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Sept. 24, 1946._
R. c. TRUAX Em;
»
TWO-STAGE ROCKET SYSTEM
2,408,111
Filed Aug. 30, 1945
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BY
ATI'ORNEY
I _
Patented Sept. 24; 1946
2,408,111 ‘
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE‘
Schubert,v and: James R. Patton, Jr., United
States; Nav-y,. and Robertson Youngqilist,
Annapoliai. Md;
Appli'cation‘August‘BO, 1943; Serial No.:5.00,‘584'
3.: Claims; ('Cl;_60.—35'.6’)
(Granted'_ under the act of.‘ March 3, 1883;. as
amended April'30, 1928; 370. 0; G. ‘757)
The subjectof this inventionis a novel‘ t‘ypeof
propulsion . jet- or rocket engine.
It. has been customary in. rocket. type; engines
tosupply- the propellentt?uidg such as gasolineor
'
highpressure gas supply tank‘Alfrom which the
gas is supplied through .the shut-off: valve B1 andla
pressure reducingvalve C to the twoauxiliary
tanks.‘ D-and E. through check. valves Z2" One of
nitric; acid, under pressure to:the' engine. The. 5 these auxiliary tanks. may contain-alrhydrocarbon
liquid fuel and the. other aliquidLformof oxidizer;
streams’ of the'propellent in the.» enginev chamber.
The main fuel and oxidizer tanks. K'and L respec
after injection‘ were ignited 3 by some heat source
tively supply the propellent?uids through the
shut-off valves-MandN to~the maincombustion
electric heating; c0il,; etc._ With combustion.- es-'
tablished the'products- of combustionebuiltrup 10 chamber 0' of the engine'Athroughthe nozzle .W;
One of these" propellents , fed through the ' shut
the pressure in. the: engine: chamber and-were
off’ valve N» is shown passing around‘the- engine
dischargedi steadily through a: nozzle.- to produce
power jet‘ nozzle 5 and-through =a~jacket Fl around
theethrusiz. The nozzle’ andcombustiorr chamber
such as: a; common powderv squib, electric {I spark,
were; usually; jacketed; andzeooled by s a‘ liquid.‘ me.
the combustion. chamber‘ before it enters’ the
‘ pressure tothe propellent; ?uidsiitor furnish the
similar; to. the‘ main combustion chamber except
dium: in order. to'provide; smootherroperation; and 15 nozzle W. The means ‘for atomizing andmixing
the propellents, as they enter'the nozzleW; is- the
longer life.
'
stream of products of‘ combustion furnished by
Axmajor purposeLin the? operationof; these en.
the preliminary combustion chamber I; WhiCh'iS'
ginesv was the. problem of supplying. gaszunder.
necessary supply pressure. thereof: torthe; engine 20 thatit‘ismuch smaller and i's-supplied by the
propellent. liquids‘ from. the: auxiliary tanks
nozzle. Such gast'sup‘ply;
for: example. nitro
through the: nozzle F; The fuelgfedito this "nozzle
gen, necessitated,’ the » use. of: highz-pressure; store
passes through the cut-off‘? valvev Q,‘ .whereas: the
age-bottles of considerable-weight. IfxwasLthere- ,
oxidizer: is passed through . the ,cut-o?‘. valves 1?;
fore-r desirable to provide some‘ means: of? supply-7
whence its path is divided‘; part’; of: it‘ being; fed
ing a‘gasunder pressure directlyfrom the'engin'e \
tolthe nozzle of thezmain combustion-chamb'ersat
to provide» the;necessary“propellentfv supply pres‘
the point Y andthen through alcooling jacket: 2
sure. It was also found‘:desirableltoprovidea
around the preliminary combustion chamber; to
reliablesource of adequate‘heat-for starting-the
combustion; A further desirable featurewas the 30 the nozzle'F while the other portion is f edlthrough
a cooling jacket H’around an exhaustoutletlX
provision of some adequate-means" ofl thoroughly
from the preliminary combustion chamber; and
atomizing and mixing“ the} propell'entA ?'uid'se' as
then into the coolingv jacket- of‘ the preliminary
they 'were injected into the‘ combustion chamber
fox-‘thorough and e?icient combustiona
I
combustion chamber.‘ The"exhaustoutletKXJdé- -
The object of this invention is to providel'such 35 livers vpart'oi’ the products: of? combustion from
the preliminary combustion-‘chamber tothe'up
meansv in‘: a’ rocketrtype- engine-- for» thoroughly
atomiz'ing and‘ mixing the: propellentl ?uids} for
p‘er- portions - of ‘the main tanks K‘ and‘ L. through
assuring ignition thereof'at'the- beginning‘of'; as
their'respective check-‘valves V; Conduit'connec
tions are provided between the auxiliarys‘supply
well 13S“ during, operation; _ and‘ at the same.‘ time
furnishing ‘a gas‘ under sufficient pressure‘ to the 40 lines below theshut-off 'valves- Q and‘ P‘ ‘at-the
pcintsl?)v and T'respectively to the exhaust con
vpropellentv supp-1y" tanks to force‘; the"propellent ‘
intoythe nozzle‘ of. the combustion" chame
ber: A‘ further‘ object is‘to provide‘ adequate
means‘ for cooling" the combustion chamber‘while
simultaneously‘ heating one" or. both propellent
fluids; which'mayserve as"th'e cooling medium,
priorto‘theitinj ection' through the ‘engine nozzle‘.
These- and" other‘ more speci?c objects" will‘ be
come. apparent as: the "description- of * the’ present
nections-to the main tanks K'and L at the'points
S vand U',' respectively; for the purpose - of? render
ing the gasesducted to these tanks inertv by in
45 ,iecting or bleeding an excessof oxidizer into» the
ductieading to‘ the oxidizer tank and'an excess of
fuellinto-"th'e-wduct leading to the fuel tank». This
injection should‘ takeplace before the gases-are
cooled below reaction temperature: Suitableig'
invention proceeds, havingreference to~ the; ace 50 nition means is provided in the»>'preliminary com
bustion chamber at" G.- The operation‘ of this
eompanyin'gv drawing‘; in‘ which‘ thesingle ?gure
shows a. diagrammatic illustration. of ' the; pre:
ferred arrangement and relationb'etween'. the
various elementsof the invention;
.
In theiorm illustrated‘the'engine’ includes a
engine is'a's follows:
Tobegin} with, the shut-oiT'valve B is opened;
permitting the pressure in the auxiliary tank's-‘D
and‘
tobuild' up to‘ the required pressure vin-v ac
2,408,111
3
4
cordance with the adjustment of a pressure re
ducing valve C. At the same time, the necessary
pressure is supplied to the ignition means G, or,
if the ignition means are of some other form,
they are respectively turned on at this time. The
valves Q and P are next opened, whereupon the
atomizing, mixing and igniting the combustible
?uids, a supply nozzle to said preliminary com
bustion chamber, cooling jackets around said
main and preliminary combustion chambers
and said propulsion and supply nozzles, through
which one of the combustible components for
propellent ?uids are supplied through the jet F
each combustion chamber are passed through the
respective cooling jackets for preheating and
conditioning said component for more intimate
chamber are then forced out through the nozzle 10 mixture in the respective supply nozzles with its
complementary component, main supply tanks
W into the main combustion chamber, and then
out through the propulsion nozzle 5. Part of
for the combustible components for the main
the combustion gases from the preliminary com
combustion chamber, auxiliary supply tanks for
bustion chamber is delivered through the exhaust
the auxiliary combustion chamber, gas pressure
conduit X and the check valves V to the main 15 tank for supplying pressure to said auxiliary
tanks K and L, being mixed prior to their entry
supply tanks, and connections between the aux
into the tanks K and L with an excess of the
iliary combustion-chamber and the main supply
other propellent ?uid through the connections
tanks for furnishing a portion of the exhaust
at S and U, respectively. The object of these
gases from said chamber to said tanks.
connections is to furnish a sufficient amount of
2. A rocket-type internal combustion engine
the corresponding propellent ?uid in gaseous
having a main combustion chamber with a pro
form to combine with any excess of gases in the
pulsion power nozzle, a supply nozzle therefor,
exhaust gas of the ?uid in the other tank, so as
means for supplying combustible ?uids thereto,
and ignited within the preliminary combustion
chamber.
The products of combustion in this
to obviate the presence of any gases in either
a preliminary combustion chamber for supplying '
tank of the ?uids of the other tank, which might
constitute a hazard, particularly if the two pro
pellent ?uids are of the type which combine
readily at such lower temperatures as might oc
gases of combustion to said supply nozzle for
cur in these tanks. When the pressures in the
tanks K and L are su?iciently built up, the shut
off valves M and N are opened. The tank K in
atomizing, mixing and igniting the combustible
?uids, a supply nozzle to said preliminary com
bustion chamber, cooling jackets around said
main and preliminary combustion chambers and
30
the presentform contains a hydrocarbon fuel
said propulsion and supply nozzles, through
which one of the combustible components for
each combustion chamber are passed through the
responsive cooling jackets for preheating and
which may be the same as that contained in the
auxiliary tank D and the tank L has an oxidizer
conditioning said component for more intimate
?uid which may be the same as that contained 35 mixture in the respective supply nozzles with its
complementary component, main supply tanks
in auxiliary tank E. The hydrocarbon fuel is
fed directly through the shut-off valve M to the
for the combustible components for the main
combustion chamber, auxiliary supply tanks for
nozzle W of the main combustion chamber,
whereas the oxidizer is fed to this nozzle W by
the auxiliary combustion chamber, gas pressure
way of the cooling jacket after ?rst passing 40 tank for supplying pressure to said auxiliary sup
around the propulsion nozzle 13. As the pro
ply tanks, connections between the auxiliary
pellents are injected through the nozzle W, the
combustion-chamber and the main supply tanks
for furnishing a portion of the exhaust gases
gases of combustion from the preliminary com
bustion chamber which are forced through this
from said chamber to said tanks, and means for
combining any possible excess of gas in the ex
nozzle W, provide thorough atomization and mix
ing as Well as continuous ignition to the pro
haust supplied to either of the main tanks of
the combustible component of the ?uid in the
pellents fromthe main tanks. This provides a
other main tank with a su?icient amount of gas
complete and e?icient combustion of the gases
of its complementary combustible, to avoid the
within the main combustion chamber, which sup- hazard of having an explosion in either main
plies the propulsion jet p with the necessary
tank by the presence of any gas of the ?uid of
power ?uid. ,
the other tank therein, while bene?tting by the
The form of engine shown in the drawing in
additional pressure furnished by such combina
dicates the use of spherical combustion cham
bers. This shape of the combustion chambers , tion of gases.
is not essential to the proper operation of the 55 3. A rocket-type internal combustion engine
having a main combustion chamber with a pro
present invention, and any other suitable forms
pulsion power nozzle, a supply nozzle therefor,
of chambers might be used. The preliminary
means for supplying combustible ?uids thereto,
combustion chamber may be very small and of
, a preliminary combustion chamber for supplying
a different form from that of the main combus
tion chamber. Various other modi?cations in 60 gases of combustion to said supply nozzle for
atomizing, mixing and igniting the combustible
form and arrangement may be made in the en
?uids, a supply nozzle to said preliminary com
gine without department from the scope of this
bustion chamber, cooling jackets around said
invention as de?ned by the appended claims.
main and preliminary combustion chambers
The invention described herein may be manu
andsaid propulsion and supply nozzles, through
factured and used by or for the Government'of
which one of the combustible components for
the United States of America for governmental
each combustion chamber are passed through the
purposes Without the payment of any royalties
thereon or therefor.
, What we claim is:
‘
'1. A rocket-type internal combustion engine
respective cooling jackets for preheating and
conditioning said component for more intimate
mixture in the respective supply nozzles with its
having a main combustion chamber with a pro
complementary vcomponent, main supply tanks
pulsion power nozzle, a supply nozzle therefor,
means for supplying combustible ?uids thereto,
a preliminary combustion chamber for supplying
gases of combustion to said supply nozzle for 75
for the combustible components for the main
combustion chamber, auxiliary supply tanks for
the auxiliary combustion chamber, gas pressure
tank for supplying pressure to said auxiliary sup
2,408,111
5
other tank therein, while bene?tting by the ad
ditional pressure furnished by such combination
ply tanks, connections between the auxiliary
combustion-chamber and the main supply tanks
for furnishing a portion of the exhaust gases
from said chamber to said tanks, means .for
combining any possible excess of gas in the ex
of gases, and check valves in said connections to
prevent reverse ?ow to the auxiliary combustion
D
haust supplied to either of the main tanks of
the combustible component of the ?uid in the
other main tank with a su?‘icient amount of gas
of its complementary combustible, to avoid the
, hazard of having an explosion in either main 10
tank by the presence of any gas of the ?uid of the
chamber.
R. C. TRUAX.
R. C. S'I'IFF, JR.
WILLIAM SCHUBERT.
J., R. PATTON, JR.
ROBERTSON YOUNGQUIST.
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