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Патент USA US2408092

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Sept. 24,‘ 1946.
v
R: c. OLESEN
' 2,408,091
ELECTRICAL‘ REGULATING SYSTEM
' 1 Filed May 19, 11944
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INVENTOR
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BY
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ATTOR EYS
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
2,408,091
UNITED' STATES PATENT OFFICE ‘
ELECTRICAL REGULATING SYSTEM
Raymond C. Olesen, Altadena, Calif., assignor'to
Consolidated Engineering Corporation, Pasa
dena, Calif., a corporation of California
Application May 19, 1944, Serial No. 536,379
(iClaims. (Cl. 3‘15—101)<
.
1~
,
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This invention relates to electrical regulating
a
2
V
removing ?lter comprising series chokes 8 and
systems and has for its object‘ to maintain a ' 9, and shunt condensers 44 and H. There is
connected across ‘the ?lament a resistance it]
constant current orv’oltage in an electrical cir
having its midpoint connected to ground. When
ouit.
the ?lamentv is ‘heatcd,'a uni-directional current ’
There are many types of electrical circuits
?ows between the anode and cathode of tube V1
wherein it is desired vto maintain a constant cur
and through its anode circuit to ground, by oper
rent ?ow or constant voltage across anelement
in spite of variations introduced for example, . ' ation of the anode voltage source 45.
by irregular supply voltage or irregularities of
It is desired to maintain the anode current of
the cathode or anode circuits of a vacuum tube. 10 tube, V; -~ constant. Ordinarily some variations
would be superimposed on the otherwise steady
In particular, it is desirable in manyv instances
anode current, due to such influence as uneven
to maintain a constant anode current in a‘vac
cathode emission or irregularities in the voltage
uum tube.
.
'
supplied through the transformer T1 or by volt
According to my invention I maintain a con
stant anode current in a vacuum tube circuit
age source ll-E. These irregularities are overcome
controlling the ?lament currentof the tube in
and‘ the anode current is maintained constant in
spite of them by operation of the following ap
accordance with the anode current.
, paratus:
A feature of my invention is the provision of
a self-balancing bridge having, an arm whose
There is included in series with the anode
impedance is varied in accordance with the cur 20 circuit of tube V1 a coil l2 wound on the middle
leg of a three-legged reactor core 13. On the
rent which is to be maintained constant. The
outer two legs of the core are respectively wind
output of the bridge is used to control the cur
ings l4 and is connected in series aiding relation
and constituting one arm of a four-arm bridge
understood from the followingdetailed descripl 25 IS. The other three arms of the bridge comprise
respectively resistor H, the parallel connected
tion and the accompanying drawing which shows
condenser I8 and resistor Hi, and the resistor Zil.
a system embodying my invention.
'
The reactor core I3 is the saturable type with
In the drawing, V1 represents a vacuum tube
rent through the tube.
1
‘
-
The above and other features will be better
enough current ?owing through windings It! and
having a ?lament type cathode l and an anode
2, with a load 3 connected in the anode circuit 30 I5 to keep it at a point of saturation. Changes
of the direct current through coil I! thus produce
between the anode and ground. The load may
corresponding changes of the reactance of coils
be of any desired type, for example,‘ a resistance
l4 and I5, anfincrease of current through It
across which a voltage may be taken to be used
causing a, decrease of impedance of, it
l5,
elsewhere. Or in some cases, for example, where
'
the tube V1 is used in gas analysis work, the 35 and vice versa.
load 3 may be omitted. Current for heating the
?lament l is supplied from an alternating volt
age source‘ t2, which is applied on the primary
All of a transformer‘Ts, the secondary winding
‘An alternating voltage from an alternating
voltage source 2| having the same frequency as
source 42, is impressed through transformer T2
across the opposite bridge terminals 22 and 23
39 of. which has its terminals ‘connected respec 40 which vconstitute the input terminals of the
bridge. The remaining conjugate pair of termi
tively to the outer terminals of the respective
primary coils Iii-and 5 of transformerTL The,
nals 24 and 25 are the output terminals and are
circuits of primary windings 4 and 5 are come
connected to the input terminals 26 and 21 of
plcted through respective vacuum tubes Viand'
ampli?er 28, the terminal 21 being grounded.
V2.v These are of the three-‘element type having
.The output terminals of the ampli?er, 29 and
a cathode, an anode and a control electrode.
The cathodes are connected together and to the
grounded midpoint of secondary winding 39. The
current flowing through windings 4 vand 5 is
the anode current vthrough the respective control
tubes V3 and V2. The‘ alternating voltage at
seoondarywinding 6 of transformer T1 is brought
to, a suitable recti?er 1 from which the recti
39 are connected to the primary coil ill of a
transformer T3, through a switch S1. Trans
former T3 has "two secondary windings 32 and
33. The adjacent terminals of windings'32 and
33 are connected respectively to the opposite'ter
minals of the secondary winding 34 of a trans
former T4, the midpoint of which is grounded.
The remaining two terminals of windings 32 and
?ed power is suppliedito the ?lament l_ of tube
V1 in a conventional manner through. a ripple 5,5 33V are connected through resistors 35 and36
2,408,091
3
4
three-electrode vacuum tubes V2 and V3.
normally maintained in balance with no output
voltage at the output terminals, one of said bridge
Alternating voltage is impressed on the pri
mary windings 40 and 4! of transformers T4 and
T5 by the alternating voltage source 42. There
arms comprising a variable impedance element,
means correlated with the impedance element and
the anode circuit for producing a variation of
is connected across source 42 a potentiometer 43
between the adjustable tap and fixed terminal of
the impedance of said impedance element in
correspondence with variation of the anode cur
which primary winding 43 is connected to permit
rent, thereby producing a corresponding unbal
respectively to the control grids 31 and 38 of
ance and output voltage at the bridge output ter
adjustment of the voltage on winding 12-0.
In operation, the power \for heating ?lament l 10 minals, and means for applying to the regulating
means a control voltage derived (from the bridge
of tube V1 is supplied from alternating voltage
output in the polarity which tends to decrease the
source 42 through transformers T5 and T1 and ‘the
voltage to the recti?er when the anode current
recti?er ‘I. The voltage output of transformer
tends to increase, and to increase the voltage to
T1 to the recti?er ‘I is governed by the current
the recti?er when the anode current tends to
which can pass between the anode and cathode
decrease. whereby the anode current is main
of the respective control tubes V2 and V3. This
tained substantially constant.
current through the control tubes is in turn gov
2. A system for maintaining a constant anode
erned by the alternating voltage on their control
current through a vacuum tube having an anode
grids 38 and 31. When switch S1 is open the
voltage on the grids 3'! and 38 is an alternating 20 and. a cathode which when heated emits elec
trons, said system comprising a recti?er circuit
voltage of the same frequency as the voltage on
for supplying current for heating said cathode,
the anodes of the same tubes; and this alternat
a source of alternating voltage for supplying
ing voltage on the grids establishes a de?nite
power to said recti?er, a voltage controlled regu
amount of current flow in transformer T1.
lating means for regulating the voltage supplied
With switch S1 closed, the voltage on the con
, from said source to the recti?er, a saturable core
trol grids 31 and 38 is changed in accordance
reactor having a winding in the anode circuit, a
with any voltage output from the bridge I6, and
four-arm bridge having a pair of opposite input
the effect is to vary the voltage on the control
terminals and a conjugate pair of opposite out
grids in accordance with the anode current of
tube V1. Assume, for example, that the anode 30 put terminals and a second winding of said re
actor in one of its arms, a source of alternating
current of tube V1 tends to increase causing in
voltage connected to the input terminals, said
creased current to ?ow through coil l2 of the
bridge being normally maintained in balance with
saturable core reactor. This would increase the
no output voltage at its output terminals and
reluctance of the core and decrease the induct
means for applying to the regulating means a
ance of coils M and I5. This would tend to un
control voltage derived from the bridge output
balance the normally balanced bridge and cause
in the polarity which tends to decrease the volt
an alternating current input voltage from source
age to the recti?er when the anode current tends
2| to be applied to the input terminals 26 and 21
to increase and to increase the voltage to the
of ampli?er 28 and thereby cause current to flow
in the primary coil 3| of transformer T3 (switch 4.0 recti?er when the anode current tends to de
crease, whereby the anode current is maintained
S1 being closed). This will induce in secondary
substantially constant.
coils 32 and 33 a voltage which is superimposed
A system for maintaining a constant anode
on the voltage normally in those coils, derived
current through a vacuum tube having an anode
from source 42, and is of a polarity to make the
alternating voltage on grids 31 and 38 more in ,n in and a cathode whichwhen heated emits elec
trons, said system comprising a recti?er for sup
opposition to the anode voltages of these tubes,
so that less current will flow through windings
plying current for heating said cathode, a source
of alternating voltage for supplying power to said
4 and 5 of transformer T1. This wil1 result in a 1
corresponding decrease in current supplied to the
recti?er, a control tube having a cathode, anode
and control electrode for regulating the power
?lament cathode I, and will reduce the ?lament
supply to the recti?er, a second source of alter
emission and tend to keep the anode current of
nating voltage of the same frequency as the ?rst
tube V1 down to its normal original value.
mentioned source and connected .to said control
Any tendency toward reduction of the anode
electrode in phase opposition to the voltage on
current of tube V1 will similarly operate through
the anode of said control tube, and means for
the bridge to produce a corresponding increase
varying the voltage of said second source, said
of the current through ?lament i to counteract
means comprising a normally balanced bridge
the decrease of the anode current.
having four impedance arms and a pair of oppo
Accordingly the anode current tends to main~
site input terminals and a conjugate pair of op
tain its normal steady value in spite of ?uctua
posite output terminals, a third source of alter
tions due to extraneous causes and the bridge [6
nating voltage of said frequency applied to the
acts as a self-balancing bridge to bring this
input terminals of said bridge, a saturable reac
about.
tor having a saturable core and a plurality of
I claim:
'
'
windings on the core, a ?rst of said windings
1. A system for maintaining a constant anode
being in the anode circuit of said vacuum tube,
current through a vacuum tube having an anode
and a second of said windings being in one of said
and a. cathode which when heated emits electrons,
bridge arms whereby the bridge becomes unbal
said system comprising a recti?er for'supplying
anced by changes of ‘rt-he current through said
current for heating said cathode, a source of al
?rst winding, and connections from the output
ternating voltage for supplying power to said
rec '?er, controlled regulating means for regu 70 terminals of the bridge for changing the magni
tude of the voltage of said second source in ac
lating the voltage from said source to the recti
cordance with the degree of bridge unbalance,
?er, a bridge having a pair of opposite input ter
the changes being in the direction which de
minals and a conjugate pair of opposite output ‘
creases the cathode heating current when said
terminals, a source of alternating voltage con
nected to said input terminals, said bridge being 75 anode current increases, and increases the oath
2,408,091 ,
5
ode heating current when said anode current de
creases, whereby the anode current is maintained
substantially constant.
ll. Apparatus according to claim 3, in which
ance arms with a pair of opposite input termi
nals and a, conjugate pair of opposite output ter
minals, a third source of alternating voltage of
the same frequency connected to said input ter
said saturable core of the reactor has three legs, 5 minals, one of said impedance arms comprising
a variable impedance element, means correlated
and said first winding is on one of the legs and
with the variable impedance element and the
the second winding comprises two coils, one coil
anode circuit for producing a variation of the.
being on each of the other two legs, said two coils
impedance of said variable impedance element
being arranged in the series-aiding connection.
in correspondence with variation of the anode
5. A system for maintaining a constant anode
current, whereby changes of said anode-current
current through a Vacuum tube having an anode
produce corresponding unb-alances of the bridge
and a cathode which when heated emits electrons,
and control means ‘responsive to the bridge out
said system comprising a recti?er for supplying
put which applies control voltages to the respec
current for heating said cathode, a ?rst source '
of alternating voltage for supplying said recti?er, 15 tive control electrodes in the polarity which
changes said cathode heating current in the di
' a pair of control tubes each having a cathode, an
rection opposite to changes of said anode current,
anode and a control electrode for regulating the
whereby the anode current is maintained sub
supply to the recti?er, a transformer connected
stantially constant.
between the control tubes and the recti?er, said
6. Apparatus according to claim 5 in which the
transformer having two primaries which are re 20
control means comprises a transformer having a
spectively in series with the anode circuits of the
primary winding which receives voltage from the
control tubes, a second source of alternating volt
output of-said bridge and a pair of secondary
age of the same frequency as the ?rst source and
windings each of which is connected to a sepa
connected to said control electrodes, and means
‘
'
for. controlling the magnitude of the last-men 25 rate one of said control electrodes.
tioned alternating voltage, said means comprising
a normally balanced bridge having four imped
RAYMOND c. OLESEN.
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