sepa». 24,v 1946. F. R, THRr-:sH ¿408,1 10 GUN-CHARGING MECHANISM Filed July l0, v1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Sept. 24, i946. F. R. THRESH \ 2,408,110 GUN-CHARGING MECHANISM Filed July 1o, 1944 sv sheets-sheet -3 [nè/enfar Agai Patented Sept. 24, 1946 UNTTED STATES PATENT ori-“ica 1 2,408,110 GUN- CHARGING MECHANISM Frank R. Thresh, Beverly, Mass., assignor to United Shoe Machinery Corporatiom' Fleming ton, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey ' Application July 10, 1944, Serial No. 544,207 . 15 Claims. l (Cl. 89-1) 2 . . Considering the charging mechanism itself», it This invention relates to mechanism by which a machine-gun may be charged or cocked by the has an arm movable by the operator, and a sec operator, if vthe normal discharge fails to load the counter-recoil-spring ready for the firing of the succeeding round. It is especially appli ond arm to which is joinedy aV flexible connecting member, as a chain, it contacting during the charging operation with an arm-portion of grad ually decreasing radius. The first arm may be oscillated about a shaft and carries a pawl for cable to the charging of guns demanding an al) plication of a relatively large force. ' engagement with a ratchet-wheel -fast upon the Y The invention has as an object the minimiz ing the effort which the operator must exert in shaft. The second arm, tol whicnthe iiexible charging the gun, and the simplifying the ma 10 member is joined, isv iixedtothe shaft, and"V is nipulation of the mechanism. >In the attain thus moved in successive steps by the oscillation ment of this object, I combine with a gun and of the ñrst arm. The engagement of the pawl the counter-recoil-spring ci its breech mecha with the ratchet-wheel, and also that of a re nism, means for applying to the spring a lo-ading taining detent for said Wheel, is controlled by an force, and means for increasing the applied force 15 oscillatory member or plate »provided with projec as the loading of the spring progresses. This tions for engagement with the pawl and detent. force, exerted by the operator of the gun, is This member may be shifted between positions in transmitted to the spring-through a lever-arm, which its ~projections are inactive or active, this being accomplished by the operator and bythe which decreases in its effective length as the spring is loaded, and thus increases the leverage 20 ratchet-wheel, it being releasably latched in each . in favor of the operator as the spring-resistance position. The flexible member has a connect ing terminal, and means acting upon the arm to increases. This decrease in the length of-the lever-arm is preferably obtained by providing it which it is joined draws thel terminal against a with a portion of decreasing radius, and connect stop member, so it is ready to be advanced by ing the gun to a portion of the arm of greater 25 the operator for connection to the -gun and again radius by a ñexible member which contacts With retracted to its initial position after such use. the decreasing portion during movement of the There is means engaging this terminal for dis arm. To make it possible for the operator to connecting it from the gun, which means may charge the gun by successive actuations of the be in the form of a movable member lor lever, lever, ratchet mechanism is interposed between 30 also furnishing the stop.- which is urged toward the operator-actuated means and the force-in the terminal by a spring while another spring, creasing means. To facilitate connection of the as that by which the flexible member is retracted, charging mechanism to the gun, there may be urges the terminal into engagement with the means for rendering the ratchet mechanism ef lever in a predetermined angular position. Dur fective or ineffective. When it is desired to ad 35 ing the final stage of the charging action, the vance the normally retracted connecting member lever-spring is energized and, being stronger for attachment to the gun, a controlling mem than the terminal-spring, overcomes this to ap ber movable by the operator renders the ratchet ply to the terminal the disconnecting movement. mechanism ineffective. so the advance is per In the accompanying drawings, . mitted. This controlling member may be moved 40 Fig. 1 shows my improved charging mecha in the advance of the connecting member for at nism in side elevation, with itsV operating treadle tachment to the gun, to again make the ratchet and connected to a gun; ' mechanism effective. The member which is con Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the charging nected to the gun, as to the breech-bolt, for mechanism broken away and portions displaced transmittinor thereto the charging force, must 45 laterally; ' ' be disconnected before the discharge of the gun. Fig. 3, a front elevation of the mechanism This I accomplish by means made active during viewed from the right in Fig. 1; ' Y ' the loading of the counter-recoil-spring, said Fig. 4, an enlarged partial side elevation, of means acting upon the connecting member after the charging mechanism; r . . ' the spring has been loaded. The breech-bolt 50 Fig. 5, a transverse sectional detail, showing over-travels in its charging movement, and dur the controlling cam-plate for the pawl and de ing the return from over-travel the disconnec tent ofthe ratchet mechanism; l tion and positioning of the member is produced Fig. 6, a similar view of the chain-retracting Without special attention on the part of the op spring; and « l 1 erator. . 55 Figs. 7 and 8, details in perspective of the 2,408,110 3 4 curved edge 80 of gradually increasing radius. means for retracting, respectively, the detent and pawl of the ratchet mechanism. To the arm, at or near the point of maximum f There appears at T a portion of the side of a ' radius, is attached a chain 82, which is led rear wardly over a guide-roll 84 rotatable upon the turret, from which projects a hood I-I in which a gun G is housed. This gun may ‘be of the Oer outer extremity of a bracket 86, projecting hori zontally from the wall of the turret T beneath the liken type, upon the breech-casing i0 of which bracket 20. The free end of the chain carries a may be seen portions of the breech-bars i2, i2 terminal loop 88, the opening of which is adapted and of the counter-recoil-spring I4 by which to» receive the breech-bar-stud I6 when the gun the breech-bolt is urged forward for the ñring of a cartridge after the discharge of the preced 10 G is to be charged by the mechanism C. A con stant force is exerted upon the chain, tending to ing round. If this discharge, for any reason, retract the loop, by a spiral spring 90 surround does not occur, it is necessary to apply to a catch ing the shaft 30. The outerend of the spring is plate or stud I6 upon one of the breech-bars an connected at 92 to the arm 13, while the inner external force to compress the counter-recoil spring, until it is» latched by the breech-pawls 15 end is angular and may ‘be inserted in any one of a plurality of notches 94 (Fig. 6) in a boss ready for firing. In the gun under considera upon the bracket-arm 24. The latter connec tion, the spring I4 holds the breech-boltV closed tion permits the tension of the spring to be and is necessarily very strong, requiring a heavy varied. In advance of the roll 84, the chain force to compress it. The mechanism by which the spring is loaded and the gun charged ready zo 82 is supported by a laterally projecting shoulder 36 from a stationary arm 98 attached to the for firing appears at C. end of the bracket 86. To determine the normal Secured to the top of the hood I-I is a bracket location of the loop 88, shoulders |00, |00 upon 20, provided with spaced depending arms 22 and the inner end are drawn by the spring 90 into 24. In bushings 26 and 23 in said arms a shaft 30 is rotatable, it having secured to it a ratchet 25 engagement with the lower bifurcated extremity of a lever |04 fulcrumed upon the end of the wheel 32. Mounted to oscillate upon the inner bracket 85 and having hooked end-portions |02, end of the shaft, retained in place by a screw and |02. This engagement with the lever is just above Washer 34 (Fig. 3), is'an arm 35 having at its the hooks, which are urged forward by a ten outer side a projection 31, upon which is pivoted a pawl 38 engaging the teeth of the ratchet 30 sion-spring |05, joining the upper extremity of the lever to the bracket 86 and holding it yield Wheel. A tension-spring 40, extending between ably against a stop-pin |08 set in the bracket projections from the arm and pawl, yieldably (Fig. 2). The spring |06 exerts upon the lever maintains such engagement. From the end of the ends |02 a greater force to advance them, than arm, a link 42 extends within the turret to an arm of a bell-crank-lever 44 fulcrumed on a 35 does the spring 90 through the chain |02 to re tract them. As the spring 90 brings the loop spindle 45 extending between the turret-walls. shoulders |00 against the lever, the contact is The long arm 46 of the lever carries arest 48, first made by angular ends |01. Then the con convenient to receive contact of the foot of the tinuing pull of the spring causes the loop to pivot man `within the turret servicing the guns. This treadle mechanism may act upon the charging 40 about itsr connection to the chain at |05, draw ing inclined walls |09 upon the shoulders against mechanisms of guns at opposite sides of the tur the generally vertical edges of the lever. The loop ret, there being one of the bell-crank-levers ful is now in a predetermined angular position, in crumed upon each end of the spindle 45. The clined upwardly from the horizontal, out of the lever-arm 46 is held yieldably toward the rear path of the fbreech-bolt-stud. by a tension-spring 50, joining the lever to the . turret-wall. Repeated actuation of the lever A gun G in the turret having jammed, the man against the force of the spring will cause the servicing the guns first actuates the cam-plate pawl 38 to turn the ratchet-wheel in successive 55 of the charging mechanism C for that g-un by `the íinger-piece 65 to shift it counterclockwise steps, where it is retained, until released, by a detent 52 pivoted upon the wall of the turret (Fig. 5). This carries it from the inactive posi and urged into engagement with the ratchet tion, where it was left after the preceding opera teeth by a tension-spring 54 connecting it to said tion with the plunger E0 en-gaging the plate-de wall. The pawl 38 and the detent 52, in their pression l2, to the active relation in which the engagement with the teeth of the ratchet-wheel, plunger is in the depression l0. The projections may be controlled simultaneously by a cam-plate 58 and 60 of the plate lift both the pawl 38 and 56, rotatable upon the end of the bushing 26 at the detent 52 from the ratchet-wheel 32, leaving the inner side of the bracket-arm 22. Projec this free to turn clockwise (Fig. 2). Then, the tions 58 and 60 upon the plate engage pins S2 loop 88 of the charging mechanism is taken and and 64 set in the pawl and detent, respectively. drawn forward, until it -can be placed over the The cam-plate may be turned by a finger-piece breech-bolt-stud Hi, which is in the forward po 56 to position the projections in their ineiîective sition appearing in full lines at a in Fig. l. The relation, with the paWl and detent free to act pull of the spring Si) upon the chain places this upon the ratchet-wheel. In the opposite direc under sufficient tension to take up the Islack and maintain the lo-Op in secure engagement with the tion, the plate is shifted automatically, as will hereinafter appear. In its two positions, the stud. J ust before the loop arrived at the forward point, a projection H0 from the hub of the plate may be latched by a spring-plunger 88 ratchet-wheel struck a pin H2 projecting in mounted in the bracket-arm 22 and engaging either a depression 10 or 'I2 in the edge of the wardly from the cam-plate 55. The movement of plate. Oscillation of the plate in both directions the plate thus produced is sufûcient to turn it is limited, and registration of the depressions ‘iii clockwise, until the plunger 63 occupies the de pression 12 and the cam-projections free the pawl and 12 with the plunger 63 established, by a stop pin 14 projecting from the bracket-arm 22 and detent, so these again engage the teeth of the ratchet-wheel. The bell-crank-lever 44 may through an arcuate slot 76 in the plate. now be oscillated successively by the combined On the other end of the shaft 30 from the effect of the foot of the operator and of the spring ratchet mechanism is fixed an arm 18, having a 2,408,110 5 5l), causing the pawl 38 to impart to the ratchet ing manner. wheel a series of steps, at the end of each of which it is held against recession by the detent 52. This turns the arm l8 in the direction of the arrow, drawing-upon the chain 82 to retract gradually the breech-bolt of the gun. In addition to the plied to the breech-'bolt-stud I6, the operator ac tuates the finger-piece |24 to remove the pawl 38 With the chain-terminal 88 ap from the ratchet-teeth, and then advances the foot-rest 48 to its extreme point. The spring 5B is thereupon »allowed to retract the lever-arm 46 through ashort distance, and the finger-piece is constant advantage obtained by the operator freed sorthat the pawl re-engages the ratchet Wheel, which is being held against the force of the counter-recoil-spring by the detent Í52. From this» >position the foot-rest is again operated through the leverage of the bell-crank-lever and of the mechanism C, there is an increase in lever age at lsaid mechanism as the compressing of the counter-recoil-spring I4 progresses and the re sistance to such compression increases. This is obtained Without a corresponding increase in the the detent from the pressure of the spring, and extent of foot-movement, due to the gradual shortening of the work-arm Z8 of this lever sys said detent is separated from the ratchet-Wheel by operating the finger-piece |30, The foot-rest tem, as compared with the power-arm 35 as the radius of the curved edge Si! decreases at the lead may now lbe allowed to travel fully to the rear, the force of the spring thereby .being reduced. 'I’he finger-piece |30 is released so the detent through its limited forward movement to relieve ` ing point of contact with the chain. Thus, the again engages the ratchet-Wheel, the finger-piece effort required of the operator is more nearly uni form through the charging of the gun. 20 |24 is actuated as before, and the foot-rest re turned idly to its forward position. There fol When the stud I6 has been drawn back to the lows the alternate relief of pressure upon the de position indicated in dotted lines at b (Fig. 1), tent a_nd its separation from the ratchet-wheel, the :full recoil-movement of the breech-bolt has been produced, and the breech-pawls have be come eiïective. However, the breech-bolt of the gun has not reached the limit of rearward move ment, so there is an over-travel of the chain. During this over-travel, the shoulders move in engagement with the lever Hill, swinging this release’ of compression of the counter-recoil 25 spring during rearward travel of the foot-rest, and rei-engagement of the detent, retraction of the pawl and forward travel of the foot-rest, un tilV the spring is unloaded to the‘ desired degree. Having described my invention, what I claim as clockwise (Fig. 2) until completion of retraction 30 new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is: ’ of the breech-boltstops the chain with the stud l. In combination, a gun including breech I6 at c. The operator, Vfeeling this, allows the mechanism and afcounter-recoil-spring therefor, spring 50 to retract the treadle. During the and means for actuation by an operator to apply movement of the breech-bolt-stud between posi tions c and b, the spring 99 draws back upon the 35 to the spring a loading force, said means compris ‘ing means for increasing the appliedforce as the chain-loop 88, but'the spring |86, being stronger than the spring Se, abruptly urge-S the` hooked loading of the spring progresses and ratchet ends |02 of the lever |94 counterclockwise. Just mechanism transmitting the applied force to the as the Istud arrives at position b, where the breech force-increasing means. bolt is latchedand the chain is relieved of the 40 2._In combination, a gun including breech pull of the counter-recoil-spring, inclined sur mechanism and a counter-recoil-spring therefor, faces ||4 of the hooks, acting upon complemen and means for actuation by an operator to apply tally inclined surfaces llt of the shoulders mi), to the spring a loading force, said means compris cam up the loop sharply and disengage it from ing means for increasing the applied force as the the stud I6. This leaves the breech-bolt latched loading of the spring progresses, ratchet mecha by its pawls, freed from the chain ready for the nism transmitting the applied force to the force discharge of the gun. The loop-shoulders are carried by the spring yil!! to their normal positions against the end of the lever, with the loop raised about the stud, as already described. During .this stud-freeing movement of the loop and chain, the increasing means and means for rendering the ratchet :mechanism eiîective or ineifective for the transmission of the charging force. 3. In combination, a gun including breech mechanism and a counter-recoil-spring therefor, detent 52 rests upon a peripheral portion |18 of and means for actuation by an operator to apply the ratchet-Wheel, which is without teeth and to the spring a loading force, said means com prising ratchet mechanism transmitting the ap does not interfere with the action of the lever |85 55 plied force to the spring, a normally retracted as the stud and loop travel from c to b. The operator may wish to utilize the mecha connecting member which may be advanced by nism C for removing the load from the counter the ratchet mechanism for the application of the recoil-spring i4 of the gun. For convenience in charging forceto the spring, a member movable this connection, means may be provided for re by the operator to render the ratchet mechanism tracting both the pawl 38 and the detent 52 60 ineifective for the transmission of the charging from the teeth of the ratchet-wheel 32. As shown force and means acting in the advance of the con in Fig. 8, there is rotatable in the arm-projection necting member to render said ratchet mecha 3l a shaft |25, having in prom'mity to the inner nism effective for the transmission of the charg side of the pawl a cam-portion |22; At the oppo ing force. site extremity of the shaft, within the turret T, is 4. Mechanism for charging a gun including a finger-piece |24. The normal position of the breech mechanism, said charging mechanism cam is such that it permits the pawl to engage comp-rising an arm movable by an operator, a the ratchet-teeth. It may, however, be rotated second arm connected for movement by the by the finger-piece to bring into contact with the pawl a portion of the cam of greater diameter, 70 ñrst and having a portion of decreasing radius, and a ilexible member arranged for connection thus separating said pawl from the teeth. Simi to the ‘breech mechanism and joined to a portion larly, as is best shown in Fig. ’7, a shaft |26 with of the second arm of greater radius, said mem its cam |28 and finger-piece |30 turns in the ber contacting with the decreasing portion of the turret-wall, so the cam may act upon the detent 52. These two devices may be used in the follow 75 second arm during its gun-charging movement 2,408,11o. 7 and receiving therefrom an increasing charging force. . ^ 5. Mechanism. for charging a gun including breech mechanism, said charging mechanism comprising a shaft, an arm for actuation by an operator to turn the shaft, an arm fixed to the shaft and having an edge decreasing in radius from a maximum, and a flexible member joined to the arm having an edge decreasing in radius at its maximum radius and contacting with its 10 edge, said member lbeing arranged for connection 8 10. Mechanism for charging a gun including breech mechanism, said charging mechanism comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined to the arm and provided with a terminal for connection to the breech mechanism, a stop member, and means acting upon the arm to draw the terminal into engagement with the stop member in a predetermined relation to the breech mechanism. ` 11. Mechanism for charging a gun including to the breech mechanism and applying thereto breech mechanism, said charging mechanism an increasing charging force. comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined to the arm and provided with a terminal for con nection to the breech mechanism, and means en I 6. Gun-charging mechanism comprising a shaft, an arm` arranged to oscillate Vabout the shaft, a ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a pawl carried by the arm for engagement with the ratchet-wheel, a second arm ñxed to the shaft and having an edge decreasing in radius from a maximum, and a flexible member joined to Y the second arm at its maximum radius and con tacting with its edge, said member, being ar ranged for connection to a gun. » "7. Gun-charging mechanism comprising a shaft, an arm arranged to oscillate about the shaft, a. ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a pawl carried by the* arm for engagement with the ratchet-wheel, a detent for retaining the ratchet wheel in the positionV to which it has ‘been ad vanced by the paWl, an oscillatory member pro vided with projections for engagement with the vpawl and detent, a second arm fixed to the shaft, and a flexible member joined to the second arm and arranged for connection to a gun. 8. Gun-charging mechanism comprising a shaft, an arm arranged to oscillate about the shaft, a ’ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a pawl carried by the arm for engagement with the ratchet-wheel, a detent for retaining the ratchet wheel in the position to which itihas been ad vanced by the pawl, an cscillatoryrmember pro vided with projections for engagement with the pawl and detent, means carried by the ratchet gaging the terminal to disconnect it from the gun upon thev completion of the charging operation. 12. Mechanism for charging a gun-including breech mechanism, said‘ charging mechanism comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an arm fixed. to the shaft, a flexible member joined to the arm and provided with a terminal for con nection to the breech mechanism, a movable stop member with which the terminal contacts, and means for moving the stopY member to disconnect the terminal from the gun upon the completion of the charging operation. 13. Mechanism for charging a gun including breech mechanism, said charging mechanism comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined to the arm and provided with a terminal for con» nection to the breech mechanism, a lever having a portion with which the' terminal contacts, a spring urging said lever-portion toward the ter minal and being tensioned during the charging of the gun, and a spring urging said terminal into engagement with said iever-portion, the lever spring being the stronger of the two springs and ber joined to the second arm and arranged for acting upon the lever to free the terminal from the breech mechanism. 14. Mechanism for charging a gun including breech mechanism, said charging mechanism comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined connection to a gun. to the arm and provided with a terminal for con wheel for shifting the oscillatory member, a sec ond arm fixed to the shaft, and a flexible mem nection to the breech mechanism, a lever having 9. Gun-charging mechanism comprising a a hooked end, means for urging the hooked end shaft, an arm arranged to oscillate about the shaft, a ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a 50 forwardly and upwardly, and means including the arm and the flexible member for drawing the pawl carried by the arm for engagement with the terminal against the lever for movement by the ratchet-Wheel, a detent for retaining the ratchet wheel in the position to which it has been ad hooked end. vanced by the pawl, a plate having a finger-piece 15. In combination, a gun including breech mounted to turn about the shaft and provided 55 mechanism and a counter-recoil-spring therefor, means for applying to the spring a loading force, with projections for engagement with the paWl and detent and with depressions corresponding to said means including a member mounted inde pendently of the gun and arranged for actuation the projections, a latch for engagement with by an operator and a second member through either of the depressions, means whereby the ratchet-wheel may turn the plate to a latched 60 which the force exerted by the operator on said first member is transmitted to the spring, said position in which the pawl and detent are freed from the plate-projections for engagement with second member being arranged for manual trans fer by the operator from an inactive position to the ratchet-wheel, movement of the plate by the finger-piece causing it to be latched with the active connection to the breech mechanism, and plate-projections engaging the pawl and detent means made effective during the loading of the spring for acting upon the second member to to lift them from the ratchet-wheel, a second arm disconnect it from the breech mechanism and fixed to the shaft, and a fiexible member joined return it to its inactive position. to the second arm and arranged for connection FRANK R. THRESH. to a gun.