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sepa». 24,v 1946.
F. R, THRr-:sH
¿408,1 10
GUN-CHARGING MECHANISM
Filed July l0, v1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Sept. 24, i946.
F. R. THRESH
\
2,408,110
GUN-CHARGING MECHANISM
Filed July 1o, 1944
sv sheets-sheet -3
[nè/enfar
Agai
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
UNTTED STATES PATENT ori-“ica
1
2,408,110
GUN- CHARGING MECHANISM
Frank R. Thresh, Beverly, Mass., assignor to
United Shoe Machinery Corporatiom' Fleming
ton, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey
'
Application July 10, 1944, Serial No. 544,207 .
15 Claims.
l
(Cl. 89-1)
2
.
.
Considering the charging mechanism itself», it
This invention relates to mechanism by which
a machine-gun may be charged or cocked by the
has an arm movable by the operator, and a sec
operator, if vthe normal discharge fails to load
the counter-recoil-spring ready for the firing of
the succeeding round. It is especially appli
ond arm to which is joinedy aV flexible connecting
member, as a chain, it contacting during the
charging operation with an arm-portion of grad
ually decreasing radius. The first arm may be
oscillated about a shaft and carries a pawl for
cable to the charging of guns demanding an al)
plication of a relatively large force.
' engagement with a ratchet-wheel -fast upon the
Y The invention has as an object the minimiz
ing the effort which the operator must exert in
shaft. The second arm, tol whicnthe iiexible
charging the gun, and the simplifying the ma 10 member is joined, isv iixedtothe shaft, and"V is
nipulation of the mechanism. >In the attain
thus moved in successive steps by the oscillation
ment of this object, I combine with a gun and
of the ñrst arm. The engagement of the pawl
the counter-recoil-spring ci its breech mecha
with the ratchet-wheel, and also that of a re
nism, means for applying to the spring a lo-ading
taining detent for said Wheel, is controlled by an
force, and means for increasing the applied force 15 oscillatory member or plate »provided with projec
as the loading of the spring progresses. This
tions for engagement with the pawl and detent.
force, exerted by the operator of the gun, is
This member may be shifted between positions in
transmitted to the spring-through a lever-arm,
which its ~projections are inactive or active, this
being accomplished by the operator and bythe
which decreases in its effective length as the
spring is loaded, and thus increases the leverage 20 ratchet-wheel, it being releasably latched in each
. in favor of the operator as the spring-resistance
position. The flexible member has a connect
ing terminal, and means acting upon the arm to
increases. This decrease in the length of-the
lever-arm is preferably obtained by providing it
which it is joined draws thel terminal against a
with a portion of decreasing radius, and connect
stop member, so it is ready to be advanced by
ing the gun to a portion of the arm of greater 25 the operator for connection to the -gun and again
radius by a ñexible member which contacts With
retracted to its initial position after such use.
the decreasing portion during movement of the
There is means engaging this terminal for dis
arm. To make it possible for the operator to
connecting it from the gun, which means may
charge the gun by successive actuations of the
be in the form of a movable member lor lever,
lever, ratchet mechanism is interposed between 30 also furnishing the stop.- which is urged toward
the operator-actuated means and the force-in
the terminal by a spring while another spring,
creasing means. To facilitate connection of the
as that by which the flexible member is retracted,
charging mechanism to the gun, there may be
urges the terminal into engagement with the
means for rendering the ratchet mechanism ef
lever in a predetermined angular position. Dur
fective or ineffective. When it is desired to ad 35 ing the final stage of the charging action, the
vance the normally retracted connecting member
lever-spring is energized and, being stronger
for attachment to the gun, a controlling mem
than the terminal-spring, overcomes this to ap
ber movable by the operator renders the ratchet
ply to the terminal the disconnecting movement.
mechanism ineffective. so the advance is per
In the accompanying drawings,
.
mitted. This controlling member may be moved 40
Fig. 1 shows my improved charging mecha
in the advance of the connecting member for at
nism in side elevation, with itsV operating treadle
tachment to the gun, to again make the ratchet
and connected to a gun;
'
mechanism effective. The member which is con
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the charging
nected to the gun, as to the breech-bolt, for
mechanism broken away and portions displaced
transmittinor thereto the charging force, must 45 laterally;
'
'
be disconnected before the discharge of the gun.
Fig. 3, a front elevation of the mechanism
This I accomplish by means made active during
viewed from the right in Fig. 1;
'
Y
'
the loading of the counter-recoil-spring, said
Fig. 4, an enlarged partial side elevation, of
means acting upon the connecting member after
the charging mechanism; r
. .
'
the spring has been loaded. The breech-bolt 50
Fig. 5, a transverse sectional detail, showing
over-travels in its charging movement, and dur
the controlling cam-plate for the pawl and de
ing the return from over-travel the disconnec
tent ofthe ratchet mechanism;
l
tion and positioning of the member is produced
Fig. 6, a similar view of the chain-retracting
Without special attention on the part of the op
spring; and
«
l
1
erator.
.
55
Figs. 7 and 8, details in perspective of the
2,408,110
3
4
curved edge 80 of gradually increasing radius.
means for retracting, respectively, the detent and
pawl of the ratchet mechanism.
To the arm, at or near the point of maximum
f There appears at T a portion of the side of a
' radius, is attached a chain 82, which is led rear
wardly over a guide-roll 84 rotatable upon the
turret, from which projects a hood I-I in which a
gun G is housed. This gun may ‘be of the Oer
outer extremity of a bracket 86, projecting hori
zontally from the wall of the turret T beneath the
liken type, upon the breech-casing i0 of which
bracket 20. The free end of the chain carries a
may be seen portions of the breech-bars i2, i2
terminal loop 88, the opening of which is adapted
and of the counter-recoil-spring I4 by which
to» receive the breech-bar-stud I6 when the gun
the breech-bolt is urged forward for the ñring
of a cartridge after the discharge of the preced 10 G is to be charged by the mechanism C. A con
stant force is exerted upon the chain, tending to
ing round. If this discharge, for any reason,
retract the loop, by a spiral spring 90 surround
does not occur, it is necessary to apply to a catch
ing the shaft 30. The outerend of the spring is
plate or stud I6 upon one of the breech-bars an
connected at 92 to the arm 13, while the inner
external force to compress the counter-recoil
spring, until it is» latched by the breech-pawls 15 end is angular and may ‘be inserted in any one
of a plurality of notches 94 (Fig. 6) in a boss
ready for firing. In the gun under considera
upon the bracket-arm 24. The latter connec
tion, the spring I4 holds the breech-boltV closed
tion permits the tension of the spring to be
and is necessarily very strong, requiring a heavy
varied. In advance of the roll 84, the chain
force to compress it. The mechanism by which
the spring is loaded and the gun charged ready zo 82 is supported by a laterally projecting shoulder
36 from a stationary arm 98 attached to the
for firing appears at C.
end of the bracket 86. To determine the normal
Secured to the top of the hood I-I is a bracket
location of the loop 88, shoulders |00, |00 upon
20, provided with spaced depending arms 22 and
the inner end are drawn by the spring 90 into
24. In bushings 26 and 23 in said arms a shaft
30 is rotatable, it having secured to it a ratchet 25 engagement with the lower bifurcated extremity
of a lever |04 fulcrumed upon the end of the
wheel 32. Mounted to oscillate upon the inner
bracket 85 and having hooked end-portions |02,
end of the shaft, retained in place by a screw and
|02. This engagement with the lever is just above
Washer 34 (Fig. 3), is'an arm 35 having at its
the hooks, which are urged forward by a ten
outer side a projection 31, upon which is pivoted
a pawl 38 engaging the teeth of the ratchet 30 sion-spring |05, joining the upper extremity of
the lever to the bracket 86 and holding it yield
Wheel. A tension-spring 40, extending between
ably against a stop-pin |08 set in the bracket
projections from the arm and pawl, yieldably
(Fig. 2). The spring |06 exerts upon the lever
maintains such engagement. From the end of the
ends |02 a greater force to advance them, than
arm, a link 42 extends within the turret to an
arm of a bell-crank-lever 44 fulcrumed on a 35 does the spring 90 through the chain |02 to re
tract them. As the spring 90 brings the loop
spindle 45 extending between the turret-walls.
shoulders |00 against the lever, the contact is
The long arm 46 of the lever carries arest 48,
first made by angular ends |01. Then the con
convenient to receive contact of the foot of the
tinuing pull of the spring causes the loop to pivot
man `within the turret servicing the guns. This
treadle mechanism may act upon the charging 40 about itsr connection to the chain at |05, draw
ing inclined walls |09 upon the shoulders against
mechanisms of guns at opposite sides of the tur
the generally vertical edges of the lever. The loop
ret, there being one of the bell-crank-levers ful
is now in a predetermined angular position, in
crumed upon each end of the spindle 45. The
clined upwardly from the horizontal, out of the
lever-arm 46 is held yieldably toward the rear
path of the fbreech-bolt-stud.
by a tension-spring 50, joining the lever to the .
turret-wall. Repeated actuation of the lever
A gun G in the turret having jammed, the man
against the force of the spring will cause the
servicing the guns first actuates the cam-plate
pawl 38 to turn the ratchet-wheel in successive
55 of the charging mechanism C for that g-un by
`the íinger-piece 65 to shift it counterclockwise
steps, where it is retained, until released, by a
detent 52 pivoted upon the wall of the turret
(Fig. 5). This carries it from the inactive posi
and urged into engagement with the ratchet
tion, where it was left after the preceding opera
teeth by a tension-spring 54 connecting it to said
tion with the plunger E0 en-gaging the plate-de
wall. The pawl 38 and the detent 52, in their
pression l2, to the active relation in which the
engagement with the teeth of the ratchet-wheel,
plunger is in the depression l0. The projections
may be controlled simultaneously by a cam-plate
58 and 60 of the plate lift both the pawl 38 and
56, rotatable upon the end of the bushing 26 at
the detent 52 from the ratchet-wheel 32, leaving
the inner side of the bracket-arm 22. Projec
this free to turn clockwise (Fig. 2). Then, the
tions 58 and 60 upon the plate engage pins S2
loop 88 of the charging mechanism is taken and
and 64 set in the pawl and detent, respectively.
drawn forward, until it -can be placed over the
The cam-plate may be turned by a finger-piece
breech-bolt-stud Hi, which is in the forward po
56 to position the projections in their ineiîective
sition appearing in full lines at a in Fig. l. The
relation, with the paWl and detent free to act
pull of the spring Si) upon the chain places this
upon the ratchet-wheel. In the opposite direc
under sufficient tension to take up the Islack and
maintain the lo-Op in secure engagement with the
tion, the plate is shifted automatically, as will
hereinafter appear. In its two positions, the
stud. J ust before the loop arrived at the forward
point, a projection H0 from the hub of the
plate may be latched by a spring-plunger 88
ratchet-wheel struck a pin H2 projecting in
mounted in the bracket-arm 22 and engaging
either a depression 10 or 'I2 in the edge of the
wardly from the cam-plate 55. The movement of
plate. Oscillation of the plate in both directions
the plate thus produced is sufûcient to turn it
is limited, and registration of the depressions ‘iii
clockwise, until the plunger 63 occupies the de
pression 12 and the cam-projections free the pawl
and 12 with the plunger 63 established, by a stop
pin 14 projecting from the bracket-arm 22
and detent, so these again engage the teeth of
the ratchet-wheel. The bell-crank-lever 44 may
through an arcuate slot 76 in the plate.
now be oscillated successively by the combined
On the other end of the shaft 30 from the
effect of the foot of the operator and of the spring
ratchet mechanism is fixed an arm 18, having a
2,408,110
5
5l), causing the pawl 38 to impart to the ratchet
ing manner.
wheel a series of steps, at the end of each of which
it is held against recession by the detent 52. This
turns the arm l8 in the direction of the arrow,
drawing-upon the chain 82 to retract gradually
the breech-bolt of the gun. In addition to the
plied to the breech-'bolt-stud I6, the operator ac
tuates the finger-piece |24 to remove the pawl 38
With the chain-terminal 88 ap
from the ratchet-teeth, and then advances the
foot-rest 48 to its extreme point. The spring 5B
is thereupon »allowed to retract the lever-arm 46
through ashort distance, and the finger-piece is
constant advantage obtained by the operator
freed sorthat the pawl re-engages the ratchet
Wheel, which is being held against the force of the
counter-recoil-spring by the detent Í52. From
this» >position the foot-rest is again operated
through the leverage of the bell-crank-lever and
of the mechanism C, there is an increase in lever
age at lsaid mechanism as the compressing of the
counter-recoil-spring I4 progresses and the re
sistance to such compression increases. This is
obtained Without a corresponding increase in the
the detent from the pressure of the spring, and
extent of foot-movement, due to the gradual
shortening of the work-arm Z8 of this lever sys
said detent is separated from the ratchet-Wheel
by operating the finger-piece |30, The foot-rest
tem, as compared with the power-arm 35 as the
radius of the curved edge Si! decreases at the lead
may now lbe allowed to travel fully to the rear,
the force of the spring thereby .being reduced.
'I’he finger-piece |30 is released so the detent
through its limited forward movement to relieve `
ing point of contact with the chain. Thus, the
again engages the ratchet-Wheel, the finger-piece
effort required of the operator is more nearly uni
form through the charging of the gun.
20 |24 is actuated as before, and the foot-rest re
turned idly to its forward position. There fol
When the stud I6 has been drawn back to the
lows the alternate relief of pressure upon the de
position indicated in dotted lines at b (Fig. 1),
tent a_nd its separation from the ratchet-wheel,
the :full recoil-movement of the breech-bolt has
been produced, and the breech-pawls have be
come eiïective. However, the breech-bolt of the
gun has not reached the limit of rearward move
ment, so there is an over-travel of the chain.
During this over-travel, the shoulders move in
engagement with the lever Hill, swinging this
release’ of compression of the counter-recoil
25
spring during rearward travel of the foot-rest,
and rei-engagement of the detent, retraction of
the pawl and forward travel of the foot-rest, un
tilV the spring is unloaded to the‘ desired degree.
Having described my invention, what I claim as
clockwise (Fig. 2) until completion of retraction 30 new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the
United States is:
’
of the breech-boltstops the chain with the stud
l. In combination, a gun including breech
I6 at c. The operator, Vfeeling this, allows the
mechanism and afcounter-recoil-spring therefor,
spring 50 to retract the treadle. During the
and means for actuation by an operator to apply
movement of the breech-bolt-stud between posi
tions c and b, the spring 99 draws back upon the 35 to the spring a loading force, said means compris
‘ing means for increasing the appliedforce as the
chain-loop 88, but'the spring |86, being stronger
than the spring Se, abruptly urge-S the` hooked
loading of the spring progresses and ratchet
ends |02 of the lever |94 counterclockwise. Just
mechanism transmitting the applied force to the
as the Istud arrives at position b, where the breech
force-increasing means.
bolt is latchedand the chain is relieved of the 40
2._In combination, a gun including breech
pull of the counter-recoil-spring, inclined sur
mechanism and a counter-recoil-spring therefor,
faces ||4 of the hooks, acting upon complemen
and means for actuation by an operator to apply
tally inclined surfaces llt of the shoulders mi),
to the spring a loading force, said means compris
cam up the loop sharply and disengage it from
ing means for increasing the applied force as the
the stud I6. This leaves the breech-bolt latched
loading of the spring progresses, ratchet mecha
by its pawls, freed from the chain ready for the
nism transmitting the applied force to the force
discharge of the gun.
The loop-shoulders are
carried by the spring yil!! to their normal positions
against the end of the lever, with the loop raised
about the stud, as already described. During .this
stud-freeing movement of the loop and chain, the
increasing means and means for rendering the
ratchet :mechanism eiîective or ineifective for
the transmission of the charging force.
3. In combination, a gun including breech
mechanism and a counter-recoil-spring therefor,
detent 52 rests upon a peripheral portion |18 of
and means for actuation by an operator to apply
the ratchet-Wheel, which is without teeth and
to the spring a loading force, said means com
prising ratchet mechanism transmitting the ap
does not interfere with the action of the lever |85
55 plied force to the spring, a normally retracted
as the stud and loop travel from c to b.
The operator may wish to utilize the mecha
connecting member which may be advanced by
nism C for removing the load from the counter
the ratchet mechanism for the application of the
recoil-spring i4 of the gun. For convenience in
charging forceto the spring, a member movable
this connection, means may be provided for re
by the operator to render the ratchet mechanism
tracting both the pawl 38 and the detent 52 60 ineifective for the transmission of the charging
from the teeth of the ratchet-wheel 32. As shown
force and means acting in the advance of the con
in Fig. 8, there is rotatable in the arm-projection
necting member to render said ratchet mecha
3l a shaft |25, having in prom'mity to the inner
nism effective for the transmission of the charg
side of the pawl a cam-portion |22; At the oppo
ing
force.
site extremity of the shaft, within the turret T, is
4. Mechanism for charging a gun including
a finger-piece |24. The normal position of the
breech mechanism, said charging mechanism
cam is such that it permits the pawl to engage
comp-rising an arm movable by an operator, a
the ratchet-teeth. It may, however, be rotated
second arm connected for movement by the
by the finger-piece to bring into contact with
the pawl a portion of the cam of greater diameter, 70 ñrst and having a portion of decreasing radius,
and a ilexible member arranged for connection
thus separating said pawl from the teeth. Simi
to the ‘breech mechanism and joined to a portion
larly, as is best shown in Fig. ’7, a shaft |26 with
of the second arm of greater radius, said mem
its cam |28 and finger-piece |30 turns in the
ber contacting with the decreasing portion of the
turret-wall, so the cam may act upon the detent
52. These two devices may be used in the follow 75 second arm during its gun-charging movement
2,408,11o.
7
and receiving therefrom an increasing charging
force.
.
^
5. Mechanism. for charging a gun including
breech mechanism, said charging mechanism
comprising a shaft, an arm for actuation by an
operator to turn the shaft, an arm fixed to the
shaft and having an edge decreasing in radius
from a maximum, and a flexible member joined
to the arm having an edge decreasing in radius
at its maximum radius and contacting with its 10
edge, said member lbeing arranged for connection
8
10. Mechanism for charging a gun including
breech mechanism, said charging mechanism
comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an
arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined
to the arm and provided with a terminal for
connection to the breech mechanism, a stop
member, and means acting upon the arm to
draw the terminal into engagement with the stop
member in a predetermined relation to the breech
mechanism.
`
11. Mechanism for charging a gun including
to the breech mechanism and applying thereto
breech mechanism, said charging mechanism
an increasing charging force.
comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an
arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined
to the arm and provided with a terminal for con
nection to the breech mechanism, and means en
I
6. Gun-charging mechanism comprising a
shaft, an arm` arranged to oscillate Vabout the
shaft, a ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a pawl
carried by the arm for engagement with the
ratchet-wheel, a second arm ñxed to the shaft
and having an edge decreasing in radius from
a maximum, and a flexible member joined to Y
the second arm at its maximum radius and con
tacting with its edge, said member, being ar
ranged for connection to a gun.
» "7. Gun-charging
mechanism
comprising
a
shaft, an arm arranged to oscillate about the
shaft, a. ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a pawl
carried by the* arm for engagement with the
ratchet-wheel, a detent for retaining the ratchet
wheel in the positionV to which it has ‘been ad
vanced by the paWl, an oscillatory member pro
vided with projections for engagement with the
vpawl and detent, a second arm fixed to the shaft,
and a flexible member joined to the second arm
and arranged for connection to a gun.
8. Gun-charging mechanism comprising a
shaft, an arm arranged to oscillate about the
shaft, a ’ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a
pawl carried by the arm for engagement with the
ratchet-wheel, a detent for retaining the ratchet
wheel in the position to which itihas been ad
vanced by the pawl, an cscillatoryrmember pro
vided with projections for engagement with the
pawl and detent, means carried by the ratchet
gaging the terminal to disconnect it from the gun
upon thev completion of the charging operation.
12. Mechanism for charging a gun-including
breech mechanism, said‘ charging mechanism
comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an
arm fixed. to the shaft, a flexible member joined
to the arm and provided with a terminal for con
nection to the breech mechanism, a movable stop
member with which the terminal contacts, and
means for moving the stopY member to disconnect
the terminal from the gun upon the completion
of the charging operation.
13. Mechanism for charging a gun including
breech mechanism, said charging mechanism
comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an
arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined
to the arm and provided with a terminal for con»
nection to the breech mechanism, a lever having
a portion with which the' terminal contacts, a
spring urging said lever-portion toward the ter
minal and being tensioned during the charging
of the gun, and a spring urging said terminal into
engagement with said iever-portion, the lever
spring being the stronger of the two springs and
ber joined to the second arm and arranged for
acting upon the lever to free the terminal from
the breech mechanism.
14. Mechanism for charging a gun including
breech mechanism, said charging mechanism
comprising a shaft rotatable by an operator, an
arm fixed to the shaft, a flexible member joined
connection to a gun.
to the arm and provided with a terminal for con
wheel for shifting the oscillatory member, a sec
ond arm fixed to the shaft, and a flexible mem
nection to the breech mechanism, a lever having
9. Gun-charging mechanism comprising a
a hooked end, means for urging the hooked end
shaft, an arm arranged to oscillate about the
shaft, a ratchet-wheel fast upon the shaft, a 50 forwardly and upwardly, and means including
the arm and the flexible member for drawing the
pawl carried by the arm for engagement with the
terminal against the lever for movement by the
ratchet-Wheel, a detent for retaining the ratchet
wheel in the position to which it has been ad
hooked end.
vanced by the pawl, a plate having a finger-piece
15. In combination, a gun including breech
mounted to turn about the shaft and provided 55 mechanism and a counter-recoil-spring therefor,
means for applying to the spring a loading force,
with projections for engagement with the paWl
and detent and with depressions corresponding to
said means including a member mounted inde
pendently of the gun and arranged for actuation
the projections, a latch for engagement with
by an operator and a second member through
either of the depressions, means whereby the
ratchet-wheel may turn the plate to a latched 60 which the force exerted by the operator on said
first member is transmitted to the spring, said
position in which the pawl and detent are freed
from the plate-projections for engagement with
second member being arranged for manual trans
fer by the operator from an inactive position to
the ratchet-wheel, movement of the plate by the
finger-piece causing it to be latched with the
active connection to the breech mechanism, and
plate-projections engaging the pawl and detent
means made effective during the loading of the
spring for acting upon the second member to
to lift them from the ratchet-wheel, a second arm
disconnect it from the breech mechanism and
fixed to the shaft, and a fiexible member joined
return it to its inactive position.
to the second arm and arranged for connection
FRANK R. THRESH.
to a gun.
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