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Патент USA US2408101

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SePt- 24, 1946.
Filed April 28, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
El2 36.
BYJM... L. (W?
Sept 24,1946.
Filed April 28, 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
F. E SH/PL 5r
Sept. 24, 1946.
_ 2,408,100
Filed April 28. 1944
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
0a m”aAmmwpmm
Sept. 24, 1946.
‘Filed April->28. 1944
S sheets-sheet 4
BY 0904.. a. Gm?
Patented Sept. .24, 1946
Frank F. Shipley, Tena?y, N. J., assignor to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation oi’ New York
' ‘ Application April 28, 1944, Serial No. 533,106
(Cl. 178-3)
lating mechanism the three-condition signal ele»
This application relatesto the translation of
permutation code telegraph signals in accordance
with one code into permutation c'ode telegraph
signals in accordance with a second and di?er
ments are retranslated into the original ?ve-ele
ment two-condition signal elements, then the
translated signals are impressed on a ?ve-element
Vi two-condition receiving system. when the trans
More speci?cally this application relates- to
‘mission of the translated two-condition signal
the translation of ?ve-element two-condition
permutation code telegraph signals into three
condition signals some oi which have four ele
acteristic stop signal combination is transmitted
which ?ve-element two—condition permutation
The invention is illustrated in its present em
bodiment on the accompanying drawings which
discloses a system for attaining the‘ maximum
speed of transmission over a long cable employ
ing the well-known cable co'de, wherein ?ve-ele
ent code.
elements over the cable is-terminated a char
over the cable. In response to this the receiving
end of the cable is automatically reconnected to
ments and‘others of which have three elements.
its three-condition cable code receiver.
__ A system has heretoiore been proposed in
code telegraph‘ signals are‘ all translated into
four-element three-conditionv permutation code
signals. The system herein represents an im
provement over said proposed system in that it
ment two-condition start-stop permutation code
e?ects a saving in the time required for trans
mission due to the fact that the transmission of
telegraph signals are translated into three-con
the three-element signals requires less time than
the transmission of tour-element signals.
As is well known in the art due to the electrical
dition cable code signals. In the .present embodi
ment twenty-tour oi the thirty-two ?ve-‘element
two-condition signals are translated into three
element three-condition signals and the remain
ing eight ?ve-element two-condition signals are
particularly long submarine- cables, it is not pos
translated into eight four-element three-condi
sible',to transmit over them at‘ a high rate of
tion signals. The invention may be under
speed. as a result ‘of thisa system oLtransmis 25 stood from the following description when read
sion ls'employedLwhe'rein each'signal element‘
with reference. to the associated drawings in
over the cable may befoi any
characteristics of certain transmission channels,
one of ‘three conditions; namely. positive battery,
rangement it. is possible to de?ne a character
with fewer-"signal elements‘ than in a system
wherein each signal element'may be of one of two
Fig, 2 is'the transmitting signal code trans
In the arrangement herein a system employing
along telegraphchann’el arranged for the slower
three-condition signaling is used as a link to
interconnect two stations arranged‘ for the tester
two-condition signaling. More‘ ‘speci?cally, a
Fig. 3 shows the cable code receiver and the
?ve-element two-condition start-stop receiving
Fig. 4 shows the receiving code translator:
transmitting station arranged for the slower
three-condition signaling is interconnected
element two-condition start-stop permutation
code telegraph signal transmitting system and
the transmitting'end oi the three-condition cable
code system:
conditions only. a
Fig. 1 shows the transmitting end 0! the me
negative battery or ground. with such an ar
through a long submarine cable to a receiving
Fig. 5 shows an introductory diagram for ex
plaining the relationship of the’major apparatus
units 01' the system;
station arrangedto receive the slower signals.
Fig. 6 is a cable code diagrani used in explain
ing the code translations;
Fig. 7 is a diagram used in explaining-the opera
tion of the code translating pulse control relays‘.
The circuits are arranged in such manner that
when ?ve-element two-condition start-stop per
mutation code signals are to be transmitted over
the cable, the cable is automatically seized at the
transmitting end.‘ The five-element two-condi
Fig. 3 is a diagram showing the manner in which
tion signals arelpassed through a signal code
Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4 should be arranged physically
translator which translates them into three'con
each in relation to the other to form an operative
dition signals suitable for transmission over the 50
cable. Two characteristic signal combinations
Refer now to Fig. 5. In Fig. 5 as mentioned
are ?rst transmitted over the cable. In response
above, the major apparatus units employed in
to this the receiving end of the cable is switched
from its regular receiver and connected instead
to a rctranslating mechanism.
In the retrans-
Figs. 1 to 4 are shown in their relationship to
each other. This will be explained as an intro
duction to a more detailed description to follow.
in the signal element position indicated. The
foregoing will become more apparent below.
Reference to the bottom line of Fig. 6 shows the
word "Start" in column EDI and the bottom line
The teletypew?ter transmitting station 50! which
generates ?ve~element two-condition start
stop teletypewriter code combinations is inter
connected by means of two conductors 502 and
503 to a typing reperforator 504. The teletype
writer signal combinations transmitted from
teletypewriter transmitting station 5M are re
ceived by the typing reperf orator 5M and punched
in a tape 505. The punched tape 505 is passed
in column E02 is designated "2 letters." This in
dicates that two ?ve—element teletypewriter code
combinations corresponding to the functional
code combination for printing letter , namely,
+++++ and +++++ are translated into two
through a transmitting distributor. The trans~
mitting distributor impresses ?ve-element two
conditions signals through the live conductors 5D‘!
— — — -
and — - — —. and are transmitted over the cable
when the system is to be arranged for the trans
mission of translated teletypewriter code combi
nations. These combinations are employed in
switching the receiving end of the cable mecha
and the code converter 50!! which converts the
?ve-element two-condition signals into three
condition signals some of which are three-ele
ment and others of‘ which are four-element.
nism only and are not impressed on the receiving
translator. The second last line in Fig. 6 indi
cates that a distinctive combination. namely,
——+- is transmitted over the cable as a stop
signal when the transmission of translated tele
typewriter code signals over the cable is com
pleted. In response to this particular combina
tion the regenerative repeater 5| 4 is disconnected
from the code receiving converter 5T8 and con
nected to the cable code receiver 5". There is no
From the code converter 508, the translated
signals are impressed through the four con
ductors 589 on the relay switching circuit 5w.
Cable code transmitter 5“ is normally con
nected through switching circuit 585 to the
cable transmitter relay circuit 5|2. When sig
nals are transmitted from the teletypewriter’s
station 5N, however, the system is arranged so
that the cable code transmitter 5“ is discon
nected by the switching circuit 5N] and the
teletypewriter signals are impressed through the
combination corresponding to this Stop combina
tion shown in column 502. The reason for this
is that the Stop combination is generated origi
nally in the code converter in ‘response to. the
operation of a switch when teletypewriter trans
mission is ended and there is no corresponding
?ve-element code combination required for the
cable transmitter relay circuit 5|2 on the cable
conductor 513 which is enclosed in cable 5| 4. The
cable extends to the distant receiving station
where the cable conductor 5l3 is connected to a
regenerative repeater 524 which is ordinarily con
performance of this function.
nected through switching circuit BIG to the cable
code receiver 5". Whenever the cable transmit
ter 5|2 is seized by the operation of the teletype
‘ .
Detailed operation of circuit
writing transmitting station 50 I, two characteris
The circuit per Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4 is shown in
tic signaling combinations are ?rst transmitted
over cable conductor 5l3. In response to this,
switching circuit SIB- is controlled through pulse
selector 5l5 so, as. to disconnect cable code re
the normal idle condition. When in this con
dition the armatures of relays 58- and 63 are
actuated to engage their respective right-hand
contacts under the in?uence 01' current ?owing
ceiver 5" from regenerative repeater 524 and the
regenerative repeater 524 is connected through
the-switching circuit 516 to the code receiving
converter 5| 8. In. the code receiving converter
resistance 65, bottom winding of relays 63 ‘and
58 and resistance 60 to ground. ‘The circuit
through the top windings of each of relays 5B
the three and four-element three-condition sig
nals are reconverted into ?ve-element two-condi
tion signals and impressed through conductors
520 and transmitting distributor SIS. The trans
mitting distributor 5l9 impresses the signals on
conductors MI and 522 which extend to a distant
teletypewrltlng receiving station 523,
Refer now to Fig. 6.
in a circuit which extends from battery through
and E3 is open.
Relay 6B is released as key 4|,
Fig. 2, is not operated and contactsv 43c and Me
are both open. Relay I04 in ‘Fig. 313- released
and the receiving regenerative repeater I.“ is
connected through contacts “Ma and into to the
cable code receiver I63. The cable codetrans
mltter I15 is well known in the art andwill not
Column Elli in Fig. 6
therefore be described in detail herein. .Re
generative repeater H4, selector I15 and the cable
shows 26 letter and 6 functional symbols making
a total 0! 32 used in ?ve-element two-condition
teletypewriter code transmission. It shows also
a Stop dmignation and a Start designation. The
32 ?vmelement code combinations have marking
elements in the signal element positions shown
in column 602 and spacing elements in the other
tape feed mechanism 13 of the cable code trans
of the ?ve positions of each combination.
mitter to ground energizing the tape feed
marking elements operate correspondingly num
bered relays in the code converter per Fig. 2.
Column 603 shows the three and four-element
three—condition code combinations into which the
corresponding ?ve-element two-condition combi
nations are translated. Reference to columns
Bill and 6B3 indicates that 24 of the 32 ?ve—elc
ment letter and functional combinations shown
in column 601 are translated into three-element
cable code pulses and 8 of the 32 are translated
into four-element cable code pulses.
In column
593, — represents a. negative pulse, + represents
a positive pulse and 0 represents a ground pulse
as the signal element transmitted over the cable
codc receiver I03 are also well known in then-rt
and will not therefore be describedh'erein.
Relay 70, Fig. 1, is in the released’ccndltion
and when in this conditionestabllshesi circuit
from battery through contact 18b through the
mechanism which is also well known in the art.
Tape 15 is perforated in accordance with the
continental cable code. The tape ‘I4 is drawn
into position so that the code combination ap
" nearing in tape 14 is presented to the tape sens
ing mechanism. If the upper longitudinal sec
tion is perforated in a particular transverse po
sition, contact 15 will be closed. Cam I60 is
rotated by a mechanism not shown. Cam IE0
is arranged 50 that its associated contact 19 is
closed during three-quarters of a revolution of
the cam and contact 19 is open during one~
quarter of a revolution. When contrct ‘I9 is
closed, a circuit may be traced from battery 80
through contact 73 and, if contact 75 is closed,
through contact 15, resistance 16,-conductorll2,
contact 68a, top winding of relay 63 and resist~
terminal of battery 2 through the contact of
break key I transmitting contacts 3, winding of
the teletypewriting magnet 4, conductor 5, wind
ance 64 to ground actuating the ‘armature of
relay 53 to the left closing contact 66. The tape
ing of typing reperiorator magnet 6 and con
ductor J to the right-hand terminal of battery
2; It is pointed out that the teietypewriter sta
tion I17 may be interconnected to the typing
‘M is so perforated that contacts 15 and TI are
never closed simultaneously. The armature of
relay 58 will be in engagement with its contact
62. A circuit may therefore be traced from
reperforatcr 199 through long channels extend
negative battery through contact '66, contact 62'
ing through a number of telegraph repeater and
and cable conductor '91 which extends through 10 switching points.
the submarine cable to the distant regenerative
When suflicient tape has been perforated, tape
repeater I14. In response to this signal the ar
lever 9 will be lowered closing tape control con
mature 94 will be actuated to close its contact
tact If}. A circuit may then be traced from
95in a well-known manner. A circuit may then
ground through contact l3, switch ll and the
‘be traced from positive battery I16 through 94,
winding of magnet 12 to battery. The transmit
contact -95 and contact 4040 to ‘the cable code
receiver 103. Attention is called ‘to the fact
ter cam stop lever l3 will be actuated in a clock
wise direction about its ?xed pin H8 against
the in?uence of spring I993. The right-hand end
of lever I3 is disengaged from a shoulder on the
that, since contact ‘Ill is open during .a quarter
of each revolution ‘of cam Hit], the armature of
relays 58 and 153 will Ibe under the lin?uences of 20 periphery of cam I4. Motor 18 drives shaft 2a
their biasing windings at'such Jtimes. Contacts
through clutch fl. Shaft 20 is coupled to shaft
'62 and '61 will therefore be closed and ground
[80 through worm l8 and worm gear 19. When
'will'be connected to cable conductor 9| so as to
cam I4 is released shaft I89 rotates drawing the
discharge the cable. This ‘is known in the art
tape 8 through transmitter distributor pins 2:
as curbing. Attention-ls also'oalled to the fact 25 to 25in a well-known manner. The operation
that, in addition to ground for curbing, ground
of the transmitter distributor H9 described in
-is also connected to cable ‘9| for ‘orient the three
detail in Patent 2,055,567 to E. F. Watson, Sep
signaling conditions'when contacts 61 and 62 are
tember 29, 1936, the pertinent portions of which
are hereby made part of this description. Suc
The regenerative repeater I" is under control 30 cessive transverse sections of tape 8 will be per
of a tuning fork, not shown. The tuning fork is
forated with successive combinations of the live
tuned to the speed of the sending'distributor and
element two-condition code typed by the tele
reproduces the pulse for each revolution. This
typewriter I11. There are ?ve sensing pins ‘M
mechanism is well known in the cable telegraph
to 25 in the transmitting distributor I19. Where
an element in tape '8 is perforated the corre
'When the lower ‘longitudinal-section of tape
sponding contact 2la to 25a will be closed and
‘H is perforated in a particular transverse posi
where an element is not perforated the corre
t'ionpcontact ‘ll will be closed. ' When-contact ‘I9
sponding contact will be open. If a contact such
as 2la is closed, a circuit may be traced from
is closed, a circuit may -be *traced 1from positive
battery 80 through contact -"l8',~'-'contact 11, re»
sistance l8, conductor ‘8|, contact-‘li?cftop wind
battery 26 through contact 2la, conductor 3!,
contact 32c and the winding of relay 40 to ground
ing-of're'lay 58 and resistance 59 lac-‘ground actu
operating relay 40. There is a corresponding
ating ‘the armature of relay 58 ‘to *the left to‘close
circuit for each of the other contacts 22a to 250
contact Ki‘i. Under these circumstances, posi
‘which extends through conductors 21 to 30, con
‘tive battery-is impressed throuéhcontact 6! on 45 tacts ‘32a to 3201. conductors ‘35, 34, 33 and Bl
regenerative repeater H4 actuating the'arma
and the'windings of relays 36 to 39, respectively
ture 93 to the left to'clcse' contact-18B. > A circuit
to ground. A particular code combination per
forated in‘ tape L8 ‘is presented to the sensing pins
may then be-traced from positive'vbat‘tery through
the armature 93, contact 196 and~contact lMe to
1| to.2_5 of the transmitting distributor I19 simul
'cable'co‘de receiver I03. ‘If tape’ 14 is not perfo 50 taneously. The-circuits through the winding; of
rated in either-one of ‘its twopositions contacts
relays 38 to 40 are established simultaneously
J5 and 11 will both be open. The armatures
and relays 35 to 40 will be set in unison at a
of relays Stand 63 will ‘be under the in?uences
particular instant for each combination. Relays
of their biasing windings and their armatures
36 to 40 will be operatedor unoperated depend
will ‘be in the positions shown in‘F'ig. 1. Under
ing upon whether its corresponding element in
this ‘condition, a circuit may be traced from
the ?ve~element permutation code is a marking
ground through contact 81 and contact 62 to
or a spacing element and noon whether it is
conductor 9i. In response to this, the armature
represented by a perforated or an unperforated
elemental area in a transverse section of tape
in the position to which it was last actuated and
8. Each of relays 35 to 40 controls a plurality
‘the third of the three possible signaling condi 60
‘of regenerative repeater PM will be maintained
of contacts. The contacts of relays 35 to 46 will
be set in conformity with the code. Relays
36 to 40 are also designated ! to 5 to facilitate
reference to table 802 in Fig. 6.
the teletypewriter station Ill wishes to trans
To anticipate the description of the detailed
mit. Switch I18 will be closed to energize motor 65 operation of the circuit, it is pointed out that it
l6. Switch II will be closed to energize the
is possible to establish a path from battery 88
transmitter distributor. The keys of teletype
through ‘any one of four branches through the
writer keyboard transmitter 3 will be operated.
bank of pulse control relays shown in the right
In response to the open and closed signaling con 70 hand portion of Fig. 2 and through some particu
ditions for the signal elements of the ?ve—element
lar one of conductors iii! to (84 which extends
two-condition permutation code the receiving
through the contacts of relays 35 to 40 shown in
magnet G of the typing teletypewriter will be
the left-hand portion of Fig. 2 and terminates
tions for an element will be impressed on the
cable code receiver I03 in a. well-known manner.
It will now be assumed that the operator at
successively energized and deenerglzed over a
circuit which may be traced from the left-hand
either in ‘conductor 03 or 64 which controls the
operation of relays 53 and 53. The pulse control
2,408, 1 00
relays shown at the right of Fig. 2 are arranged
a three or four revolution cycle of cam I60 to
lay 68 disconnects the cable code transmitter I15
from the cable‘transmitting relays 58 and 63 by
opening contacts 68a and 68c. When relay 44
conductor I8I. Depending upon the settings of
the contacts of relays 36v to 40, conductor I8I
through the winding of relay 44, contact 44b and
so that they ?rst direct the battery pulse orig
inating in battery Bil for the ?rst revolution of
will be connected to either conductor 83 or to
conductor 84 to control the proper relay of relays
58 and 63 so as to send either a positive or nega
operates, it' locks over a circuit from battery
contact 45b to ground.
The reason for this will
become apparent below.
While relay 68 is in the released condition a
tive pulse through the submarine cable to the 10 circuit may be traced from battery through con
tact 58g and the ?lament of lamp I85 to ground.
distant station. To obtain the third condition
Lamp I86 is lighted at such time to indicate that
that is the ground signaling condition, when re
relays 58 and 83 are under control of the cable
quired, the path extending from conductor I 8|
code tape transmitter I15. The closing of con
through the contacts of relays 36 to 40 will be
tact 68f establishes a circuit from battery through.
open at some one of the switching points in the
contact 68]‘, resistance 69 and the winding 01' re—
chain. When the circuit is open, relays 58 and
lay 10 to ground operating relay ill. The closing
63 will be under control of their biasing cir
of contact llia when key 12 is closed establishes
cuits and ground will be transmitted for the par
a circuit from battery through the contact of key
ticular signal element. The pulse control relays
72, ?lament of lamp ‘ll, contact 10a and the
shown in the right-hand portion of Fig. 2 will
switch the path extending from battery 80 20 winding of relay ‘ill to ground, locking relay 1D
and lighting lamp ‘II. The lighting of lamp ‘ll
through the contacts of the pulse control relays
indicates that the cable transmitting relays 5B
to conductor I82 for the second signal element of
and 63 are under control of the teletypewriter
the code to be transmitted over the cable. The
through the code converter mechanism. The
second element will, be positive battery, negative
battery or ground, depending upon whether or 2.5 operation of relay 10 ‘by opening contact 'lllb
deenergizes the tape feed mechanism 13 of the
not a closed path is provided from conductor
cable code tape transmitter I15. This stops the
I82 to conductor 83 or 84 or if the path from
feeding of tape 14 through the cable code trans
I82 to both conductors 83 and 84 is open. For
mitter. Conductors 83, 8-1 and 8B are extended
the third revolution of cam I60 the pulse control
relays at the right of Fig. 2 will connect bat 30 through con‘tacts 68b, 58d and 68a, respectively.
The closing of contacts 881: and 68d connectsthe
tery B0 to conductor I83. The circuit is arranged
output leads 83 and B4 of the code converter per
so that ii the particular ?ve-element two-con
Fig. 2 through the top windings of relays 63 and
dition combination has been translated into a
three-element cable code combination the pulse
control relays at the right of Fig. 2 will not prog
ress after three elements have been transmitted
but will restore the circuit so that the cycle
may be repeated from the starting point. That
meets the motor lead or, as it is otherwise known,
the battery feed lead, which extends from battery
80 through contacts 19, when closed, contacts
68c and through conductor 86 to the pulse control
relays at the right oi Fig. 2.
It is necessary to insure that the ?rst pulse
battery 80, on the following revolution of cam
which is transmitted through the cable after the
I60, will be connected through the pulse control
transfer from the cable code tape transmitter to
relays to conductor I8I to transmit the ?rst
the code converter is not mutilated. This is per
element of the succeeding three or four~element
formed by relays 49 and 50. After the operation
code combination. However, if the ?ve-element
is to say, after three pulses have been transmitted,
two-condition teletypewriter combination has
been translated into a four-element cable code
signal combination, this will be automatically
recognized by
relays of the
operated only
be translated
a chain circuit’ through particular
relay group 36 to 40 which are
when a ?ve-element signal is to
into a four-element signal. The
chain circuit will control the pulse control cir
cuit so that, instead of restoring the pulse con
trol circuit to normal at the end of transmis
slon oi the third signal element, the pulse con
trol circuit will progress so that battery 80 is
connected through the pulse control circuit to
conductor I84, which controls relays 58 and 63 in
the same manner as does each of conductors IN
to I83. In this case the fourth signal element
is transmitted before the pulse control circuit
restores the mechanism to the condition for the
start of a new cycle of operations
now be described in more detail.
This will
Preliminary to the operation of teletypewriter
I‘I'l, locking key 4|, Fig, 2, will be operated, clos
of relay 68 it contact 19 is closed, or as soon there
after as contactnl9 is closed, a circuit is estab
lished from battery ‘80 through contact 79, con
tact 68c, conductor 86, contact 49c, contact 50c
and the right-hand winding of relay 50‘, operating
relay 50.
Relay 5!) ?rst locks over a circuit irom "
battery through contact 490, contactilla audits
left-hand winding to ground. The operation of
relay 50 by closing contact 50b extends conductor 86 through contact 50b and the right-hand wind
‘mg of relay 49 to ground operating relay 49.
When relay 49 operates, the original locking path
for relay 50 is opened at contact 590, but conduc
tor 8B is extended through contact 4%, contact
50a and the left—hand winding of relay 50 main
taining relay 50 locked for an interval.
cam I60 has rotated into its curbing position con
tact ‘I9 is opened and relay 50 will release.
49 locks as soon as it is operated over a circuit
which may be traced (from ground through the
left-hand winding of relay 49 and contact 490 to
parallel branches. One branch extends through
contact 430 to battery and the other branch ex
tends through contact Me to battery.
obvious circuit. The operation of relay 43 estab
When the curbing portion of the cam revolu
lishes a circuit from battery through the Winding 70
tion is reached. conductor 85 is extended through
of relay 44 and contact 43b to ground, operating
ing contact 42 and operating relay 63 over an
relay 44. A circuit may then be traced from bat
tery through contact 44c and conductor 85 which
extends through the winding of relay 68 to
ground operating relay B8. The operation of re
contacts 49d and 58d to contacts of counting re
lays 5i and 52 and in parallel through contact
53d and contact 4871 to conductor IBI.
The ops
oration of the counting relays will be described
10 '
looks over a path. from battery and. through con
It has been explained above that the ?rst two
combinations punched in tape 8 are two combi
tact 45d, contact 531) and the- right-hand. wind
ing of relay 53 to ground. The operation of re.
lay 53- also connects motor lead 85’thlQl1gh'Q0-n
tact 53c, contact 54d ‘and contact 48!: to. con
ductor I82.‘ Since relays 36 to 40 are all. oust-
nations corresponding to the‘ teletypewriter let
ters function. This combination is the combina
tion which is ordinarily used to control the re
ceiving teletypewritlng so that after it has been
typing ?gures it typesletters. In this, case, how
ever, this combination is to be used tov switch the
distant receiving end of the mechanism connected
to the cable so that the cable is connected to the
receiving code- converter. The two. letters com
binations are not transmitted into. the receiving
code retranslator in‘ Fig, 4..
ated, a circuit may be traced from conductor I82.
through contact 36! and contact 31! to conductor
83. When contact 19 again closes, the armature
relay 53 will again be actuated to close contact
66 and. a, negative. pulse will be transmitted over
the cable as the second. of the four-element code.
pulses. When contact ‘I9 closes relay 52 is re
leased since the‘ path through the winding of.
As indicated in columns GUI and B03, in. response to each oi’ the two ?ve-element code.-com- 15 relay. 52 is shunted by battery through contact
Me and resistance, 51 to ground. When relay 52‘
binations for letters which consist. of ?ve mark
releases relay 5| will. lose its holding path since
contact 52c through which battery was supplied
for the holding of relay 5! isopened, However,_
ing signal elements relays 36 to 40 also desig
nated l to»5 will all_ be operated. When all the
relays are’ operated, acircuit-may betraced from
conductor l8l through contact 35h and contact
31k to conductor l3 from- which point the cir
relay 5| will not release as it will be held’ op.
erated from battery supplied over conductor, 8.6‘
through contact 52d__ Relay 5| will. be main
tained operated by battery 80. through contact.
19 until contact 19 opens, when relay M. will
release. When both relays~ SI and 52 release, a
circuit may be traced from battery through, con
cuit extends through contact 6812, top winding.
of relay 63- and resistance 64. to ground operating- the armature oi’ relay 53 to close contact 63.
A- negative. pulse will. be transmitted over the
.cable‘and' impressed through regenerative re,
peater l‘lL on the eight-pulse-selector I16; This
is the ?rst of the four negative pulses-into which
each of the ?ve-element combinations for} let
tors-is translated. In order tooperate the, eight.
pulse selector I16, it is necessaryto- transmit
eight negative pulses insuccession over the-cable.
This will be eilected by the translation of two ?ve
element letter combinations into two. tour-ele
tact 5la, contact 52a, contact 53d and the; left—'
hand winding of relay 5.4‘ operating. relay~ 5Q‘.._
The operation of relay 55 transfers‘ motor lead
88 to conductor. I83. The circuit maybe traced‘ ;
through contact 49d, contact 50d._contact no‘
contact 54c, contact 558 and contact ‘an to
conductor I83. With relays 4li_.operated;
a circuit may be traced through contact. 400, con
ment code combinations each one of which latter 35 tact 39c and contact 38c. to conductor llii.v When
battery lid is againconnected throughconductor
elements is negative. As explained above,.after
the ?rstlpulse is transmitted through conductor
IN the second. third and fourth pulses will be
transmitted through conductors [82, I81 and (M,
respectively. Then. the cycle will be- repeated. in
88 toconductor 83._the third negative pulse will '
be transmittedoverlthe cable.‘ Relays SI and."
will again operate as described above. A circuit.
may then be traced: from battery through con
tact 5w, contact 52b, contact 54:: and the lett
handwlnding of relay 55 to ground operatingre
lay 55. When relay 55 operates it looks over‘ a
circuit from ground through. .the righbhand
response to the appearance of the second letters
code combination in tape- 8. The pulse- control
relays at the right-hand side of Fig. 2, as men
tioned above, will effect the transfer of motor
winding of relay 55‘, contact 55cvand contact 4611 ‘
conductor 85 to ‘each one 0! conductors [82, 183.
to battery. The operation ohrelay 55. connects
motor conductor 86. toconducto': I". The oil:
cuit may be__ traced through contact 4807, contact.
50d, contact 53?, contact‘ 540,, contact 55d and
andl??- in turn and then- will repeat the cycle .
under control of em I60... How this is effected
when battery 80a is again connected;
‘ _ toacon
contact 48! to conductor I54. With relays 3!‘ to '
40 all operated, the circuit extends from 'con
ductor I84 through contact 38b and contact 38b
' ductor 86, in addition to operating relay 63» to
send a, negative pulse over the‘ cable‘ relay. 5!
will; be operated and locked to battery under con
troloi relay 46; The operating circuit for- relay
52 extends from conductor 86‘ through contact
4nd,, contact 50d, contact 52d, winding oi relay
52 and resistance 51 to ground The locking
path extends from battery through‘ contact 46d,
contact 52c; winding of relay 52 and resistance.
“to ground. The operation oiv relay 52 sup
to conductor 83. When contact 19 again closes,_
a negative pulse will be transmitted over the cable
plies battery- over a circuit through contact 46d 60
and contact. 520 to the right-hand terminal of
the. winding-10f relay 5t, but the winding of re~
lay it is shunted by battery supplied over con
ductor 85‘ through contact. Std which connects
to the left-hand terminal of the winding of
relay it, from which point the circuit extends
through rwistance 56 to ground, so. that relay 5!
does not operate at this time. Relay 5| cannot
operate as long as contact 19 remains closed.
When 19 opens, the shunt circuit is no longer ef- '
fectivc and relay 5| operates,
When relays SI
and 52 are both operated a circuit may be traced
from battery through contact 51b. contact 52b
and the left-hand winding of relay 53 to ground.
operating relay 53. When relay 53 operates, it
. as the fourth pulse oi’ the four- element. code.
' Relays 5| and-52 operate and release as previously
Relays, 36 to 40, as mentioned above, are num
bered also i to 5._ respectively. 'I'hisindicates
that relays L to,5 are under control. of signal
elements I to 5, respectively, of the ?ve-element
code. Attention is called tocolumns 602 and 503
of Fig. 6. Reference to these columns indicates
that whenever a ?ve-element signal is translated
into a four-element signal. relays l and 2 are
always among the relays which are operated.
Further, when a ?verelement signal is translated
into a. three-element signal. relays. l and 2 are
never operated simultaneously. For the letters
combination relays I, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are all oper
Since relays I and 2 are operated, a cir
cuit may be traced from ground through contact
31b, contact 362). and the Winding of relay 41
to battery. operating relay 41. Therefore at the
end of the fourth pulse a path is established
which may be traced from battery through con~
tact Sla. contact 52a, contact 53a, contact 550.
contact 470. and the winding of relay 46 to ground,
operating relay 45. This in turn opens the lock
ing path for relays 53, 54, 55 and 46, releasing
these relays preparatory to sending the succeed
ating stop relay 4B. When relay 48 operates it
locks over a path from battery through the wind
ing of relay 48, contact 48d and contact 44a to
ground. As soon as relay 45 releases relay 45
operates over a circuit which may be traced from
ing character.
battery through the winding of relay 45, contact
tact of relay 45. After the ?rst'pulse had been
sent out and relays 5| and 52 released they fur
nished a path which may be traced from battery
second last line from the bottom in column 603
450, and contact 48b to ground. The operation
Returning to the interval during which the ?rst
of relay 45 transfers the holding path for relay 44,
character ‘combination was sent, when relays 36
through contact 450, contact 48b to ground. The
to 40 were operated they locked to the back con 10 operation of stop relay 48 establishes the proper
through contact 5|a, contact 520, contact 530,
combination for the stop signal indicated in the
of Fig. 6.
This combination is -— — + —.
this is a four-element signal relay 4‘! is operated
contact 48a and the winding of relay 32, operating [5 through contact 48c to ground. The manner in
relay 32. This opened the operating paths of re
which the operation of relay 48 sets up the stop
lays 35 to 40. The tape in the transmitting dis
combination — — + — will now be described.
tributor was then advanced to the position of the
For the ?rst pulse battery 80 will be impressed
succeeding combination by means of a mechanism
through contact 19, contact 58c, contact 49d, con
attached to shaft I80. When relay 32 operated 20 tact 50d, contact 53d, contact 48m, conductor 83a,
it too locked to the battery supplied through con~
conductor 83,v contact 68?), top winding of relay
tact 45d. The operation of relay 46 at the end of
the fourth pulse therefore released relays’ 36 to _ 63 and resistance 84 to ground. This as has been
shown results in the transmission of a negative
40 and 32.
pulse over the cable as the ?rst element of the
The cycle just described will be repeated to
Stop signal combination. For the second element
send out the second code combination for letters
relay 53 will be operated as described above ‘and
to control the switching of the receiving end of
the path from battery '89 will be -'_transferred
the cable. Thereafter, the code converter mech--.
anism will be controlled in a‘generally similar
through contact 530,‘ contact 54d and contact'48h'
to conductor 83a which will ‘result ingthe trans
manner to translate as many combinations as ap 30 mission of the second negative-pulse of the com- ‘
pear in the tape. Relays 35 to 40 will be operated
in accordance with the table indicated in column
602 to establish the proper paths in response to
the combinations for the thirty-two letters and
bination. For the third pulse of the combination
relays 53 and‘54 will both be operated. Under
this condition the circuit from battery'illl will ex
tend through contact 530, contact 54c, contact
teletypewriter receiver adjusting functions indi
cated in column Bill. The proper combinations
35 55c, and contact 48! to conductor 846‘ which ex‘;
of positive or‘, negative battery or ground will be
established byrelays 58 and 63 under control of
winding of relay 58 and resistance 59 to ground.
the closed paths or open paths established
tends through conductor 84,- contact 58d, top
This results as has been previously shown in the
transmission of a positive pulse as the third ele
through. the contacts of relays 36 to 40 for the 40 ment of the four-element Stop signal combina
tion. For the fourth element relays 53, 54 and
Attention is called to the fact that for twenty
55 will all be operated. The circuit will therefore
four of the letter characters and functions indi
extend through contact 53c, contact 540, contact
cated in column 6M, three-element signals only
55d, and contact 486 to conductor 83a which will
aretratismitted'over the cable? How this is per
. effect the transmission of a‘neg'atlve pulse as the
various combinations.
forrned‘will now be described. ‘a ‘
Sincerelays 36 and 31 correspondingto signal
elements I and 1.2 of the ?ve-element. code. are
never operated simultaneously when a three-eleé
ment ‘signal is to be transmitted over the cable.
some one of contacts 35?) and 31b will always be
fourth elementof the Stop signal combination.
When-the four pulses of' the Stop signal com
bination have been’ transmitted relay '46 will
again‘operate. Since contact 46]) is opened relay
50 '44 will release.
This in turn releases the stop i
relay 48, transfer relay 68 and relay 49. Relay
open under such condition. Therefore, relay 4'!
45 is a slow-to-release relay. Its slow release in
will never be operated when a three-element sig
sures the release of relay 44 but with the release
nal is to be transmitted. As a result of this at
of relay 48, relay 45 releases. Relay 45 releases
the end of the third pulse when relay 55 is oper 55 all other operated relays and the circuit is re
ated, a path will be available immediately for the
turned to normal.
operation of relay 46. This path may- be traced
Refer now to Figs. 3 and 4. The fork-con
from battery through contact 55!), contact 410,
and the winding of relay 45 to ground. Relay 46
will therefore operate at the end of the third
pulse and restore the circuit to its original staite
ing condition immediately.
When it isv desired to stop sending, key 41 is
restored to its original position. This releases
relay 43. Nothing further will happen until the
trolled regeneratlve repeater Il4'which is main
tained in synchronism with the sending'mecha-'
nism will send the eight negative pulses into the
pulse selector‘ll? in a. well-known manner. In
response to eight consecutive negative pulses
contact IE2 is closed also in a well-known man—
her. It is not possible for this to happen in re
sponse to any sequence of signal combinations
other than two letter combinations in succession.
The closure of contact I02 operates relay Hi4 over
an obvious circuit. When relay I04 operates it
locks over a circuit irom‘battery through con
character in process of being sent has been trans
mitted. If the message has been completed the
transmitter will be sending blanks, that is to say.
all of the contacts 21 to 25 will be open and all of
relays 38 to 40 will be released. In any event, relay 70 tact 129d, contact I04] and the Winding of relay
46 will be operated at the end of transmission of
I04 to ground.
the combination in either one of the two man
ners heretofore described. A circuit may then be
traced from battery through the winding of relay
48, contact 45!! and contact 430 to ground, oper~
Whenever a positive pulse is received over the
cable the armature 93 will be actuated to close
contact 95 and whenever a negative pulse is re
ceived the armature 94 will close contact 95.
When a ground pulse is received, neither contact
65 nor 96 will be closed. Whenever a pulse is re
ceived, whatever its nature, whether-positive bat
tery, negative battery, or ground,. the armature
91 will close contact 98 and‘ connect ground
through contact 96 and contact I04e to conductor
I05. Contact 98 will open during the curbing
interval between each pulse. The operation of"
the regenerative repeater I14 ‘which performs
these functions is well known. When, in re
sponse to the pulses, ground is applied to con
ductcr I 65, which corresponds to motor con
ductor 85 in Figs. 1 and 2, relays I88 and I89, the
wiring of which is substantially the same as that
to ground, operating relay H3. Relay II 3 acts as’
a control to distinguish between three-element
code combinations and four-element code com
binations received over the cable. If relay H3
is not operated only three pulses are counted.
Relay H3 controls relay I21. I-f relay H2 is cp
erated and relay‘ H3’ is released a circuit may be
traced from ground through contact H211, con
tact II 3a, contact I29c and the winding of relay
10 I21 to battery, operating relay I21. This con
dition will obtain for three-element signals.
When relay H3 is operated and relay II 2 is also
operated a circuit may be traced from ground
through contact IGBa, contact Iil9a, contact II2b,
for relays 5i and 52, in Fig. 2, will be controlled 15 contact H311, and the winding of relay I21 to
in substantially the same manner as relays 5|
battery, operating relay I 21. This condition
and 52. Relays IIIl, III and H2 will ‘be con
will obtain for a four-‘element signal. 1
trolled in response to the pulses over conductor
Relay I2‘I will therefore be operated at the end
H15 in substantially the same manner as relays
of the reception of» a code signal combination
53, 54 and 55 in Fig. 2. This combination of re 20 whether the combination be a three-element or
lays will function to count the pulses and advance
a four-element character. The operation of the
the leads I05 and III‘! from one pair of translat
particular relays of the group H4 to I2I, sets
ing relays to the next. The only essential di?er
the contacts of these relays so that when relay
ence in operation is that the locking circuit for
I21 is operated the proper circuits will be es
-_ta.blished to control relays. I22 to I26 so as to
relays I68 to H2 extends through contacts I29b
and I219. In the case ‘of the ?rst pulse relay H0
establish the proper' ?ve-element combinations
will be in the released condition as was the case .
corresponding to the three or four-element com
blna-tions on relays. I22 to I26. Such of there
is positive, the circuit will be extended through
lays I22. to I26 as are operated, look; through
conductor I01, contact H0)‘ and the winding of 30" their I22brto I281)‘ contacts and‘ conductor I44
for relay 53.
If the pulse received over the cable _
relay II4 to ground, operating-relay “4.. If the
pulse is negative, the circuit; will be extended
through conductor‘ I06, contact -HIld.-and the
winding of relay M5 to ground, operating relay’
to ground throughl contact I43cr when contact
I43a is closed in a manner'to be described. When
the brush arm I65 is in the stop position,- as
shown, a circuit may be traced from battery
If the pulse is a ground pulse, both con- _ i
‘through the winding of relay I43, segment I93,
ductors I06 and II": willbe open and neither re
lay H4 nor relay IIIiwil} be operated. _ The-eight
relays II4 to I'll provide apair, oi relaysvfor each
of the four pulses.‘ If‘ aparticularpulse is posl- ._
tive, a particular‘ one of: the two» relays corre
sponding to each pulse will be- operated and it it
is negative, the other of the pair will be oper
If it is a ground pulse, neither one will be
operated. After the ?rst pulse is received, ‘leads
I06 and I01 will beextended through contacts {.
H00 and Hile and contacts IIId- and Hit to vthe v
windings of relays _I.I_6-_..andhI-I1, either one. of
wluch or neither of whlclipwill be operated, in re
sponse to the second pulse? depending; upon the
nature of the pulsev receivedoyerthe cable. Then
conductors I06 and Iil'l. 'willgbe. extended through
contacts IIlc and Hie and contacts II~2e and
H2g to the windings of relays IIIland IIIlfor the
third pulse. Upon the operation of relay H2.
the circuit will be extended through contacts I 12d
and H2] to relays I20 and I2] .for the fourth
Attention is called. to the tact that all four
pulse combinations transmitted over the cable
and no three-pulse combinations have negative
pulses for both of the ?rst two pulses. This may
be seen from reference to column 803. Each pair
of relays of the relay group H4 to I2I is. desig
nated I+, I—, 2+, 2-, etc.
I+ indicates that
relay H4 is operated when the ?rst element of a
combination received over the cable is a plus
element. I- indicates that relay H5 is oper
ated when the ?rst pulse of a combination re
ceived over the cable is a negative element, etc.
When the ?rst and second elements ofla combi
nation are both negative elements, relay I— and
relay 2—, designated H5 and III, respectively.
will both be operated.
For this condition a cir
brushes I53 and I62 and ring IE1 to ground I94-v
maintaining relay I43 operated. The combina
tions established on relays M2’ to I26 will be’ im
pressed through the corresponding contacts of
the group I22a .to I26a and conductors. I45 to. I49
on segments I to 5'01’ the outer ring of distribu
tor I3I. As brush arm IE6 is rotated, each one
of segmenm I to 5 will be connected in turn
through brushes I65; and I64 to solid' continuous
conducting ring I69: From; ring.I 651 the circuit
extends through. conductor’ “2, to the distant.
teletypewriter receiving‘station I'H, andyreturns
over conductor I13 to ground.~ When the brush
arm is in the stop position the circuit through
‘the teletypewriter receiving mechanism is closed
from battery through stop segment I90, brushes
I65 and I64 to inner ring I69 from which point
the circuit has been traced through the station
to ground.
When brush arm I66 sweeps over
.start segment I9I the circuit through the tele
typewriter station will be opened. This results
in the transmission of the characteristic start Sig
nal element of the start-stop signal train. Relay
I43 will be released when rotatable arm IE6 of
~distributor I31 moves oiT its stop segment. Seg~
merit I93 of inner ring I88: subtends the same
angle as stop segment I90. Brush I63 will sweep
oif segment I93 when brush I65 sweeps oil’ the
stop segment. Relay I43 will be released at this
‘instant and the combination which has been es
tablished on relays I22 to I26 will be locked there
on. Control relay I43 is released when brush
I53 reengages segment I911.
The distributor I3! is under control of relay
I'll. When relay I21 is operated a circuit may
be traced from battery through contact I21],
conductor I5I and the winding of start magnet
I49, energizing magnet Hi]. When magnet MB
cuit may be traced from battery through contact
is energized, rotatable arm I63 is rotated clock
Illa, contact I‘I5a and the winding of relay H3 75. wise in a'well-knovm manner. When relay I2]
is released, magnet Hill is deenergized and the
positions 2 and 5 to conform to the original ?ve
element combination.
The translation of all of the other ?ve-element
two-condition combinations ?rst into three or
four-element three-condition combinations and
then into the original combinations may be un
derstood from the foregoing example and the
detailed description of the translation of each is
not considered necessary to an understanding of
the invention.
What is claimed is:
rotation of arm IE6 is stopped with the arm in
the stop position.
The operation of relay I21
also releases the counting relays at the left of
Fig. 4 by opening contact I219. The operation
of relay I21 also establishes a circuit from bat
tery through contact I21)‘ and the winding of re
lay I28 to ground, operating relay I28. Such of
the relays II‘ to I2I. as are operated for a par
ticular combination, lock, through contact I28h
and contact I290 to battery. The opening of con
tact I2Ilh releases such of the relays as have
been operated. The release of the translating re
1. In a telegraph system, a source of ?ve-ele
ment two-current condition permutation code
lays III! to IZI places the circuit in the condition
telegraph signals, a telegraph signal code trans
for the reception of the succeeding character com 15 lator, a telegraph channel, means connected to
bination. The sequence of operation and release
said source for impressing said signals on said
of relays beginning with the operation of relay
translator, means in said translator for convert
I21 occurs within the curbing interval which. as
ing certain of said ?ve-element signals into three
explained above, is equal to approximately one
element permutation code telegraph signals ‘and
fourth of the time of revolution of the sending 20 others of said flve—element signals into four-ele
cam I60.
ment permutation code telegraph signals, and
When the stop signal combination ——+— is
means connected to said translator for impressing
received, it operates stop relay I29. This circuit
said three-element signals and said four-element
may be traced from positive battery through con
signals on said channel.
tact “5b, contact II'Ib, contact IIlla, contact I2Ia 25
2. In a telegraph system‘, a source of thirty-two
and the winding of relay I29 to ground. Relays
?ve-element two-current condition permutation
H5, Ill, H8 and III are operated in response to
code telegraph signal combinations connected to
the stop combination ——+—. The operation of
a permutation code signal translator, and means
_ stop relay 29 opens the holding circuit for transfer.
in said translator for translating more than half
relay IM which was traced through contact I29d 30 or said ?ve-element combinations into three-ele
which is now open. This returns the circuit to
ment three-current condition telegraph signal
normal. Relay I21 does not operate in response
combinations and the remainder of said ?ve-ele
to this combination so that the combination which
ment signal combinations into four-element
is set up on the translating relays is not impressed
three-current condition telegraph signal combi
through the contacts of relay 121 on the distrib 35 nations.
utor I3I.
3. In a telegraph system, a source of permuta
Refer to Fig. 6. The numbers in column 602
tion code telegraph signal combinations, each of
indicate marking signal elements in correspond
said combinations completely de?ning a symbol
ing signal element positions of the ?ve-element
or function, each of said combinations consisting
signal combinations for the symbol in the cor 40 of 11 signal elements, each of said signal elements
responding line in column BIII. Where a signal
being of one of two possible current conditions,
element position number does not appear in col
said source connected to a permutation code tele
umn 602 it indicates a spacing signal element in
graph signal translator, means in said translator
the corresponding missing signal element position
for translating certain of said combinations into
number in the ?ve-element two-condition code.
corresponding combinations each having (n-l)
A marking signal element in a particular signal ‘
signal elements, and means in said translator for
element position number, as explained above, op
translating the remainder of said combinations
erates a correspondingly numbered relay of the
into corresponding combinations each having
group at the left 01' Fig. 2. For a spacing signal
(11-2) signal elements.
, f
element in a particular signal element position 50
4. In a telegraph system, a source of at least
no relay in this relay group will be operated.
thirty-two ?ve-element‘ two-condition. permuta
An examination of the combinations employed
tion code telegraph signal combinations con,
for any single character will illustrate the prin
nected to an electromechanical permutation code
ciple of translation. Take the letter I. for ex
signal translator, and means in said translator
ample, and refer to the sixth line from the top 55 responsive to the reception of particular ones of
In columns MI, 602 and 693 in Fig. 6. The ?ve
said signal comblnatlons'for translating said re
element two-condition combination for the let
ceived combinations into particular ones of
ter f is translated into a three-element three
thirty-two three-current condition permutation
condition combination. The tape will be so
code signal combinations certain of which are
punched at the sending end that the relays for 60 four-element combinations and others of which
signal elements I, 3 and 4, viz, 36, 38 and 39, will
are three-element combinations.
be operated. This will result in a closed circuit
5. In a telegraph system, a source of four-ele
through conductor 83 for the ?rst pulse, a closed
ment and three-element three-condition permu
circuit through conductor 84 for the second pulse
tation code telegraph signals connected to a per
and both conductors 83 and 84 will be open for 65 mutation code telegraph signal translator, and
the third pulse. This will transmit a negative
means in said translator responsive to the recep
pulse as the ?rst pulse, a positive pulse on the
tion of said signals for translating said received
second pulse, and a. ground pulse on the third.
signals into ?ve-element two~condition permuta
At the receiving end, relays for I— and 2+, viz,
tion code telegraph signals.
H5 and H6, Will be operated. This will result 70
6. In a telegraph system, a source of ?ve-ele'
in the operation of relays MIv M3 and M4 or
ment two-condition permutation code telegraph
relays I25, I24 and I23 to reproduce the original
signal combinations connected to a ?rst electro
signal. This in turn will produce marking signal
mechanical translating device, means in said de
elements in signal element positions I, 3 and 4
vice for translating a number of said combina—
and spacing signal elements in signal element
tions into a corresponding number of three-ele
2, 408, 100
ment three-condition permutation code telegraph
signal combinations, means in said device for
the reception of c of said n ?ve-element combina
tions for translating said 0 combinations into c
translating the remaining number of said ?ve
four-element three-condition permutation code
element combinations into a corresponding num
telegraph signal combinations, means in said
translator for impressing said four-element or
ber of four-element three-condition permutation
code telegraph signal combinations, a second elec
tromechanical translating device, a telegraph
channel interconnecting said devices, means for
impressing said translated signal combinations
on said second translator through said channel,
and means in said second translator for retrans
lating said translated signal combinations into
their original form.
'7. In a telegraph system, a ?rst telegraph sta
tion, a telegraph signal translator, a ?rst tele
graph channel connecting said station and said
said three-element combinations through said
second channel on said retranslator, means in said
retranslator responsive to the reception of said
four-element or said three-element combinations
for retranslating said four-element or said three
element combinations into their original form,
and means in said retranslator for impressing
said retranslated combinations on said second
station through said third channel.
8. In a telegraph signal transmitting and re
ceiving system, the method of transmitting 1: per
translator, a telegraph signal retranslator, a sec
mutation code telegraph signal combinations,
ond telegraph channel connecting said translator
and. said retranslator, a second telegraph station,
each of said 1) combinations having 11 elements,
tion code telegraph signal combinations through
tions, and the translation of the remaining (p-q)
each of said elements being of any one of m con
a third telegraph channel connecting said re~ 20 ditions, which comprises the translation of q of
said in combinations into q combinations each
translator and said second station, means in said
?rst station for impressing a number n, equal to
having (n-a) elements, each of which (n-a)
elements may be of any one of (ma-l-b) condi
(b+c), of ?ve-element two-condition permuta
said ?rst channel on said translator, means in 25 combinations into (p-q) combinations each hav
said translator responsive to the reception of b
ing (n-c) elements, each of which (n-c) ele
of said 11 signal combinations for translating said
ments may be of any of (1114+b) conditions, in
order to save transmission channel time.
b combinations into b three-element three-con
dition permutation code telegraph signal com
binations, means in said translator responsive to 30
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