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„ sepr.j24, 194s.
F. A. |. MuNTz _
n
2,408,089
'_ INTERNAL-COMBUSTÍON ENGINE
Filed'v Feb. 27, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
I.lI.TAI
lNvE Niro’fi
Sept. 24, 1946.
F. A. l. MUNTZ
. 2,408,089
.l INTERNAL-CÓMBUSTION ENGINE
Filedrebf 27, 1943
~«F1i0g.
9.
.3 Sheets-Sheet 5
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
2,408,089 I
UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE
INTERNAL-CÁIÍÍISS’IÉSSSÍIION ENGINE
i
assignor to Alan Muntz> & Company Limited,
Hounslow, England,
a
company
of Great
Britain
Application February 27, 194s, serial No. 477,395
In Great Britain February 12, 1942
13 Claims.
(o1. 12a-46)
2
This invention relates to internal-combustion
operated reciprocating machines of the kind in
which a power piston and a compressor piston are
connected together for operation in unison, the
movement of this piston assembly being so-con- y
trolled that the inner dead point of the power
piston is not mechanically fixed. Such a ma
chine> may be of the completely free-piston type,
in which neither the inner nor the outer dead
point is so fixed, >or of the semi-free-piston type
as exempliñed in British patent to Pescaral No.
557,206. The invention is especially, but not ex»
>lclusively, concerned with internal-combustion
operated generators of motive gas, in which at
least part of the air delivered by the compressor
portion is employed to scavenge and charge the
internal-combustion portion, the hot products of
.
let 'ports I2 and exhaust ports I3. The `power
cylinder is mountedV co-aXially within a cylin
drical casing I4 which forms the shell of a scav
enge air receiver Iâ communicating directly with
the inlet ports I2. Theexhaust ,ports I3 are
connected by a manifold I6 to a delivery con
nection I1 for the motive gas, which communi
cates with the inletconnection of va turbine (not
shown). On the end wallsIBA and IBB of the
scavenge air receiver are mounted, co-axially
with the power cylinder I0, combined compressor
and cushion cylinders ISA and ISB co-operating
~ with pistons 20A and 20B «which are rigidly cou
pled by rods ZIA and ZIB to the power pistons
IIA and IIB respectively. The inner portions'of
the cylinders I9A and ISB act as scavenge air
compressors, being provided with inlet valves,
such as 22A and 22B, and delivery valves, 'such
combustion and the excess of . scavenging ' air
as 23A and 23B, the latter delivering directly to
discharged at superatmospheric pressure from
the power cylinder together forming the motive 20 the scavenge air receiver I5. The outer portions
of the cylinders IBA and IBB serve as pneumatic
gas generated, which may be, for'example, em
cushions which during each expansion stroke of
ployed to perform mechanical work by expansion
the power pistons IIA and VI IB store the energy
in a turbine..
.
necessary to return the free-piston assemblies
The nature of the invention will be discussed
through the following stroke when the compres
>with reference to some of the accompanying
sor portions perform 'their delivery stroke and
drawings, in which:
»
the power pistons their compression stroke.
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic sectionalèside‘ eleva
The opposite movements of the free-piston as
tion of an opposed-piston type of internal-com
semblies are synchronised by a known system
bustion-operated compression-ignition gas-gen
erator generally of~known type, but modified in> V including two levers 24 and 24' capable oi oscil
lating equally. and oppositely about a common
accordance with this invention, the section being
transverse axis. Thev ends of the lever 214 are
generally in a vertical plane, but the middle part
rcoupled by connecting rods 25Avr and 25B to cross
being taken on the line I-I in Fig. 6.
heads 26A and 26B fixed respectively on the piston
Figs. 2 to 5 are graphs illustrating the opera
rods 2IA and ZIB. The ends of the lever 24’
In
.each
of
these
rtion of this gas-generator.
are similarly coupled to the cross-heads 26A and'
graphs the abscissa shows working pressure P
26B by connecting rods 25'A and 25’B. IThe
in lbs. per sq. in. absolute, while "the Yabsciss'a
piston assemblies are prevented from. rocking
meets the ordinate scale at the zero point of the
about the axis of the cylinders by arms 21A and
latter.
Fig. 6 is a cross section on the line 6-6 in Fig. 40 21B co-operating with slide bars 28A and 28B
on the casing I4. A fuel-injection nozzle is de
1 drawn to alarger scale in rather less diagram
matic form.
i
noted; by 29. `
’
This gas-generator, as vso far described, is of
known type and is adapted to operate in known.
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic sectional sideA elevation 45 manner as follows. Starting fromthe coni-lg
Fig. 7 shows diagrammatically part of a con
trol system of the same gas-generator.~
' '
of the middle part of an alternative form of gas- '
generator embodying this invention.
.
Y Fig.'9 is a diagrammatic sectional end eleva
tion ofV the cushion control gear of the gas-gen
erator shown in Figs. 1 and 6, taken on the line
5_9 in Fig. 10, and
' "
Fig. 10 is a section on the line I 0-I0 in Fig. 9.
The gas-generator shown in Fig. 1 has a power
cylinder I0 co-operating with opposed power pis
tons IIA and IIB which control respectively in- ‘
uration shown in Fig. 1, the combustion products Y
will have been swept from the power cylinder
by air entering the inlet ports I2; some oi this
air will follow the combustion products through
Ythe exhaust ports I3; and the working pressures
inr the receiver I5 and in the power 'cylinder I0,
will be substantially equal to the pressure at
which the motive gas is delivered by the gas-gen
erator at> the connection I'I.
Thev two> piston
assemblies are rnow driven towards each other
2,408,089
3
4
by expansion of the cushion air compressed in
the outer ends of the cylinders ISA and I9B and
during this in-stroke the pistons 20A and 23B
deliver compressed air through the valves 23A
with the compression strokes in the motor
part, under the influence of energy taken from
the free pistons during each expansion stroke
inthe motor part and stored in a pneumatic
energy accumulator for return to the free pistons
during the immediately succeeding stroke, and
in which nevertheless the clearance volume in the
compressor cylinder at the inner dead point is
not undesirably increased as the working pres
and 23B to the scavenge air receiver I5 while
the power pistons i IA and I IB compress a charge
of air in the power cylinder.
As the piston as
semblies approach their inner dead point, a
charge of fuel is introduced through the injector
23. Combustion of the fuel is eiîected by com
pression ignition, and the expansion of the com
. bustion products in the power cylinder assisted
by expansion of the air compressed in the clear
ance spaces at the inner ends of the cylinders
ISA and IQB, drives the piston assemblies apart,
the major part of the energy thus imparted to
these assemblies being stored in the air cushions.
Finally the piston I IB uncovers the exhaust ports
I3, and a little later the piston I IA uncovers the
sure rises.
Further >objects of the invention will be ap
parent from the following description of two
specific embodiments thereof.
Some of the novel features, provided in accor-:lM
ance with this invention, of the generally known
gas-generator shown in Fig. l will now be de
scribed with reference to Figs. 1 and 6. ri‘wo auxn
iliary chambers 36 and 3S’ are adapted to co1n~
municate with the middle part of the power
inlet ports I2 ,the cycle thereafter being repeated. 20 cylinder It), which forms the main combustion
It will thus be apparent that compression of the
chamber, by ports 3l and 3l’. These two cham
working charge of air takes place in two stages:
ñrst from atmospheric pressure to receiver pres
sure in the compressor cylinders IgA and I3B;
bers are diametrically opposed in the medial
transverse plane of the power cylinder, and their
axis is inclined to the axis of the synchronising
and second from receiver pressure to ñnal comn 25 levers 24 and 2A’ in such a manner as to ac“
pression pressure in the power cylinder I0.
commodate also in the same plane two diamet
1n such a gas~generator the working pressure,
rically opposed fuel-injection nozzles 2S and 29',
namely the delivery pressure of the motive gas
one of said chambers and one of said nozzles be
at the connection I'l, and with it the charging
ing on one side of the lever axis, and the other
pressure existing in the receiver I5, vary, with 30 of each on the other side. As these chambers
the load imposed on the generator by the varying
are identical, only chamber 3!) will be described
demand of the turbine, over a substantial pres
sure range, for example up to '70 lbs. per sq. in.
in detail.
The port 3| is formed in a cup 32 of heat~
resisting metal iitted with clearance in a socket
As a substantially constant iinal compression
pressure in the combustion space of the power 35 33 in the power cylinder Ill, which is ñtted with
cylinder II) is desirableover the working range,
in a cylinder housing 34. A domed cover 35,
it follows that the compression ratio of that part
secured to the housing 34 by screw studs 36,
of the compression which takes place in the power
cooperates with the cup 32 to. form the auxiliary
cylinder I0 varies. As the working pressure in
chamber 30. A poppet valve 3l has a face 33
creases, so does this compression ratio decrease, 40 adapted to engage a seating 39 surrounding the
and consequently the pistons at the inner dead
port 3! at its side within the cup. The stem of
point are farther apart, or farther away from the
the valve 31 passes through a gland Mi in the
middle of the cylinder. Fig. 2 shows by the full
cover 35. At the inner end of the gland is a
line how the distance (plotted as ordinate) of
seating 4I, adapted to be engaged by a face 42
the inner dead point (IDP) of the heads of the
on the head'of the valve 37. The valve stem is
pistons IIA and IIB from the middleY of the
fixed to a piston 43 operating in a double-acting
power cylinder Varies with working pressure P.
servo-motorv cylinder 44 and urged towards the
The clearance volume of the inner end of the
axis of the power cylinder lil by a helical corn
compressor cylinders ISA and ISB at the inner
pression spring 45. Oil transfer pipes 43 and
dead point must also increase as the working
41 communicate with the 'cylinder «Irl on the
pressure increases, and assuming the outer dead
outer and inner sides respectively of the piston
point of the pistons to be constant, the result
43.
will be that the volume V of air delivered by
When the working pressure of the gas-gener
the compressor pistons per stroke will fall as the
working pressure increases, as is indicated by
the full line in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows by the 'full
line how the total volume VT of air delivered per
unit time varies with the working pressure, while
ator is low, oil pressure is released (in a manner
hereinafter described) in the pipes 47 and may
be applied to the pipes |45 from a source 139 (Fig.
7) of oil at constant pressure, which provides the
energy for operating the servo-motors, in order
to supplement the action of the springs 45, with
the full line in Fig. 5 is a curve plotted in terms
of horse-power in the motive gas (G. H. P.) over 60 the result that the valves 37 are held on the
the same range.
seatings 39, and so isolate the auxiliary cham
bers 30 and 30’ from the main combustion cham~
improved internal-combustion machine of the
ber. The gas-generator now operates in the nor
kind speciñed and adapted to work with a vary
mal way. When the working pressure rises to
ing charging pressure, in which means are pro
a predetermined value, oil pressure is released
vided for reducing variations in the inner dead
in the pipes 46 and applied to the pipes 4l, so
point of the free pistons, or alternatively in the
that the valves 31 are disengaged `from the seat
final compression pressure in the power cylinder,
ings 39 and held on the seatings "il adjacent to
due to variations in charging pressure, whereby
the glands 4I). As a result the auxiliary cham
the output can be increased, as compared with 70 bers are put into communication with the main
known machines, over the higher range of charg
combustion chamber. Now the total volume of
ing pressures.
the combustion chamber at the inner dead point,
A further object is to provide a free-piston
namely the volume to which the air charge is
gas-generator in which the compressor part
compressed, will remain the same as in
engine
performs its delivery strokes simultaneously 75 not having the auxiliary chambers but otherwise
An object of this invention is to provide an
2,408,089
6
'5
pressure is applied from the scavenge air re
ceiver through an orifice 58 to a pressure-re
sponsive bellows |00. A spiral cam 53 fixed on
equivalent,V but that portion of vit .contained in
the main combustion chamberv will be reduced
by the volume of the auxiliary chambers. The
result is that the pistons will come closer together
at the inner dead point than they would have
done in the absence of the auxiliary chambers,.
and consequently the clearance volumes at the
inner ends of the cylinders | 9A and |9B will also
be kept small, instead of increasing with increas
ing working pressure so that the volume of free
air delivered by the compressor portion will be
largely maintained as the working pressure rises.
the shaft 60 of the synchronising lever 24 actu
ates a tappet 6|, the displacement of which is
directly proportional to the displacements ofthe
free-piston assemblies; therefore variation in the
inner dead point of the tappet stroke is also di
y rectly proportional to variation in the inner dead
point> of the free-piston assemblies. The tappet
actuates a device |0| having an output member
ative and indicate how the output is increased
|02 .which is adapted to follow variations in the
inner dead pointof the tappet. The inner-dead
point’ follower |0| and the bellows |00 are ar
ranged to control the cushion air content through
over the range of higher working pressures.
If the machine were run with‘the auxiliary
having its ends operatively connected by rollers
chambers operative when the working pressure
|04 and |05 to cross-heads |06 and |07 on the Y
The dotted lines in Figs. 2 to 5 show the per
iormance when the auxiliary chambers are oper
a differential mechanism consisting of a lever |03
output members of the follower |0| and the bel
tons touching’each other at the innerd'ead point. 20 lows |00. The lever |03 is pivoted -to a slide bar
|08 which is connected by a multiplying lever
Consequently it is desirable to provide control
|09 to a hydraulic relay. This relay consists of
mechanism which ensures that the auxiliary .
a double-acting piston Ill]l operating in a cylin
chambers are inoperative when the working
der ||| under control of a valve4 | I2. This valve
pressure is low. Such a mechanism 'is vshown
in Figs. 6 and '7. The valves 3l are capable of 25 is actuated by a floating levei1 H3 which is con
. nected by a link l |4 to the multiplying lever. |00
being kept closed by the springs 45, even if the oil
was low, there would be a risk of the power pis
pressure in the pipes 46 should fail. ‘ The springs
45 need not exert a force suñicient to withstand
the peak pressure in the combustion chamber,
and which derives a return motion from the
. piston ||0'by means of a pin-and-slot connec
tion ||5 Vto the piston rod -| |6. A transfer valve
provided the oil system is arranged to provide a 30 actuated by the rod H0 has two piston lands '
||1 and ||8 which normally close ports ||9 and
degree of damping suilicient to prevent substan
tial opening of the valves~31 during the period Y
of peak pressure.
The control mechanism shown »
'l 20 communicating respectively through opposite
ly acting non-return valves |2| and |22 with the
Vchamber |23 to which the scavenge air pressure
in Fig. 7 includes apilot piston valve 48 adapted
in the positionr shown, to connect the pipes 45 35 is admitted through the oriiice 58. The trans
to the source 49 of oil Yunder pressure-,and ,the '
pipes 41 to a sump, and in an alternative position
to connect the pipes 41 to the sourcer49 andthe _
ferïvalve'also has a port `|24 opening between
the lands and connected to the cushion pipe 55.
In‘operation, the vcushion air pressure oscillates,
in synchronism with the reciprocation ofthe free
pipes 46 .to the sump. The valve 48 is controlled
pistons, between a maximum value which exceeds, '
by a piston 50 operating in acylinder 5|. The‘
and a minimum value which is less than, the
piston 50 is biased by a spring 52 towards the
position shown and -is urged in the opposite Y scavenge air pressure.l-Variation of the inner
dead Apoint or of the scavenge air pressure causes Y
direction by the scavenge air pressure applied to
" the transfer valve to move appropriately. If
the cylinder 5| by a pipe 53 opening through
this valve rises, it connects port il@ to port |24.
the scavenge air receiver casing |4. A spring
Consequently, during the part of the cycle when
loaded ball 54 co-operates .withV two .notches in
the scavenge air pressure :exceeds the cushion
the stem of the valve 48. When the scavenge air
pressure acting on the piston 50 rises to a pre
determined value, it overcomesthe restraint of
the spring 52 and the ball 54 and moves the
pilot valve y48 to the left. The servo-motor pis
pressure, air is transferred through the non
return Valve |2| to the cushions until the trans
fer valve is again closed by the cushion air con
tents rising to a suitable value. Similarly, if the
tons 43 thereupon open thevalves 31 so that the
transfer valve falls, air> is discharged from the
auxiliary chambers 3|) and 30’ become operative.
cushion through the port |20 and the non-re
turn valve |22 during( the part of the cycle when
the cushion pressure is higher than the scavenge
When the scavenge air pressure falls to a prede
termined value, the pilot valve is restored bythe .
spring 52 to the position shown, and the valves
air pressure.
31 are accordingly shut.
The increase in the clearance volume of the
power cylinder l0 caused by rendering the aux
f
-
,
The gas-generator shown in Figs. 1 and 6 is
provided with automatic control gear for varying
the quantity of air in the cushions in accordance
with variation in the working pressure. This
control gear may be of any suitable type; but it
will be assumed that it is the one described in
patent application No. 492,865 of E. S; L. Beale
filed June 30, 1943, and the control gear will (i5
therefore be described only in so far as it con
cerns the present invention. Referring to Fig. 6,
the control gear is contained within a casing
55, and it is capable of delivering air to, or with
drawing air from, a pipe 56 branching to pipes
51A and 51B' which lead to the cushions. The
quantities of air so delivered and withdrawn are
»
iliary chambers 30 and 30’ operative, has the
effect of reducing the distance of the inner dead
point from the middle of the power cylinder I0
required fora given compression ratio. If no
steps were taken to alter the-adjustment of the
inner-dead-point control gear, the inner-dead
point follower tappet 6I would attain an inner
dead point such as to indicate to the control gear
that the inner dead point of the free pistons was
to-o small (i. e. the inner dead point was too near
the middle of the power cylinder) when in fact
it was correct, and would operate -on the control
gear to cause air to be withdrawn from the
cushions, so that the compression ratio would be
determined automatically by variation both in
automatically reduced. Consequently according
the scavenge air pressure and also in the inner
dead point of the free pistons. The scavenge air -
to a further feature o'f the invention, means are
provided which alter the adjustment of the inner
2,408,089
7
8
dead-point control gear simultaneously with the
rendering of the auxiliary chambers operative,
sion ratio as existed before the auxiliary cham
bers were operative. Fig. 7 shows such means.
controlled spill valve 8| on the pipe 'is is nor
mally kept closed by oil pressure in a pipe 82.
A piston valve 83 normally opens the pipe G2 to
a source 84 of oil under pressure. The piston
valve 83 is controlled jointly by a compression
The tappet 6l is provided with a. cam follower
. spring 85 and a lever 86 one end of which bears
Ei?. the head of which is formed as a piston 63
on the end of the rod of the piston ‘.'i and the
in such a way as to maintain the same compres
operating in a cylindrical cavity in the tappet
other end of which is pivotally connected to the
between stops 64 and S5. A relatively strong
rod of a piston 81 working in a cylinder 8S. A
compression spring 65 is adapted to hold the 10 spring 89 urges the piston 8'! upwards against
cam-follower 52 continuously in the extended
the soavenge air pressure applied to its upper
position shown. The lower end of the cylindrical
face by a duct 98. If the relationship between
cavity communicates by a por|J S1 with a chan
scavenge air pressure and effective volume of the
nel SS in the tappet guide 59, and the channel
chamber 38A departs from predetermined limits,
68 is connected by a pipe 'lll to the oil-transfer 15 the valve S3 closes and the oil pressure in the
pipes el' of the servo-motor cylinders 44. Con
pipe 82 is released by a leak 9|, so that the spill
sequently, when the pilot valve 48 operates to
valve 8| opens and the machine stops. The piston
allow oil under pressure to iiow to the pipes 41,
81 may be operatively connected to the control
and thus open the valves 31 of the auxiliary
shaft ‘I3 by a repeater mechanism of any desired
chambers, o-il under pressure is also admitted 20 type, indicated schematically at 92, and deriving
beneath the piston E3 of the cam-follower 62
its return motion from the lever 35. This mecha
which is thereby retracted into the tappet
nism, on displacement of the valve 83 due to
through the distance that will correct the rela
variation of the scavenge air pressure acting on
tionship between the free-piston position and
the piston 81, rotates the shaft 'i3 in such a
the tappet position, so as to take account of the 25 sense as to restore the valve 83 to the normal
change in inner dead point made necessary by
position shown, and, as the valve attains this
the bringing into operation of the auxiliary
position, the return connection operates to stop
chamber. W'hen the oil pressure is released from
the repeater mechanism. In this manner the
the pipe l@ on closing of the valves 3l of the
effective volume 0f the chamber 38A can be
i auxiliary chambers, the cam-follower Si is again 30 caused to vary automatically in response to vari
extended with respect to the tappet 6I by the
ation of the scavenge air pressure, the spill valve
spring 5F., which is strong enough to prevent
8| opening on failure of the repeater mecha
movement of the cam follower into the tappet
nism.
throughout their working stroke.
I claim:
In accordance with the invention, the eiîective 35
1. An internal-combustion-operated motive
volume of the auxiliary combustion space may
gas generator having a power cylinder including
be progressively increased. This result may be
a combustion chamber, an air-compressor cylin
attained by putting two or more auxiliary cham
der co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
bers successively into operation. Alternatively,
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said
the auxiliary chamber may be constituted by a 40 cylinders respectively, said pistons being con
cylinder communicating with the main combus
nected together for operation in unison in such
tion chamber, if desired through a valve-con»
a manner that said compressor piston performs
trolled port, and containing a piston which is
its delivery strokes simultaneously with the com
capable of being moved between various posi
pression strokes of said power piston, a pneu
tions of adjustment for the purpose of varying
matic cushion associated with said pistons for
the effective volume of the auxiliary chamber,
storing energy imparted to them during the
whereby the inner dead point of the combustion
pistons can be maintained approximately con
stant over the whole range of working pressure.
Such an arrangement is shown in Fig. 8, where
the auxiliary chamber 30A is formed by a piston
‘H in a cylinder l2, the lower end of which com
municates with the main combustion chamber
by a port SIA in the power cylinder I0. The
inner face of the piston 'H is provided with a l
valve facing 38A adapted to seal the port 3|A
when the piston ‘Il is in its lowest position. The
effective volume of the auxiliary chamber 30A
is adjusted by a shaft ‘i3 operated either by hand
expansion strokes of said power piston and re
turning energy to said pistons during the com
pression strokes of said power cylinder, means
for causing at least a part of the air compressed
in said compressor cylinder to scavenge and
charge said power cylinder, an auxiliary cham
ber capable of communicating with said combus
tion chamber, valve means for interrupting com
munication between said chambers, and control
means operable for varying the volume of said
auxiliary chamber.
2. An internal-combustion-operated recipro
or by automatic means hereafter described and 60 cating machine having a power cylinder open
at each end, a pair of power pistons slidable
.carrying a bevel wheel 'i4 which meshes with a
in said power cylinder, synchronising means for
bevel wheel 75 having internal splines mating
with a splined portion ‘I6 of the rod of the piston
7l. A screwed portion 'll of this rod is engaged
in a screw-threaded bo-ss T8 on the cap of the
cylinder 12.
In order to prevent risk of the power pistons
hitting each other through operating with a large
auxiliary chamber volume when the working
constraining said pistons to move oppositely and
including a pair of members oscillable about a
common synchroniser axis normal to the axis
of said cylinder, said members being disposed
on opposite sides of said cylinder, an air com
pressor cylinder co-axial with said power cylin
der, a compressor piston connected to one of
pressure is low, means are provided for auto 70 said power pistons for movement in unison there
with and slidable in said compressor cylinder,
matically disabling the fuel-injection system un
said compressor piston being arranged to per
der such circumstances. The injection nozzle 29
is supplied through a pipe 19 by an injection
form its delivery strokes simultaneously with the
compression strokes of said power pistons, means
pump (such as Bil in Fig. 6 driven off the shaft
of the synchronising lever 24') . A hydraulically 75 for causing at least part of the air compressed
2,408,089
9..
in said compressor cylinder to scavenge andÍ
charge said power cylinder, a pneumatic cushion ;
associated with one Aof- said pistons for storing
10A
. operatedfmeans for opening said valve, and-means
serving in_response to reduction of' said charging
pressure to below a given value to de-energize
energy of combustion in said power cylinder and
returning energy to said pistons during said com- ,Y
pression strokes, an auxiliary chamber capable
of communicating with the middle portion of
said power operated means.
l ,
5. An internal-combustion-operated recipro
cating machine having a power cylinder includ
insa combustion chamber, a compressor cylin
deri co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
said power cylinder, the Yaxis of said auxiliary
piston and a compressor piston slidable in. said
chamber being inclined withV respect to said
cylinders respectively, said pistons being con
10
common synchroniser axis, a valve for interrupt
nectedV
together for operation in unison as a
ingY communication between said chamber and
piston assembly so controlled that the inner dead
said power cylinder, and a fuel-injection nozzle,
point of said power piston is unconstrained me
communicating with the middle portion of >said
chanically, means for charging said power cylin
power cylinder and disposed on the same side
of said common synchroniser axis as said cham» 15 der at a variable pressure, an auxiliary chamber
capable orcommunicating with said combustion
ber, the axis of said nozzle being inclined op
chamber, valve means for interrupting com
positely to said chamber axis with respect to saidV
common synchroniser axis.
,
f
3. An internal-combustion-operated recipro
munication between said chambers, and a de
vicel responsive to variation of. said vcharging
cating machine having apower cylinder` open 20 pressure for opening said valve automatically
when said charging pressure rises to apredeter
at each end, a pair of power `pistons slidable in`
said power cylinder, synchronising means for
constraining said pistons to move oppositely and
including a pair of members oscillable about a
mined value.
,
v
'
,.
.
commonsynchroniser axis normal to the axis of
6. An internal-combustion-operated recipro
cating machine having a power `cylinder includ
ing a combustion chamber, a compressor cylin-l
said cylinder, said members being disposed on
opposite sides of said cylinder, an air compressor
cylinder co-axial ywith said power cylinder, a
compressor piston connected to one of said powerv
nected together for operation in unison as a
pistons for movement in unison therewith and
slidable in said compressor cylinder, said com
. pressor piston being arranged to perform its de
der co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said
cylinders respectively, said pistons being con
piston assembly so controlled that the inner dead
point of said power piston is unconstrained rne
chanicaHy, means for charging said power cylin
der at a variable pressure, an auxiliary chamber
livery strokes simultaneously with the compres
capable
of communicating with said combustion
sion strokesY of said power pistons, means for
chamber,
and control means for- automatically
35
causing at least part of the air compressed in
rendering said auxiliary chamber inoperative in
said compressor cylinder to scavenge and charge
consequence of .reduction of said charging pres
said power cylinder, a pneumatic cushion associ
sure below a predetermined value.
’
ated with one of said pistons for storing energy y
7. An internal-combustion-operated recipro
of combustion in said power cylinder and re
cating machine having a power cylinder includ
turning energy to said pistons during said com
ing
a combustion chamber, a compressor cylin
pression strokes, two auxiliary chambers diamet
der co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
rically opposed about the axis of saidV power
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said
cylinder and capable of commtmicating with
cylinders respectively'y said pistons being con
the middle portion of said Apower cylinder, two
nected
together for operation in unison as a
45
valves for interrupting communication between
piston assembly so controlled that the inner dead
said auxiliary chambers respectively and said
point of said power piston is unconstrained me
power cylinder, and two fuel-injection nozzles
chanically,-means for charging said power cylin
diametrically opposed about the- axis of said
der at a variable pressure, an auxiliary chamber
power cylinder and communicating with said
power cylinder, the axes of said chambers and 50 having a port for communication with said com- "
bustion chamber, a poppet valve having a head
of said nozzles and said common synchroniser .
disposed within said auxiliary chamber for seal
axis lying substantially in a common planel nor
ing said port and a stem passing through a gland
mal to said power-cylinder axis in such a man
ner that one of said chambersand one of said
in the wall of said auxiliary chamber, a spring
and the other of said chambers and the other,
of said nozzles lie on the other side of said syn
tively connected with said valve and capable of
serving as a hydraulic damper in the event of
biasing said valve towards its closed position, and
nozzles lie on one side of said synchroniser axis 55 a double-acting hydraulic servo-motor opera-V
chroniser axis.
'
I
4. An internal-combustion-operated
recipro-`
loss of pressure of its operating liquid.
,
8. An internal-combustion-operated vrecipro- ’
cating machine having a` power cylinder includ À60 cating
machine having `a'power cylinder includ-il
ing a combustion chamber, a compressor cylinder»Y
co-axial with said power cylinder, a power piston i
and a compressor piston slidable in said cylinders
respectively, said pistons `being connected to
ing a combustion chamber, a compressor cylinder
co-axial with said power cylinder, a power pis-`
ton and a compressor piston slidable in said'cylin
ders respectively, said pistons being connected
gether for operation in unison as a piston assem- l 65 together for operation in unison as piston as
bly so controlled that vthe inner dead point of» '
said power piston is unconstrained mechanically, ,
means for charging said power cylinder at a
sembly so controlled that the inner dead point
of said power> piston is unconstrained mechani
cally, means for charging said power cylinder
at a Variable pressure, an auxiliary chamber
a port for communication with said combustion 70;
having a port for communication with said com
chamber, a poppet valve having a head disposed
bustion chamber, a puppet valve having a head ¿
within said- auxiliary chamberfor sealing said
disposed within said auxiliary chamber for seal
port and a >stem passing through a gland in the
ing said port and a stem passing through a
wall of said auxiliary chamber, a spring biasing
said valve towards its closed position, power 75 gland in the wall of said auxiliary chamber, a
variable pressure, an auxiliary chamber having
aziospee
11»
spring biasing said valve towards its closed po
sition, a double-acting servo-motor- operatively
connected with said valve, and a reversing con
troller for said servo-motor automatically re
sponsive to variation in said charging pressure.
9. An internal-combustion-'operated motive
gas generator having a power cylinder including
a combustion chamber, an air-compressor cylin
12
tion in the inner dead point-of said power pis
ton, an auxiliary chamber capable of communi
cating with said combustion chamber, servo
mechanism for rendering said auxiliary cham
ber alternatively operative and inoperative, and
compensating means associated with said fol
lower ’device and said servo mechanism for alter
ing the adjustment of 'said follower device auto
der co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
matically and simultaneously with the render
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said l0 ing of said auxiliary chamber operative and in
cylinders respectively, said pistons being con
operative in such a way as to maintain substan
nected together for operation in unison in su'ch
tially the same compression ratio in said 'power
a manner that said compressor piston performs
cylinder.
its delivery strokes simultaneously with the com
pression strokes of said power piston, a pneu
12. An internal-combustion-operated motive
15 gas generator having a power cylinder including
matic cushion associated with said pistons for
storing energy imparted to them during the ex
pansion strokes of said power piston and return
ing energy to said pistons during the compres
a combustion chamber, an air-compressor cylin
der co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said
cylinders respectively, said pistons being con
sion strokes of said power cylinder, means for 20 nected together for operation in unison in such
causing at least a part of the air compressed
a manner that said compressor piston performs
in said compressor cylinder to scavenge and
its delivery strokes simultaneously with the corn
charge said power cylinder, an auxiliary cham
pression strokes of said power piston, a pneu
ber communicating with said power cylinder,
matic cushion associated with said pistons for
and control means responsive to variation in the
storing energy imparted to them during the ex
delivery pressure of said compressor cylinder for
pansion strokes of said power piston and return
automatically rendering said auxiliary chamber
ing energy to said pistons during the compres
inoperative in consequence of reduction of said
sion strokes of said power cylinder, means for
delivery pressure below a predetermined value.
causing at least a part of the air compressed
10. An internal-combustion-operated recipro 30 in said compressor cylinder to scavenge and
cating machine having a power cylinder includcharge `said power cylinder, control mechanism
ing a combustion chamber, a compressor cylin
including an oscillable element of variable effec
der co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
tive length for following variation of the inner
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said
dead point of said power piston, a hydraulic
cylinders respectively, said pistons being` con 35 control device for varying said effective length,
nected together for operation in unison as a pis
an auxiliary chamber capable of communicating
ton assembly so controlled that the inner dead>
with said combustion chamber, hydraulic servo
point 0f said power piston is unconstrained me
mechanism for rendering said auxiliary chamber
chanically, means for charging said power cylin
alternatively operative and inoperative, and a
der at a variable pressure, control mechanism 40 compensating connection for liquid between said
including an adjustable follower device for fol
hydraulic control device and said hydraulic servo
lowing variations in said inner dead point, an
mechanism »which causes the effective length of
auxiliary chamber capable of communicating
said oscillable follower element to be varied auto
with said combustion chamber, control means
matically and simultaneously with the rendering
for rendering said auxiliary chamber alternative
r of said auxiliary chamber operative and inopera
ly operative and inoperative, and compensating
tive in such a way as to maintain substantially
means associated with said follower device and
with said control means for altering the ad'
(the same compression ratio in said power cyl
inder.
justment of said follower device automatically
and simultaneously with the rendering ofvsaid
auxiliary chamber operative and inoperative in
such a way as to maintain substantially the same
compression ratio in said power cylinder.
l1. An internal-combustion-operated motive
gas generator having a power cylinder including
a combustion chamber, an air-compressor cylin
der co-aXial with said power cylinder, a power
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said
13. An internal-combustion-operated recipro
eating machine having a power cylinder includ
ing a combustion chamber, a compressor cylin
der co-axial with said power cylinder, a power
piston and a compressor piston slidable in said
cylinders respectively, said pistons being con
nected together for operation in unison as a
piston assembly so controlled that the inner dead
point of said power piston is unconstrained me
chanically, means for charging said power cylin
.der at a variable pressure, a control member
cylinders respectively, said pistons being con
nected together for operation in unison in such 60 operable for stopping the machine, an auxiliary
a manner that said compressor piston performs
chamber capable of communicating with said
its delivery strokes simultaneously with the com
combustion chamber, controlmeans for render
pression strokes of said power piston, a pneu
ing saidauxiliary chamber alternatively opera
matic cushion associated with said pistons for
tive and inoperative, and protective mechanism
storing energy imparted to them during the ex 65 operatively associated with said stop control
pansion strokes of said power piston and return
member and said control means and responsive
ing energy to said pistons during the compression
to-variation in said charging pressure for auto
strokes of said power cylinder, means for caus
matically stopping the machine in response to the
ing at least a part of the air compressed in said
occurrence of an undesired relationship between
compressor cylinder to .scavenge and charge said 70 said charging pressure and the effective volume
power cylinder, control mechanism including an
of said auxiliary chamber.
adjustable follower device for following varia
FREDERICK ALAN AIRVING MUN'I‘Z.l
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