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Патент USA US2408116

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Sept. 24, 1946.
‘ R, H, VARMN
2,408,115
STEREOSCOPIC VIEWER
Filed March 25, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
FIG.2
INVENTOR
R. H. VARIAN
_
Sept. 24, 1946.
R, H_ VARIAN
I 2,408,115
STEREOSCOPIG VIEWER I
Filed March 25, 1943
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG.3
48
u 37
45
a‘
51
83
"I
’
33
TO MOTOR
INVENTOR
_
R. H. VARIAN
' MZ/M
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
2,408,115
UNITED STATES PATENT 'OFFlCE
2,408,115
STEREOSCOPIC VIEWER
Russell H. Varian, Wantagh, N. Y., assignor to
Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brooklyn,
N. Y., a corporation of New York ‘
Application March 25, 1943, Serial No. 480,575
5 Claims.
(Cl. 88—2.6)
1
2
This invention relates to viewing devices and,
more especially, to apparatus for stereoscopically
era shutter means in accordance with the di
viewing an object from a moving vehicle.
Extensive use has been made of the principle
that hyperstereoscopic effects may be produced
by extending the interocular distance, a distance
between the respective points of view of the left
and right eye images. In ordinary stereoscopic
photography, exaggerated three-dimensional ef
fects are produced by taking photographs with
cameras positioned apart a distance exceeding
the 65 millimeter spacing between the average
person’s eyes. Stereoscopic effects are produced
rectly-established time interval.
The principal objects of the present invention
are: to provide improved apparatus for stereo
scopically viewing an object from a moving ve
hicle or station; to provide an improved stere
oscopic viewing system wherein the eyes of the
observer are exposed alternately for brief peri
ods to the object; to provide in such a system
means for determining the intervals between
successive exposures, during which a translation
al movement of the observer’s station provides
the desired interocular spacing; to provide a sys
as a function of the convergence angle formed
tem for determining the angular relation between
by lines extending from the right and left oculars 15 the ground track and the orientation of the mov
to a point on the object, When the object is lo
cated at an appreciable distance away from an
observer, for example, at a distance beyond one
hundred yards, stereoscopic effects are lost be
cause the small interocular distance precludes
the formation of a sufficiently large angle of con
vergence. Hence, when photographing distant
objects stereoscopically, it is customary either to
transversely displace the camera between the ex
posures of the respective views, or to make a pho
tographic record of the object with two widely
separated cameras, in order to emphasize three
dimensional effects.
ing vehicle; to provide asystem for continuously
observing an object stereoscopically from a mov
ing vehicle, and wherein a stereoscopic range in
dex maybe provided as an aid in determining
the distance to the object; to provide a system
for continuously viewing an object stereoscopi
cally from a moving vehicle and forming images
of the object on a photosensitive mosaic surface
or other screen; and to provide in such a viewing
system methods of and apparatus for control
ling the frequency of the individual exposures, or
the duration of each exposure. These and other
objects will become more apparent from the fol- .
In military and other types of aerial recon
lowing description and from the accompanying
naissance work, it is customary in forming stere
oscopic photographs, to utilize the motion of the
aircraft to provide the necessary separation dis
drawings showing one form of the invention as
applied to use in an airplane‘.
tance or increased interocular line. In this case
the respective exposures are made at intervals
Fig. l is a schematic plan view of an airplane
showing one form of the apparatus installed in
dependent upon the altitude above ground of the
the cabin, and arranged to provide continuous
aircraft, the aircraft velocity, the focal length of
stereoscopic observation of the terrain over which
the camera lens, and the extent to which the
stereoscopic effects are to be emphasized. The
interval between exposures ordinarily is comput
the airplane travels.
ed as a function of the desired angle of converg
ence, though the absolute value of the desired
angle of convergence ordinarily must be deter
mined by trial and error.
According to the present invention, the ob
server may view the object from a vehicle mov
In the drawings,
‘
'
Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view of one form of
viewing device.
3 is a sectional View through the viewing
device as taken on the line 3—3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the viewing device,
disclosing the manner in which it may be applied
to the formation of images on a screen.
Generally speaking, the invention compre~
hends orienting a combination range ?nder and
stereoscopic viewing device having a common
optical system so that the interocular line of
ing across the line of sight, and may regulate the
operation of the viewing device until the desired
stereoscopic effects are apparent from direct ob
servation. The improved device thereupon may
provide the observer with a direct indication of
the necessary time interval required between
through a pair of oculars that are intermit
successive exposures of the camera means and
tently exposed for brief periods to the object,
the observer, or line connecting the eyes, extends
generally along the direction of motion of the
vehicle. The observer may View the object
the device even may include automatic control
preferably during a minor portion of a recur
devices for governing the operation of the cam. 55. rent cycle. The duration of each exposure and
2,408,115
3
4
the interval between exposures may be adjusted
to vary the stereoscopic effects. The determined
time interval may be used to control stereoscopic
the observer. When the vehicle A of Fig. 1 moves
from left to right, the left eye of the observer is
exposed before the right eye, while if the motion
camera means so as to provide a permanent
is in the opposite direction, the shutter operates
record of the direct observation. The stereo
scopic viewer preferably utilizes a sighting and
range index device that assists in fusing the
so as to expose the right eye ?rst. Any form of
shutter may be employed so long as it may be
accurately and easily controlled.
Although either an electrically or'mechanically
operated shutter may be employed, a simple
form of rotary shutter device is disclosed in the
drawings for simplicity of illustration. As in
range ?nder and viewer V is provided with a ‘
pair of oculars or eyepieces O. The range?n‘der " dicated in Figs. 2 and 3, the shutter [4 comprises
a rotatably mounted opaque disc I5 having trans
viewer V is oriented so that the interocular line L
parent shutter openings l6 and H that are
extends generally in the direction of the craft
motion. As shown in Fig. 1, normal orientation“ l'adapted "to aligrrathemselves periodically with
the oculars-O and the openings [2' to provide brief
is obtained when the line L extends along or
intermittent: exposures of the object to the re
parallel to the longitudinal axis of ‘the aircraft,‘
spectiveeyes of the observer. If the disc I5 is
A though correction may be required fordrift.
made of metal, the openings l5 and I‘! may com
angle produced by cross winds. The device op
prise cut-out portions. The disc !5 otherwise
erates more satisfactorily when the line L ex
maybe formed of any convenient ‘transparent
tends exactly along-the ground track since in‘
respective images into a continuous succession .
of stereoscopic pictures.
As shown in the drawings, the combination
this position, no shiftinglof the-images trans-i
sheet material such as Celluloid or other cellu
verselyv of the" line L occurs‘ between successive
losic or phenolic derivative.
exposures. =
The range ?nder viewer‘V ‘is mounted on a ‘
The transparent
openings l6 and I‘! may comprise clear portions
of the sheet material, and the remaining por»
base B comprising a movable ring 9 and a ?xed
tions of the disc I5 may be rendered opaque -.
?ange Hi.» The viewerimay be oriented relative '
with a coating of paint-or other‘thin layer capa
ble of obstructing light rays.
to the craft-untilthe interocularline L coincides
withlfthe‘ ground track; ‘in which position the
images become stable, and the drift angle may- be
read from‘ia scale S and‘ index I cooperatively
disposed between the parts-9 and In. The sensi
tivityiof the orientable ‘viewer structure to drift
angles has been found‘ to increase materially if
?ltersF ‘of: different‘ colors are disposed between
the object‘ and the‘ respective eyes-of the ob
server, ‘or if the ' images» are otherwise distinc
tively characterized.‘ ‘
Thus,- with the arrangement shown in Fig.1,
the observer‘may look through the range ‘?nder
viewer ~V downwardly toward the terrain beneath
the-‘airplane
and alternate left ‘ and right
imagesare-for‘med from points displaced along
the'ilin‘e L.‘ Theiextent of the displacement and
theeifects produced thereby may be varied, as
Although a metal disc l5 offerssome advan-‘
tages from the standpoint of ease of manufac—v
ture, good structuraldesign, and safety in oper
ation, forming openings inthe sheet material
may render the disc dynamically unbalanced,
thereby causing the device to vibrate unneces
sarily during operation. This defect may be
overcome by forming additional openings l6’ and
Hi in-the‘ disc l5 positioned diametrally oppo
site the openings IG and 11, respectively, so as‘
to restore the dynamic‘ balance of the shutter.
With such duplicate openings-the disc I5 may be '
rotated atone-half the speed required for oper-'
ation with a single-pair of openings l6 and H.
The openings i5 and I‘! are staggered circum
ferentially so-that the openings are presented to
ythe‘respective oculars in succession. As shown
will-‘appear. ' Although the apparatus has been
in Fig. 2, the trailing end of the'opening l6 and
shown installed in-an airplane A, it may be made
the‘ forward end of opening I‘! are separated
by an angle 0 which providesa time interval
betweencthe end of the‘ left eye exposure and
thexbeginning of the right eye ‘exposure, the ex
tentof'which‘interval may be regulated accord;
to operate in‘ a similar. manner when installed
on=land~ormarine vehicles =with‘the .line L dis
posedin'the directionbftravel. Thus, if the
apparatus were installed on a railroad train,
the range-?nder viewer may be disposed so that
the line ‘of sight through'each ocular :O, and the
line “L arerboth disposed horizontally. .
As-more ‘particularly indicated in Figs. 2 and *
3, the’ range- ?nder viewer V comprises a tubular "
casing II to the outer surface of which the '
ing to the. speed of rotation of the shutter iii. ‘
The successive left and‘ right exposures preferably
o-ccursin-such rapid succession as to be within
the normal period of persistence of vision, where~
by .the images register as a single picture in the
mind of the observerc'ln the case of an airplane
oculars 0 are‘mounted in spaced relation. The
traveling .300 miles per hour, or approximately
oculars 0 correspond in position to the eyes of
440‘feet per second, exposures occurring at in
the observer, and are arranged to permit the ob 60 tervals of 1/20 of a second provide an effective
server to look through the casing ll toward the
interocular spacing of 22 feet. This spacing may
object-v to be viewed. The oculars may be sepa-v
bevaried byaltering the airplane velocity, the
rate tubular members, with or without viewing .
time interval between exposures, or both.
lenses of the type found in ordinary ?eld glasses.‘
The remainder of each cycle, during which the
The casing ll isiprovidedlwith openings: I2- op
r View of the object is obstructed to both eyes,
posit‘ev the‘ oculars 0, through which the line of "
preferably occupies a longer time interval than
sight‘ extends from the eye of theobserver to the »
is .used between the exposures of the separate
object; “ Lightly-silvered mirrors '13 are disposed
between the‘ .oculars'O'and‘ the openings‘IZ for a ’
purpose tobe described, 'but do notsubstantially.
interfere with the line of sight or the formation
of animage of the object. .
A ‘shutter or eclipsing ‘means M ‘is operable in“
any convenient manner to expose the object for
brief periods alternately to'the respective'eyes of ~
eyes, so that the latter interval occupies a minor
portion of the recurrent cycle. By thus proper“
tioning the respective time intervals. a gallop
ing exposure effect is produced, each stereoscopic
picture cycle being formed of two rapidly suc
cessive images followed by a longer total eclipse '
period, ‘so that the observer naturally pairs the '
two'successive images of each cycle in their‘
2,408,115
5
proper order.
However, an observer may train
6
Since the time interval may be indicated di
himself to properly associate the images formed
rectly by the particular contact point 26 coop
during each cycle, even with a reduced total
eclipse period, so that all exposures follow one
erating with the knob 25, the apparatus is use
another by substantially equal time intervals,
thereby enhancing the optical efficiency of the
system. Such training may be attained by pro
gressively altering the shutter time constants
after periods of practice, until the observer’s
ful as a means for determining the time inter
val required between successive exposures of a
camera device for obtaining stereoscopic effects
similar to those obtained by direct observation.
Although the masks l8 and I!) have been shown
mounted for adjustment over the farthest sepa- .
eyes become accustomed to shorter total eclipse 10 rated edges of the openings l6 and H, the masks
periods without encountering pseudoscopic ef
may be adjustably mounted for movement over
the adjacent edges of the respective openings l6
fects, such as may occur when the second image
of one cycle is stereoscopically combined with
and I‘! by securing the masks to the disc by
the ?rst image of the ensuing cycle.
'
threading the screws 2| in threaded holes 21.
Many of the disadvantages of ordinary eclipse 15 In this way the masks l8 and I9 may adjust the
size of the openings as well as the angle 0 to pro
type stereoscopic viewers have been overcome
with the present system by employing a sighting
vide the desired operating conditions. By a com
bination of mask adjustment and motor speed
device such as a range index R that is constantly
adjustment, any desired range of exposures and
visible to the observer, even during total eclipse
periods. This sighting device, hereinafter more
time intervals between exposures may be pro
duced. With the arrangement shown in Fig. 1, a
fully described, provides a monitoring image
cycle of operations occurs when the disc I5 has
which keeps the observer’s eyes properly fused
rotated through a single revolution, during which
at the desired range and shortens or eliminates
each eye of the observer is exposed alternately
the brief interval required to focus on the image
for a brief duration to the object. If the disc 15
once it ?ashes into View.
is provided with a pair of shutter openings for
The duration of the exposure of each eye is
each eye, each cycle occurs during half a revolu
dependent upon the arc subtended between the
forward and trailing edges of the respective open
tion of the disc.
ings l6 and I1, and by the speed of rotation of
the disc I5. Preferably, the openings l3 and I‘!
subtend equal arcs so as to provide exposures
of equal duration. The exposure time may be
regulated so as to compensate for changes in
troduced by varying the speed of rotation when
controlling the time interval between exposures.
As shown in Fig. 2, the adjustment may be made
conveniently by applying masks l8 and 19, ad“
As previously pointed out, the motor speed con
trol mechanism 24 may be used by the observer
to determine the proper time interval required
for the disc to travel through the angle 0. In
stead of determining this time interval from the
position of the knob 25 in terms of absolute time
units and transferring the information for use
in connection with the timing of the shutter
means of a stereoscopic camera device, the appa
justably positioned as by one or more screws 2!
so as to obscure more or less of the openings l6
ratus shown in Figs. 1 and 2 may be provided
with means for directly controlling such camera
and I1, respectively. Any other convenient ar 40 shutter means in synchronism with the operation
rangement may be used to vary the respective
of the disc I5. Such an automatic control may
time constants for each cycle of exposure.
comprise a pair of switches 28 and 29, as shown
The shutter may be operated .by any form of
in Fig. 3, of any convenient type to be operated
control mechanism. In the case of the rotary
in synchronism with the rotation of disc l5. Each
of the switches may comprise a pair of normally
shutter disclosed, use may be made of a disc
rotating motor 22 mounted so as not to obstruct
separated contacts mounted on an insulating sup
port 3| and on a leaf spring 32, respectively. A
the view through the respective oculars. Any
pair of switch operating devices 33 are ?xedly or
suitable transmission mechanism 23 such as a
' adjustably disposed on the disc I5 so as to operate
?exible shaft or equivalent bevel gearing shown
the respective switches 28 and 29 sequentially.
in Fig. 3 may be employed to transmit motion
As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the devices 33 may
from the motor shaft to the disc IS. The motor
comprise pins projecting downwardly from the
speed may be controlled in any conventional
manner so as to vary the length of the exposures
disc I5 at distances from the center of rotation
corresponding to the location of the respective’
and the time interval between exposures. Such
speed control mechanism 24 may comprise an
switches 28 and 29. As the disc rotates, the re
spective pins urge the leaf springs 32 downwardly
adjustment knob 25 cooperative with a number
until the contact members engage in the manner
of contact points 26 connected in the armature
shown in connection with switch 29 of Fig. 2.
or field circuit of the motor in a conventional
Wires 34 and 35 may extend from the respective
manner through suitable resistors so as to change
the motor speed by small increments as the knob 60 switches to a master switch 36, the output termi
25 is turned. Since the motor speed determines
nals of which may extend to a camera shutter
the actual time interval required for the disc
control or other similar device. It will be appar
l5 to travel through the angle 0, and therefore
ent that when the observer has adjusted the
the interval between exposures, the points 23
motor speed for optimum conditions, the switch
may be suitably calibrated in terms of such time 65 36 may be closed, and the circuits to a shutter
control mechanism may be completed through
intervals.
Accordingly, the observer may view a distant
wires 34 and 35, respectively, at proper intervals
object through the oculars O, orienting the view—
so as to expose the camera device in rapid suc
er until the line L is aligned with the ground
cession at points spaced by the proper interocular
track, as indicated by the images becoming ac~~ 70 distance.
curately superimposed. The observer then reg
The range ?nder is incorporated in the view-v
ulates the motor speed until the necessary time
ing mechanism V so as to permit the observer to
interval between exposures, as a, function of the
determine the approximate distance from the
speed of the vehicle and the distance to the
viewer to the object while providing a sighting
object, produces the desired stereoscopic effect.
device that aids the observer in concentrating
2,408,115
7
8
on the location of the stereoscopic picture while
the, object is masked from view. Such a range
?nder control R is disclosed in Figs. 2 and 3, and
may utilize any conventional range-?nding
mechanism. One simple form may comprise an
and 6! comprise polarizing screens with the‘.
planes of polarization mutually separated by a.
convenient angle, e. g., 90°, the observer may view
adjustable image-forming system capable of
forming images translatable along the line of
the images through a similar pair of ?lters-ori
visible to only one eye.
Thus, if the‘ ?lters; 59
the resulting images stereoscopically by viewing
ented in the spectacles 62 so as to block out the
unwanted image in the respective eyes.
in the plane of the object image and thereby
‘Since many changes could be made in the. above
provide an indication of the object distance and 10 construction and many apparently widely? dif
at the same time to maintain proper converg
ferent embodiments of this invention could be
ence angle of the eyes while the object is screened
made without departing from the scope thereof,
from. view. One such system, as shown in Fig. 3,
it is intended that all matter contained in the
may comprise a pair of light sources 3'! and 38
above description or shown in the accompanying.
centrally disposed at opposite ends of the casing 15 drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative'and
II. The‘ light sources may comprise low-power
not in a limiting sense.
?ashlight bulbs having suitable wire connections
What is claimed is:
39 extending to a suitable power source. Rela
1. YA unitary range ?nder and stereoscopic
tively displaceable images of the illuminated
viewer for observers on vehicles traveling trans.
apertures 4| and 42 are formed in space, as by
versely of a line of sight to an object, comprising
lenses 43 and 4d. The aperture 1i! is formed in a
a non-prismatic binocular device having a pair
?xed aperture plate 115, while the aperture 42 is
of oculars through which the observer may view
formed in movable aperture plate 45, adjustable
said object, shutter means operable to provide a
laterally of the casing H as by a threaded ad
brief exposure of the View through each oculan.
justment knob fill. The adjustment knob ill may
adjustable speed-control means for said shutter
be- provided with a pointer [is and an index scale
for recurrently operating the same to provide
49 suitably‘ calibrated, for example, in linear units
successive exposures of each ocular and thereby
representing object distance. A partition 5! iso
give a resultant series of overlapping views simu
lates the light source 38 from the source 3?.
lating a stereoscopic view of the object on which.
sight and which may be made to coalesce or fuse
i In operation, the lenses 43 and 44 form images 30 the eyes of the observer may convergeanda cal
of the apertures ill, 152 which are reflected to
ward the observer from the lightly silvered or
ibrated range-measuring system in the optical
system of the viewer having visual indi'cesr ad
plain glass-mirrors iii. The resulting images ap~
justable in the line of sight to coincidence with
pear as two separated light spots lying along the
the said stereoscopic image and focus the samev
line of sight, which spots may be made to coa
in the viewer, and simultaneously determine the
lesce and appear to lie in the plane of the object
range distance to said object.
by suitable adjustment of the knob 41, and the
2. A combination range ?nder and stereoscopicv
range or distance may be indicated by the scale
viewer for observers in vehicles traveling trans
49. Since the light spots are not affected by the
Versely of a line of sight to an object, compris
shutter l4, the spots provide a permanent center 40 ing a non-prismatic optical device effcctive'to‘
of focus for the eyes of the observer and disci
produce an image on which the eyes of the ob.
pline the eyes by maintaining them properly
server may converge and which is variable ac—
converged between intermittent expo-sures of the
cording to ground speed, shutter rate, and range,
object.
said device having a pair of oculars through
In Fig. 4 the invention has been shown applied
which the observer may view said object, a pair
to the formation of real images, or television pic
of shutters providing a brief exposure of the view
tures that enable the observer to view the object
of the object through each ocular, calibrated con
from a remote point. The viewer V may be of
trol means for recurrently operating said shut
the type shown in Figs. 2 and 3, modi?ed by the
ters in succession to present a continuous series
addition of prisms 52 and 53 or other similar re 50 of overlapping views of the object and‘ give a
?eeting devices combined with mirrors or pris
stereoscopic image of the object, and a range
matic means 54 and 55 so that images may be
?nder including said pair of oculars and provid
formed by suitable lenses 55 and 53 from the bi
ing an indication of the distance of said object,
nocular viewer onto a single screen 57. If the
said range ?nder comprising a second adjustable,
screen 5‘! comprises the photosensitive surface 55 visual index~f0rming device adjustable to pro
of a television camera tube 58, only one ocular is
needed, with shutter means adapted to form gal
loping left and right eye images alternately,
vide a visual index in the line of sight of the
steroscopic image and calibrated to be moved in
coincidence therewith to indicate the distance to
which images may be televised in the usual man
said object.
ner to form television images at a remote station 60
3. A unitary range ?nder and’ stereoscopic
where the successive images may be viewed by
viewer for observers on vehicles traveling trans
the left and right eyes alternately. However, the
versely of a line of sight to an object, comprising
images may be formed on any plane-re?ecting
a non-prismatic binocular device having 9, pair
surface of screen 5'! that may be viewed directly
of oculars through which the observer may sight
by the observer. In the latter case, the respec 65 and view said object, a pair of shutters mounted
tive images may be formed with apparatus as
to provide a brief exposure of the View through
shown in Fig. ‘1-, the images being characterized
each ocular, calibrated control means for recur
in some suitable manner so as to render alter
nate images visible only to the left and right
eyes, respectively. As an example, ?lters 59 and
BI may be interposed in the path of each image
forming beam to characterize the resulting
images in terms of color, plane of polarization, or
the like, and the observer may wear spectacles
62 having similar ?lters for rendering the images
rently operating said shutters in succession to
and at a speed determined conjointly by the
range distance and speed of the vehicle to gives
continuous series of overlapping viewsv forming
a stereoscopic image of the object, the range
?nder including the optical system of said viewer
and said oculars and adapted to impose a coaxial.
visible index on said variable sterescopic image
2,408,115
and on which the eyes of the observer may con
verge, said range ?nder including calibrated
means for forming said visible index comprising
light spots continuously visible in the ?eld of view
of said stereoscopic image, at least one of said an
10
staggered exposures of said object through said
respective oculars to form overlapping views of
said object on which the eyes of the observer may
converge and thereby give the desired variable
stereoscopic image e?ect, and means for impos
ing a pair of indices upon the variable stereo~
light spots being adjustable in the line of sight
scopic image in the line of sight thereof to deter
by said calibrated means to vary their separa
mine the range distance of the viewed object.
tion distance to bring them into coincidence with
5. A range ?nder for viewing targets from
the image and thereby determine the distance to
'10 moving vehicles comprising a non-prismatic view~
said object.
er of ?xed optical’ axes, range distance-deter
4. In a non-prismatic combination range ?nder
mining elements operable to form visual indicia
and stereoscopic viewer having a common pair of
in said optical axes, and shutter masks for said
oculars through which an object may be viewed
viewer operable according to the speeds of the
by an observer being translated relative to said
vehicles and the range distance to establish over
object along an interocular line of travel, adjust
lapping views simulating stereoscopic images 01"
ably controlled shutter means adapted to alter
viewed targets on which the eyes of the observer
nately mask and expose each of said oculars, said
may converge coincident with the said optical
shutter control means being adjustable according
axes and the visual indicia.
to speed of translation and range distance and
RUSSELL H. VARIAI‘I.
said shutters operable to provide alternate, brief, 20
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