discharge device. and. each. succeeding. dis.
charge device. for. charging. the, next succeeding
condenser from said initial potentialto said, oper
ating rpotentialand meansfor supplying. an im._-,
seeding; discharge, device,
At . the time
The-=co-ndenser'23' assumes-a charge in this cir
denser. reaches. said; operatinejpotential, means
pulseinresponse totheoperation of each 5110?
quenohes the impulse tubes-ofthe'series T422 but
also_:quenches:the controlitube 43itoreenable the
impulse tubes ' of "the. series: T-.'._ I;
effective to operate the associated discharge de
vice when said?rst-condenser reaches-said‘ oper
ating potential, means effective upon the oper
ation of said; ?rst discharge device for charging
the second condenser from, said initial potential
to said operating potential andyfor operating the
second'discharge device, when said second-con
tial potential.whichis'below‘the operating. poten-.
50 tial of the associated dischargedevioes, means
itsrcycle: of "operation; Atxtheinstantthe control
tube‘ 6.9; discharges,‘ following’ the- completion‘ of
the: cycle, of: series: T14; a discharge circuit. is
closed:as:followvs. for condenser .23: from one. ter Ch gt
eifectiye; to; operate-the associated discharge de
vice;
said?rst condenser-reaches said ORGY-.
atingi-gotential, meansteffeotive upon the opera.
tiongoi; said ?rst dischargedevice for charging
t‘li'tbattery.v 25, contaots'of relay 42', resistor 223to
theesocondgcondenserfrom said.’ initial potential
to; said ,loperating- potential and for operating “the
second». discharge/‘device, when: said second; con
the-other terminal‘of‘condenser 23. The dis
charge current?owing in this circuitlow'ers the
effective‘
minal ofisaid oondenser‘over conductor 64, anode
and cathodeof' the tube 69, battery 15;‘ conductor
potential elf-"conductor 21 belowthe sustaining
value of- the tube 43, and this-tubequenohes. As
soon as‘ tube 43 quenches, the-potential on con
ductort 2,1‘ againrises to!‘ the operating, value’ of
the tubes-of ‘the series- 'I~"—-l , and‘ this series- im
mediat‘ely repeats this impulse generating cycle.
At the end of its cycle the‘ tube- 43' again‘ dis
charges and in so doing“ causes the quenching of
the -oontrol'~ tube69- in;a-1 manner similar to that
already-described.
,
v q
‘
Thus'the- two seriesof‘ tubes T-l and T-2
operate alternately to produoeaccurately meas
ured impulses and each series at the end of its op
denserv reaches said operating-potential, means
response to the operation, of saidsec- _
.ondsdischarge device and each succeeding, dis
charges device, for’ charging. the next succeeding
condenser.- f-romsaiq-initial.potentiallto said opera
atinatnotentialt. resistors: for" timing the char-sine.
of said; condensers: to introduce: a predetermined
intervalybet-weenzthezoperation oi each discharge
device; and‘ the» operation of; the next, succeeding
discharge device; and; means, for supplying. an
impulsein-response toithe operation of eachf'suo
oeedi-ngi discharge device.
1
'
3": ‘Idle-combination in an impulse system of a
series of‘ discharge tubes, a'series or-condensers
associated respectively" with said tubes, means 'for
charging said condensers simultaneously to an
From the foregoing discussion it will be seen 75 initial potential less than the operating potential
erating cycle renders the other series operative.
2,408,086
7
8
of said tubes, means e?ective upon the operation
7. The combination in an impulse system of
two series of discharge tubes, condensers associ
ated respectively with said tubes, means for
of any one of said tubes for causing current to
?ow to the next succeeding condenser to increase
its charge from' said initial potential to the oper
ating potential of the associated tube, means for
utilizing the charge on said succeeding condenser
itial potential which is substantially less than the
operating potential of the associated tubes and
to operate the associated tube, means effective in
response to the operation of said associated tube
for increasing the charge on one of said condens
ers until the associated tube operates, means ef
charging the condensers of each series to an in—
and to the operation of each succeeding tube for
fective upon the discharge of any one of said tubes
causing the flow of charging current to charge the 10 for charging the next succeeding condenser at‘
next succeeding condenser from said initial po
a predetermined rate from said initial potential
tential to said operating potential, and means for
to the operating potential of the associated tube,
supplying an impulse in response to the operation
means for utilizing the charge on each condenser
of each succeeding discharge tube.
when it reaches said operating potential for dis
' 4. The combination in an impulse system of a
charging the associated tube, means for produc
series of discharge tubes, means for operating said
ing impulses in response to the operation of said
tubes in succession including a series of con
tubes, and means for utilizing said series of tubes
densers associated respectively with said tubes,
alternately to produce alternate series of im
means for charging said condensers to an initial
pulses.
potential below the operating potential of said 20
8. The combination in an impulse system of
two series of discharge tubes, means for operat
ing said tubes in succession including condensers
associated respectively With said tubes, means for
tubes and for increasing the charge on one of said
condensers until the associated tube operates,
means e?ective in response to the operation of
any one of said tubes for charging the next suc~
charging the condensers of each series to an in
ceeding condenser from said initial potential to 25 itial potential which is substantially less than
the operating potential of the associated tube to
the operating potential of the associated tubes
cause the operation of said associated tube, means
and for increasing thecharge on one of said con
effective following the operation of the last im
pulse tube in said series for quenching the dis
densers until the associated tube operates, means
effective upon the discharge of'any one of said
charge in all of said tubes, and means for sup 30 tubes for charging the next succeeding con
‘plying an impulse in response to the operation
denser at a predetermined rate from said initial
of each succeeding tube,
potential to the operating potential of the associ
5. The combination in an impulse system of a
ated tube, means for utilizing the charge on each
series of impulse discharge tubes, each tube hav
condenser when it reaches said operating poten
ing electrodes forming discharge gaps, means for
tial for discharging the associated tube, means
operating said tubes in succession including a
for producing impulses in response to the opera
series of condensers associated respectively with
tion of said tubes, and a control tube for each
said tubes, means for charging said'condensers
of said series of tubes serving to quench the op- ‘
to an initial potential below the operating poten
erated tubes of the associated series and to main
tial of said tubes and for increasing the charge 40 tain them in a disabled condition while the other
on one of said condensers to cause the operation
series of tubes is producing impulses.
,
of the associated discharge tube, means respon
9. The combination in ‘an impulse system of
sive to the operation of each tube for causing the
two series of discharge tubes, means for oper
charge on the next succeeding condenser to in
ating said tubes in succession including condens
crease at a predetermined rate from said initial 45 ers associated respectively with said tubes, means
potential to the operating potential of the asso
for charging the condensers of each series to an
ciated tube, means for supplying an impulse in
initial potential which is substantially less than
response to the operation of each succeeding tube,
the operating potential of the associated tubes
and a control tube for reducing the potential on
and for increasing the charge on one of said con
the electrodes of all impulse tubes to quench the
discharge thereof.
densers until the associated tube operates, means
effective upon the discharge of any one of said
6. The combination in an impulse system of a
tubes for charging the next succeeding condenser
at a predetermined rate from said initial poten
tial to the operating potential of the associated
series of impulse discharge tubes, each tube hav
ing electrodes forming discharge gaps, means for
operating said tubes in succession including a 55 tube, means for utilizing the charge on each con
series of condensers associated respectively with
denser when it reaches said operating potential
said tubes, means for charging said condensers to
for discharging the vassociated tube, means for
an initial potential below the operating potential
producing impulses in response to the operation
of said tubes and for increasing the charge on
of said tubes, and a control tube for each of said
one of said condensers to cause the operation of 60 series of tubes, each control tube serving to
the associated discharge tube, means responsive
quench the discharge in all of the tubes of the
to the operation of each tube for causing the
associated series andv to maintain said tubes dis
charge on the next succeeding condenser to in
abled while the alternate series of tubes are pro
crease at a predetermined rate from said initial
ducing impulses, each control tube also serving to
potential to the operating potential of the associ
quench the discharge in the‘ control tube of the
ated tube, means for supplying an impulse in re
alternate series to enable the impulse tubes of
sponse to the operation of each succeeding tube,
said alternate series.
a control tube for quenching the discharge in all
of the impulse tubes and for maintaining them
LARNED A. MEACHAM.
in a disabled condition, and means for quenching 70
MILTON ‘E. MOI-IR.
said control tube to restore said impulse tubes to
CARLYLE V. PARKER.
their enabled condition to produce the next series _
of impulses.
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