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Патент USA US2408113

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Sept. 24, 1946.
2,40%,113
E. E. TURNER, JR
APPARATUS FOR SUBMARINE‘ SIGNALING
_
Original Filed July 22, 1939
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
INVENTOR.
BY
EDWIN E.TUI2NER JR.
ATTORNEY
558m. 24-, W46,
'
APPARATUS FOR SUBMARINE SIGNALING
'
./
,
_
250,1 13
E. E. TURNER, JR
Original Filed July 22, 1939
_
a Sheets-Sheet s
_
58\/
ATZUENEY
2,408,113
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,408,113
APPARATUS FOR SUBMARINE SIGNALING
Edwin E. Turner, Jr., West Roxbury, Mass., as
signor, by mesne assignments, to Submarine
Signal Company, Boston, Mass., a corporation
of Delaware
Original application July 22, 1939, Serial No.
285,910. Divided and this application August
26, 1941, Serial No. 408,370
9 Claims.
1
The present application is a division of my
copending application Serial No. 285,910, ?led
July 22, 1939.
The present invention relates to translating
devices for converting compressional wave en
ergy to electrical energy and vice versa. More
_
(Cl. 177—386)
2
variation in a plurality of magnetic driving ele
ments distributed over the radiating element.
The present application relates more particu
larly to the production of such variations in vi
brational amplitude or response by constructions
involving a variation in the mass ratios of a
plurality of driving elements distributed over the
radiating surface.
devices as used for signaling under water and
The invention will best be understood by the
is particularly concerned with the transmission
and reception of compressional wave energy in 10 following description taken with reference to the
particularly, the present invention relates to such
accompanying drawings in which Fig. 1 is a polar
diagram of representative compressional wave en
It has heretofore generally been understood
ergy distribution; Fig. 2. is a graph showing'a
that if a vibratable piston be made large in its
suitable radiating surface amplitude distribution
dimensions in comparison with the Wave length
of the compressional waves at the signaling fre 15 for the production of one of the energy distribu
tions shown in, Fig. 1; Fig. 3 shows diagrammati
quency, a concentration of energy along the axis
cally a vertical cross section of an electrodynamic
perpendicular to the radiating surface will be
oscillator in accordance with one modi?cation
obtained. However, such a concentration of en
of the present invention; Fig. 4 is a horizontal
ergy in a main beam is accompanied by smaller 7
section
of the same device taken along the line
concentrations of energy indirections at various 20
4—4 in Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is a vertical cross section of
angles with the axis of the main beam.
another modi?cation of such an electrodynamic
When the relative acoustic energy intensities in
oscillator; Fig. 6 is a verticalsection of a further
space in the free medium as produced by such a
modi?cation of an electrodynamic oscillator; Fig.
device are plotted with respect to the several
angular directions from the axis perpendicular to 25 7 is a horizontal section of the device of Fig. 6
taken along the line 'l-‘l; Fig. 8 is a vertical
the radiating surface as on polar coordinate
section of a still further modi?cation of an elec
graph paper, the main concentration of energy
trodynamic oscillator; and Fig. 9 is a horizontal
will appear as a large lobe representing the main
section of the device of Fig. 8 taken along the
beam, and a plurality of auxiliary lobes or ears
line
9—9.
30
representing the subsidiary energy concentraAs shown in Fig. 1, the energy distribution pro
tions in directions other than that of the main
duced in a free medium by a representative ex- '
beam will also appear. These auxiliary lobes of
tended,
continuous, ?nite, plane radiating sur
the energy distribution pattern are often objec
a beam.
tionable particularly for signaling under water
' face having a dimension greater than the wave
as in acoustic ranging for the determination of 35 length at the signaling frequency vibrating as a
piston has a maximum energy concentration
the distance and direction of remote objects.‘
along
an axis 11 perpendicular to the radiating
Such subsidiary energy concentrations can be
surface. At small angles from the axis y the
reduced by not driving the plane radiating sur
energy decreases as indicated by the dotted line
faceas a piston but by driving it at varying
ea. At some larger angle from the axis 11 the
amplitudes over its surface. A suitable ampli 40 radiated energy will fall to zero and at a still
tude distribution for this purpose will be shown
greater angle again build up to a lower but still
below, but the present invention is primarily
signi?cant maximum value; then again fall to
concerned with arrangements for obtaining any
zero as the angle is further increased, and so on
desired vibrational amplitude distribution of the 45 throughout the hemisphere facing the radiating
radiating surface.
piston. Thus, there will appear successive lobes
.-.of energy concentration at various angular dis-.
It should be noted that the characteristics re
tances from the axis y as indicated in Fig. 1 by
ferred to herein as applying to a compressional
the lobes e1, c2 and es. If the piston be circular,
wave producing device also apply when the same
device is used for receiving such waves.
50 it will be understood that these subsidiary‘ lobes
are in the form of hollow cones, the graph in
In my copending application, above mentioned,
Fig. 1 indicating merely the energy distribution
I have described and claimed certain arrange
in one plane.
ments for producing desired variations of ampli
A more desirable energy distribution pattern
tude or response of a radiating and receiving
surface,‘ particularly by way of producing a flux 55 can be obained by effectively varying the ampli
2,408,113
‘I:
u]
4
tude over the radiating surface from the edges
to the center so that the greatest amplitude will
in my copending application Serial No. 24,078,
?led May 29, 1935.
occur at the center. If, for example, the vibra
tional amplitude be varied as shown in Fig. 2,
The alternating current coils as well as the
polarizing coils are connected electrically to have
uniform excitation and to produce‘ uniform elec
trical response when vibrated. However, con
the energy distribution represented by the solid
curve in Fig. 1 can be obtained.
In Fig. 2 the linear amplitude of the radiating
surface is indicated by the ordinates which rep- ..
trary to prior usage, the inner surface 32 of the
radiating element 33 is made dish-shaped. By
resent the ratio Ar/AO representing the ratio of
this means the outermost ring is associated with
the amplitude at any radial coordinate meas 10 a much larger mass than is the innermost ring.
ured from the center of the radiating surface to
As before stated, all the rings, however, are
the amplitude at the center, so- that the maxi
tuned to the same. frequency and the length of
mum amplitude is indicated as unity. Radial dis
the several‘ rings consequently varies. There
tances from the center of the radiating surface
fore, the mass ratio varies between the succes
are indicated by the abscissae which speci?cally 15 sive rings whereby uniform excitation of the driv
ing coils will produce a varying amplitude dis
tribution of the radiating surface. Thus any
represent the ratio r/a where r is the radial dis
tance from the center at any point and a is the
total radius of the radiating surface. The par
desired amplitude distribution can be obtained
simply by making the surface 3.2 of a different
this ?gure follows the equation:
20 shape to conform with the particular distribu
tion desired. It will be evident to those skilled
in the art that magnetostrictive driving elements‘
may be used in place of the electrodynamic ele
ments herein shown. The magnetostrictive ele
ments may, for example, be in the form of a. plu
The amplitude distribution shown in Fig. 2 pro;
rality of magnetostrictive tubes or rods as shown
duces an energy distribution in the medium as
in my copending application Serial No. 285,910‘,
shown by the solid curve in Fig. 1'. The main
?led July 22, 1939.
lobe E0 has somewhat greater width than the
The mass. ratio between the various driving
main lobe 60 produced by uniform amplitude of
the vibrating surface but the auxiliary lobes E1, 30 elements of the radiating surface can also be
varied by the arrangement shown in Fig. 5. In‘
E2 and E3 are very much reduced in intensity;
this case the radiating element 34. has its inner
To produce such a desired energy‘ distribution
ticular amplitude distribution curve shown in ‘
or any other desired energydistribution it is
necessary to cause the radiating surface to vi
surface divided by narrow circular slots into- a
brate with varying amplitudes‘over its surface
when energy is being transmitted and conversely
by one or more electrodynamic. elements 5 which
may be the. same as those shown in Fig. 3 and in.
horizontal section would appear as in. Fig. 4. The
plurality of rings 36, 31, 38 and: 39, each driven
to cause the surface to produce electrical‘ re
sponse which varies in a‘ similar manner‘ when
outermost portion 36' of the radiating member is
made the thickest. The otherv elements 31, 38
vAccording to the present invention I produce 40 and 39 progressively decrease in thickness, the
thinnest element being at the center. The mass
such a desired energy or sensitivity distribution
associated with the several driving elements?i is
by providing different loadings. of the driving
receiving.
therefore varied in a‘ manner similar to that. of
elements, that is I vary the mass ratio between
the mass of the driving elements and their re
spective associated proportions- of mass of the
radiating element.
Fig. 3, whereby with uniform excitation of. the
rings the radiating surface will vibrate at‘ vary
ing amplitude, the greatest, amplitude being at
'
the center. In this case, also, it will. be under“
Figs. 3' and 4 show a suitable construction of
stood that magnetostrictive driving. elements can
a compressional wave transmitter and/or receiver
be substituted for the electrodynamic elements.
in which the varying mass ratios between driv
ing elements and radiating surface are obtained 50 1 shown.
A further arrangement for obtaining a desired
by varying the thickness of, the radiating mem
amplitude distribution: over the radiating surface.
ber. An element 33' having a radiating surface
by variation of the mass ratios, of. the several driv- .
in contact with the signaling medium has a plu
ing elements is shown in Figs. 6' and '7... In this
rality‘ of concentric rings 5 of electrically con~
;case the electromagnetic driving rings,.of. which.
ductive ’materi"al mcunted on its inner surface.
four are shown, number'ed55, 56, 5‘! and"v 58, are
Four such rings are shown in the drawings al
made of successively diminishing thickness,.the:
though more may be used if desired. A mag
thickest ring, being placed‘ near the center. As
netic ?eld is produced across each of the rings
in the other modi?cations. the ringsare all: tuned.
5 by means of an electromagnet 6 having a 'plu
to the same frequency having regard to the; re
rality of concentric poles extending between the
rings and excited by direct current polarizing
coils 7; Woundv on or embed‘ded'in the out-
‘
side surfaces of the concentric poles are alter~'
nating ‘current windings 8' to which energy is.
supplied‘at the signaling frequency. The rings
5 are proportioned to have‘a height such that
spective proportions of mass of the radiating ele
ment 59 which is associated with each. Each
ring, therefore, together with ‘its proportion of
the element 59 forms a one-half wave length sys.-.
tem at the signaling frequency. Since the ring
at the center is thicker than the ‘other rings,
the ratio of its mass with respect to the portion
together with their respective portions of the
of the mass of element‘ 59 associated with it is
element 33', they will each form'a half wave length
larger than the corresponding mass ratio for the
vibrating‘ system at the signaling‘ frequency.
The entire system will, therefore, ‘be set into‘ 70 other rings. The central portion of the radiat
ing element 59 will therefore be‘ driven» at‘ a
vibration when the coils '8 are energized‘ and
conversely will- generate an electromotive force '
in the coils B when the system is vibrated by -
greater‘amplitude, and the amplitude will gradually decrease toward the» edges for successively“
decreasing ring thicknesses as shown- It will‘be
compressional waves. An electrodynamic oscil
lator of this type is described» in greater detail~ 75 evident from‘ what has been saidwith- reference>
2,408,113
'5
to the other modi?cations that the variations in
the thickness of the successive rings can be made
to bring about any desired amplitude distribution
over the radiating surface. It will also be evident
that the same arrangement can be applied where
magnetostrictive driving elements are employed. 1
In this case the tubes or rods near the center of
the diaphragm will be made thickest and suc
cessively thinner elements will be used at points
wave length of the compressional waves of the
signaling frequency as measured in the signal
ing medium, and means for vibrating 'and/or
producing electrical response to vibration of said
surface including a plurality of electroacoustic
transducer elements mounted on and distributed
over the opposite side of said member, each of
said elements together with that portion of the
mass of said member associated therewith form
out from the center to conform to any desired 10 ing a one-half wave length vibrating system at
the signaling frequency, the thickness of the por
radiating surface amplitude distribution. '
tions of said member associated with the several
A still further modi?cation for obtaining vary
transducer elements varying progressively over
ing mass ratios is shown in Figs. 8 and 9. In this
modi?cation the driving rings 5 are again all of
the area of said member in accordance with a
uniform thickness but are spaced different dis 15 predetermined law.
4. A compressional wave signaling device hav
tances apart so that the several rings are associ
ing a transmitting and/or receiving member with
ated with more or less of the mass and surface
a continuous ?nite transmitting and/or receiving
area of the radiating element, here numbered 60.
surface adapted to contact the signaling medium,
Where a large amplitude at the center of the
radiating surface is desired, the driving elements 20 said surface having dimensions greater than the
are spaced most closely at the center as shown.
Since all the driving elements are supplied with
the same power, those at the center being re
quired to move the least radiating surface area,
will drive the latter with the greatest amplitude. 25
wave length of the compressional waves of the
signaling frequency as measured in the signaling
medium, and means for vibrating and/or produc
ing electrical response to vibration of said surface
including a plurality of electroacoustic transducer
In this manner any desired amplitude distribution
elements mounted on and distributed over the
can readily be obtained. Where magnetostric
tive driving elements are employed, they, too, of
course, will be spaced close together at those areas
of the radiating member where the greatest am
plitude is desired.
Having now described my invention, I claim:
1. A compressional wave signaling device hav
ing a transmitting and/or receiving member with
a continuous ?nite transmitting and/or receiving
opposite side of said member, the last-named side
of said member being shaped to provide varying
thicknesses between central and edge portions,
surface adapted to contact the signaling medium,
said surface having dimensions greater than the
wave length of the compressional waves of the
each of said transducer elements together with
that portion of the mass of said member associ
ated therewith forming a one-half wave length
vibrating system at the signaling frequency.
5. A compressional wave signaling device hav
ing a transmitting and/or- receiving member with
a continuous ?nite transmitting and/or receiving
surface adapted to contact the signaling medium,
said surface having dimensions greater than the
wave length of the compressional waves of the
signaling frequency as measured in the signaling
medium, and means for vibrating and/ or produc 40 signaling frequency as measured in the signaling
medium, and means for vibrating and/or produc
ing electrical response to vibration of said sur
face including a plurality of electroacoustic
ing electrical response to’vibration of said surface
including a plurality of electroacoustic transducer
transducer elements mounted on and distributed
elements mounted on and distributed over the
over the opposite side of said member, each of
said elements together with that portion of the 45 opposite side of said member, each of said ele
mass of said member associated therewith form
ments together with that portion of the mass of
'ing a one-half wave length vibrating system at
said member associated therewith forming a one
half wave length vibrating system at the signaling
the signaling frequency, the mass ratios of the
several transducer elements varying progressively
frequency, the said transducer elements being
over the area of said member in accordance with 50 distributed over the area of said member in a non
a predetermined law.
uniform manner so that some elements. will be
2. A compressional wave signaling device hav
associated with a greater portion of the mass of
ing a transmitting and/or receiving member with
said member than other elements in accordance
a continuous ?nite transmitting and/or receiv
with a predetermined law.
ing surface adapted to contact the signaling me 55
6. A compressional wave signaling device hav
dium, said surface having dimensions greater than
ing a transmitting and/or receiving member with
the wave length of the compressional waves of
a continuous ?nite transmitting and/or receiving
the signaling frequency as measured in the sig
surface adapted to contact the signaling medium,
naling medium, and means for vibrating and/or
said surface having dimensions greater than the
producing electrical response to vibration of said
wave length of the compressional waves of the
surface including a plurality of electroacoustic
signaling frequency as measured in the signaling
transducer elements mounted on and distributed
medium, and means for vibrating and/or produc
over the opposite side of said member, each of
ing electrical response to vibration of said surface
said elements together with that portion of the
including a plurality of electroacoustic transducer
mass of said member associated therewith form 65 elements mounted on and distributed over the
ing a one-half wave length vibrating system at
opposite side of said member, each of said ele
the signaling frequency, the length and cross sec
ments together with that portion of the mass
tional areas of the several transducer elements
of said member associated therewith forming a
varying progressively over the area of the re
vibrating system resonant at the signaling fre
ceiving member to provide varying mass ratios.
70 quency, the mass ratios of the several transducer
3. A compressional wave signaling device hav
elements varying progressively over the area of
said member in accordance with a predetermined
ing a transmitting and/or receiving member with
law.
a continuous ?nite transmitting and/or receiving
7. A compressional wave signaling device hav
surface adapted to contact the signaling medium,
said surface having dimensions greater than the 75 ing a transmitting and/or receiving member with
2,408,113.
member- associated therewith forming a vibrate
ing. system. resonant, at the signaling frequency;
eacheofpsaid tubes. being associated with substan
tially the. same; pro-portion of the mass of said
member but the masses‘ of the several tubes'vary
ing progressively over the area of the. said mem
medium, andmeansforvibrating and/or produc
ber: and. means for vibrating. and/or producing
ing. electrical response to vibration ofv said sur
electrical response to. vibration of said tubes.
face including a plurality of electroacoustictrans
9. A compressionalxwave signaling device hav
ducer elements mounted on and.distributed over
the :opposite side of; saidmember, each of; saidele 10 ing. ‘at transmitting and/or’ receiving member with
a continuous ?nite transmitting and/ or receiving.
ments together with thatportion. of the mass. of,
surface adapted to contact the signaling medium,
said member associated: therewith: forming a vi
said surfacehaving dimensions greater than the.
brating system‘ resonant at the signaling fre
wavelength of the compressional waves of the
quency, the ratio of the mass of the. severaltrans
signalingv frequency as measured in the signaling
ducer elements to that portionof themass of said
member. respectively‘associated therewith varying
medium, and means‘ for‘ vibrating’ and/0r pro
ducing electrical response to vibration of said
progressively over the. area of said member in
surface; including aplurality of magnetostrictive
accordance. with a predetermined law.
tubes adapted to vibrate and/or to' be vibrated by
8; A compressional wave. signaling device. hav
ing atransmitting and/ or receiving member with 20. said member mounted on and distributed over
the opposite side of said member, each of said
a. continuous?nite transmitting and/or receiving
tubes together'with that portion of the mass of
surface, adapted to contact the signaling medium,
said member associated therewith forming a one
saidsurface having dimensions greater than the
half wave length vibrating system at the signaling
wave. length of the compressional waves of the.
signaling frequency‘ as measured in the signaling 25 frequency, each of said tubes being associated
with, substantially the same proportion of the
medium, and means for vibrating and/or produc
mass of said member but the masses of the several‘
ing‘ electrical response to vibration of said surface
including a plurality of magnetostrictive tubes
tubes varying progressively over the area of said
member and means for vibrating and/or produc
adapted to‘ vibrate. and/or to be vibrated by said
member mounted on and distributed over the. 30 ing electrical response to vibration of said‘ tubes.
opposite side of said member, each of said tubes
together with that; portion: of the mass of said
EDWIN E. TURNER, JR.
a. continuous, ?nite transmitting and/or receiving
surface adapted. to’; contact. the Signaling medium,
said surface having dimensions greater: than the.
wave lengthyof the compressional Waves of the
signaling frequency’ as measured in: the signaling
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