Патент USA US2408092код для вставки
Sept. 24,‘ 1946. v R: c. OLESEN ' 2,408,091 ELECTRICAL‘ REGULATING SYSTEM ' 1 Filed May 19, 11944 @Sma J 4l. O. _. 3% mmfw mmid? E581; .. - I INVENTOR > .»,?@ym0d 63 01cm”, - BY ‘ M9 ATTOR EYS Patented Sept. 24, 1946 2,408,091 UNITED' STATES PATENT OFFICE ‘ ELECTRICAL REGULATING SYSTEM Raymond C. Olesen, Altadena, Calif., assignor'to Consolidated Engineering Corporation, Pasa dena, Calif., a corporation of California Application May 19, 1944, Serial No. 536,379 (iClaims. (Cl. 3‘15—101)< . 1~ , . This invention relates to electrical regulating a 2 V removing ?lter comprising series chokes 8 and systems and has for its object‘ to maintain a ' 9, and shunt condensers 44 and H. There is connected across ‘the ?lament a resistance it] constant current orv’oltage in an electrical cir having its midpoint connected to ground. When ouit. the ?lamentv is ‘heatcd,'a uni-directional current ’ There are many types of electrical circuits ?ows between the anode and cathode of tube V1 wherein it is desired vto maintain a constant cur and through its anode circuit to ground, by oper rent ?ow or constant voltage across anelement in spite of variations introduced for example, . ' ation of the anode voltage source 45. by irregular supply voltage or irregularities of It is desired to maintain the anode current of the cathode or anode circuits of a vacuum tube. 10 tube, V; -~ constant. Ordinarily some variations would be superimposed on the otherwise steady In particular, it is desirable in manyv instances anode current, due to such influence as uneven to maintain a constant anode current in a‘vac cathode emission or irregularities in the voltage uum tube. . ' supplied through the transformer T1 or by volt According to my invention I maintain a con stant anode current in a vacuum tube circuit age source ll-E. These irregularities are overcome controlling the ?lament currentof the tube in and‘ the anode current is maintained constant in spite of them by operation of the following ap accordance with the anode current. , paratus: A feature of my invention is the provision of a self-balancing bridge having, an arm whose There is included in series with the anode impedance is varied in accordance with the cur 20 circuit of tube V1 a coil l2 wound on the middle leg of a three-legged reactor core 13. On the rent which is to be maintained constant. The outer two legs of the core are respectively wind output of the bridge is used to control the cur ings l4 and is connected in series aiding relation and constituting one arm of a four-arm bridge understood from the followingdetailed descripl 25 IS. The other three arms of the bridge comprise respectively resistor H, the parallel connected tion and the accompanying drawing which shows condenser I8 and resistor Hi, and the resistor Zil. a system embodying my invention. ' The reactor core I3 is the saturable type with In the drawing, V1 represents a vacuum tube rent through the tube. 1 ‘ - The above and other features will be better enough current ?owing through windings It! and having a ?lament type cathode l and an anode 2, with a load 3 connected in the anode circuit 30 I5 to keep it at a point of saturation. Changes of the direct current through coil I! thus produce between the anode and ground. The load may corresponding changes of the reactance of coils be of any desired type, for example,‘ a resistance l4 and I5, anfincrease of current through It across which a voltage may be taken to be used causing a, decrease of impedance of, it l5, elsewhere. Or in some cases, for example, where ' the tube V1 is used in gas analysis work, the 35 and vice versa. load 3 may be omitted. Current for heating the ?lament l is supplied from an alternating volt age source‘ t2, which is applied on the primary All of a transformer‘Ts, the secondary winding ‘An alternating voltage from an alternating voltage source 2| having the same frequency as source 42, is impressed through transformer T2 across the opposite bridge terminals 22 and 23 39 of. which has its terminals ‘connected respec 40 which vconstitute the input terminals of the bridge. The remaining conjugate pair of termi tively to the outer terminals of the respective primary coils Iii-and 5 of transformerTL The, nals 24 and 25 are the output terminals and are circuits of primary windings 4 and 5 are come connected to the input terminals 26 and 21 of plcted through respective vacuum tubes Viand' ampli?er 28, the terminal 21 being grounded. V2.v These are of the three-‘element type having .The output terminals of the ampli?er, 29 and a cathode, an anode and a control electrode. The cathodes are connected together and to the grounded midpoint of secondary winding 39. The current flowing through windings 4 vand 5 is the anode current vthrough the respective control tubes V3 and V2. The‘ alternating voltage at seoondarywinding 6 of transformer T1 is brought to, a suitable recti?er 1 from which the recti 39 are connected to the primary coil ill of a transformer T3, through a switch S1. Trans former T3 has "two secondary windings 32 and 33. The adjacent terminals of windings'32 and 33 are connected respectively to the opposite'ter minals of the secondary winding 34 of a trans former T4, the midpoint of which is grounded. The remaining two terminals of windings 32 and ?ed power is suppliedito the ?lament l_ of tube V1 in a conventional manner through. a ripple 5,5 33V are connected through resistors 35 and36 2,408,091 3 4 three-electrode vacuum tubes V2 and V3. normally maintained in balance with no output voltage at the output terminals, one of said bridge Alternating voltage is impressed on the pri mary windings 40 and 4! of transformers T4 and T5 by the alternating voltage source 42. There arms comprising a variable impedance element, means correlated with the impedance element and the anode circuit for producing a variation of is connected across source 42 a potentiometer 43 between the adjustable tap and fixed terminal of the impedance of said impedance element in correspondence with variation of the anode cur which primary winding 43 is connected to permit rent, thereby producing a corresponding unbal respectively to the control grids 31 and 38 of ance and output voltage at the bridge output ter adjustment of the voltage on winding 12-0. In operation, the power \for heating ?lament l 10 minals, and means for applying to the regulating means a control voltage derived (from the bridge of tube V1 is supplied from alternating voltage output in the polarity which tends to decrease the source 42 through transformers T5 and T1 and ‘the voltage to the recti?er when the anode current recti?er ‘I. The voltage output of transformer tends to increase, and to increase the voltage to T1 to the recti?er ‘I is governed by the current the recti?er when the anode current tends to which can pass between the anode and cathode decrease. whereby the anode current is main of the respective control tubes V2 and V3. This tained substantially constant. current through the control tubes is in turn gov 2. A system for maintaining a constant anode erned by the alternating voltage on their control current through a vacuum tube having an anode grids 38 and 31. When switch S1 is open the voltage on the grids 3'! and 38 is an alternating 20 and. a cathode which when heated emits elec trons, said system comprising a recti?er circuit voltage of the same frequency as the voltage on for supplying current for heating said cathode, the anodes of the same tubes; and this alternat a source of alternating voltage for supplying ing voltage on the grids establishes a de?nite power to said recti?er, a voltage controlled regu amount of current flow in transformer T1. lating means for regulating the voltage supplied With switch S1 closed, the voltage on the con , from said source to the recti?er, a saturable core trol grids 31 and 38 is changed in accordance reactor having a winding in the anode circuit, a with any voltage output from the bridge I6, and four-arm bridge having a pair of opposite input the effect is to vary the voltage on the control terminals and a conjugate pair of opposite out grids in accordance with the anode current of tube V1. Assume, for example, that the anode 30 put terminals and a second winding of said re actor in one of its arms, a source of alternating current of tube V1 tends to increase causing in voltage connected to the input terminals, said creased current to ?ow through coil l2 of the bridge being normally maintained in balance with saturable core reactor. This would increase the no output voltage at its output terminals and reluctance of the core and decrease the induct means for applying to the regulating means a ance of coils M and I5. This would tend to un control voltage derived from the bridge output balance the normally balanced bridge and cause in the polarity which tends to decrease the volt an alternating current input voltage from source age to the recti?er when the anode current tends 2| to be applied to the input terminals 26 and 21 to increase and to increase the voltage to the of ampli?er 28 and thereby cause current to flow in the primary coil 3| of transformer T3 (switch 4.0 recti?er when the anode current tends to de crease, whereby the anode current is maintained S1 being closed). This will induce in secondary substantially constant. coils 32 and 33 a voltage which is superimposed A system for maintaining a constant anode on the voltage normally in those coils, derived current through a vacuum tube having an anode from source 42, and is of a polarity to make the alternating voltage on grids 31 and 38 more in ,n in and a cathode whichwhen heated emits elec trons, said system comprising a recti?er for sup opposition to the anode voltages of these tubes, so that less current will flow through windings plying current for heating said cathode, a source of alternating voltage for supplying power to said 4 and 5 of transformer T1. This wil1 result in a 1 corresponding decrease in current supplied to the recti?er, a control tube having a cathode, anode and control electrode for regulating the power ?lament cathode I, and will reduce the ?lament supply to the recti?er, a second source of alter emission and tend to keep the anode current of nating voltage of the same frequency as the ?rst tube V1 down to its normal original value. mentioned source and connected .to said control Any tendency toward reduction of the anode electrode in phase opposition to the voltage on current of tube V1 will similarly operate through the anode of said control tube, and means for the bridge to produce a corresponding increase varying the voltage of said second source, said of the current through ?lament i to counteract means comprising a normally balanced bridge the decrease of the anode current. having four impedance arms and a pair of oppo Accordingly the anode current tends to main~ site input terminals and a conjugate pair of op tain its normal steady value in spite of ?uctua posite output terminals, a third source of alter tions due to extraneous causes and the bridge [6 nating voltage of said frequency applied to the acts as a self-balancing bridge to bring this input terminals of said bridge, a saturable reac about. tor having a saturable core and a plurality of I claim: ' ' windings on the core, a ?rst of said windings 1. A system for maintaining a constant anode being in the anode circuit of said vacuum tube, current through a vacuum tube having an anode and a second of said windings being in one of said and a. cathode which when heated emits electrons, bridge arms whereby the bridge becomes unbal said system comprising a recti?er for'supplying anced by changes of ‘rt-he current through said current for heating said cathode, a source of al ?rst winding, and connections from the output ternating voltage for supplying power to said rec '?er, controlled regulating means for regu 70 terminals of the bridge for changing the magni tude of the voltage of said second source in ac lating the voltage from said source to the recti cordance with the degree of bridge unbalance, ?er, a bridge having a pair of opposite input ter the changes being in the direction which de minals and a conjugate pair of opposite output ‘ creases the cathode heating current when said terminals, a source of alternating voltage con nected to said input terminals, said bridge being 75 anode current increases, and increases the oath 2,408,091 , 5 ode heating current when said anode current de creases, whereby the anode current is maintained substantially constant. ll. Apparatus according to claim 3, in which ance arms with a pair of opposite input termi nals and a, conjugate pair of opposite output ter minals, a third source of alternating voltage of the same frequency connected to said input ter said saturable core of the reactor has three legs, 5 minals, one of said impedance arms comprising a variable impedance element, means correlated and said first winding is on one of the legs and with the variable impedance element and the the second winding comprises two coils, one coil anode circuit for producing a variation of the. being on each of the other two legs, said two coils impedance of said variable impedance element being arranged in the series-aiding connection. in correspondence with variation of the anode 5. A system for maintaining a constant anode current, whereby changes of said anode-current current through a Vacuum tube having an anode produce corresponding unb-alances of the bridge and a cathode which when heated emits electrons, and control means ‘responsive to the bridge out said system comprising a recti?er for supplying put which applies control voltages to the respec current for heating said cathode, a ?rst source ' of alternating voltage for supplying said recti?er, 15 tive control electrodes in the polarity which changes said cathode heating current in the di ' a pair of control tubes each having a cathode, an rection opposite to changes of said anode current, anode and a control electrode for regulating the whereby the anode current is maintained sub supply to the recti?er, a transformer connected stantially constant. between the control tubes and the recti?er, said 6. Apparatus according to claim 5 in which the transformer having two primaries which are re 20 control means comprises a transformer having a spectively in series with the anode circuits of the primary winding which receives voltage from the control tubes, a second source of alternating volt output of-said bridge and a pair of secondary age of the same frequency as the ?rst source and windings each of which is connected to a sepa connected to said control electrodes, and means ‘ ' for. controlling the magnitude of the last-men 25 rate one of said control electrodes. tioned alternating voltage, said means comprising a normally balanced bridge having four imped RAYMOND c. OLESEN.