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Патент USA US2408118

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Sept, 24, 1946.
w. H. WIRKLER
2,408,]; 18
AZIMUTH RADIO DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM
Filed Feb. v14, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet l
'
INVENTOR.
'
wa?’w 3% QWMKKQ/U,
BY
6.
ATTORNEY .
' Sept. :24, 1946.,
w. H. WIRKLER
’
2,408,118
AZIMUTH RADIO DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM
Filed Feb. 14, 1939
2 Sheets-Sheet, 2
#ETFRODYA/E
OSC/Zl A701?
IN VEN TOR.
WW4? ael Wm‘J
BY
'
é.
ATTORNEY .
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
\ UNITED
2,408,118‘
STATES
PATENT OFFICE ‘
2,408,118
AZIMUTH RADIO DIRECTION FINDING
SYSTEM,
Walter H. Wirkler, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, assignor
to Collins Radio Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa,
a corporation of Iowa
-
Application February 14, 1939, Serial No. 256,339
16 Claims.
1
My invention relates broadly to direction ?nd
ing systems and more particularly to a circuit
arrangement for an azimuth direction ?nding
system whereby the direction of arrival of a radio
signal may be visually observed on a suitably
calibrated scale.
One of the objects of my invention is to provide
a circuit arrangement for accurately indicating
the direction of arrival of a radio signal from a
mobile body carrying a radio transmitter at a
?xed position whereby the direction of the mobile
body may be readily determined from the ?xed
position.
(Cl. 250-11)
'
2
trating the manner of exciting the injector an
tenna of the multiple antenna system employed
in the system of my invention and illustrating the
manner of controlling the amount of high fre
quency energy supplied to the injector antenna
under control of one of the'signal receiving cir
cuits connected to one of the coacting receiving
antennas; and Fig. 3 is a vector diagram explain-V
ing the manner of operation of the system of my
10 invention.
Direction ?nder systems have heretofore been,
known in which the circuit balance is obtained
wholly in the antenna circuit. This applies to
the many variations of the so-called Adcock sys
Another object of my invention is to provide a
circuit arrangement for a radio receiving system 15 tem and equally to the systems using direction
having means for providing an instant indication
?nding loops. In the system of ‘my invention,
of ‘the direction of arrival of a radio signal.
electrical balance of the antenna circuits ‘is not
Still another object of my invention is to pro
vide a circuit arrangement for a signal receiving
essential and is not obtained by means ,within
the antenna circuit per se.
'
'
system in which separate receiving antennas are 20
I provide an arrangement of antennas in geo
located in spaced relation in positions constituting
graphically spaced positions' at the apices of an
the apices of an equilateral triangle with separate
equilateral triangle connected through separate
receiving circuits connected with the antennas
receiving circuits to a' polyphase transformer
and with the indicating apparatus, and in which
system from each phase of which energy is ap-'
an injector antenna and associated oscillator are 25 plied to the actuating magnet of an electromag
arranged at the center of the equilateral tri
netically operated integrating calibrated instru
angle for electromagnetic coaction through space
ment. The calibrated instrument is arranged to
with the antennas leading to the receiving circuits
directly indicate the direction of arrival of a. radio
and to the indicating system.
_
signal source with respect to the geographically
A further object of my invention is to provide 30 spaced antennas. An injector antenna is located
an indicating system for determining the direc
centrally of the equilateral triangle formed'by
tion of arrival of a radio signal in which inde
the several receiving antennas and is supplied
pendent antennas are located in geographically
by a radio frequency source, the amplitude of
spaced positions constituting the apices of an
which is controlled by a portion of the energy
equilateral triangle and connected through sepa 35 received by one of the receiving circuits asso-'
rate receiving circuits with an indicating system
ciated with the several antennas. The injector‘
and adapted to electromagnetically coact with
antenna electromagnetically coacts with the re
an injector antenna centrally positioned within
ceiving antennas through space in delivering a
the equilateral triangle and excited from a regu
radio frequency current to the several receiving
lated source of radio frequency energy which is 40 circuits. The operation of the indicator is very
controllable automatically from one of the receiv
accurate and permits the use of the system at
ing circuits electrically connected with the indi
ground stations for directly observing the direc
cating system.
'
tion of aircraft from the station, or the direction
A still further object of my invention is to pro
?nder system of my invention may be used on
vide a circuit arrangement for integrating in a 45 mobile bodies such as ships or-aircraft for directly
calibrated indicating system the effects of a re
indicating the direction of a radio transmitter
mote signal source upon a multiplicity of pre
for facilitating the navigation of the mobile body
arranged antenna systems for accurately indi
toward. the emitting source.
cating the direction of movement of a signal
The circuit arrangement of the receiving sys
source toward the antenna systems.
50 tem is given diagrammatically in Fig. 1. Three
Other and further objects of my invention re
conventional receivers are individually connected
side in the circuit arrangement for a direction
through transmission lines to three separate an
?nder system as set forth more fully in the speci
tennas represented at l, 2 and 3. The anten
?cation hereinafter following by reference to the
nas themselves are arranged at the vertices of
accompanying drawings, in which:
55 a triangle where the distance between the an
Figure 1 diagrammatically shows the direction
tennas is not greater than 1./2A of the received
?nder system of my invention and schematically
wave. A fourth antenna or “injector antenna”
illustrates the indicator system which directly
indicated at 4, is located at the center of the
indicates vthe direction of approach of a radio
equilateral triangle outlined by the three an
signal source; Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view illus 60 tennas I, 2 and 3 referred to hereinbefore. The,
2,408,118
4
3
from receiver 2’. The voltage between ground
and tap 'lc on the primary winding 1 connected
fourth‘ antenna 4 is connected to the output of
a heterodyne. oscillator 5, the purpose of which
to receivers I’ and 2' is the average or half the
is to produce a low frequency audio beat note in
vector sum of the two voltages from receivers
the output of each of the three receivers l’, 2',
l-’ and 2', and is represented in Fig. 3 by vector
and 3’. The phase relation between the three a
BA which is one-half the vector sum 0A’ of the
audio frequencies produced at the receiver ter
voltages represented by vectors il—l” and Ei—2".
minals and the phase relation of the three re
The voltage across the terminals of primary
ceived signal voltages in the antennas may be
winding ‘I is the vector difference of the voltages
shown to be identical. From the phase relation
of the three low frequency voltages, it may furv 10 Evenv and. E2~_o from the receivers I’ and 2’,
respectively, and is represented by vector 0B in
ther be shown that the direction of signal arrival
Fig. 3, wherefrom it is seen that the average volt
can be determined.
age QA and the difference voltage EB are in phase
The indicator is of the “Selsyn” type and is
principally actuated by the difference between
quadrature.
Windings ‘l’, 8' and 9’, Fig. 1, are the sec
the voltages in receivers‘ I’ and 2', 2’ and 3', and 15
ondary windings respectively of primaries v1, 3
3’ and I", in paired combinations. It may be ob
and 9 and are coupled therewith. -The voltage
served at this point that insofar‘ as the operation
across primary winding ‘I, for example, is applied
of the three receivers is concerned, it is strictly
through secondary 1’ in push-pull relation to
and‘ entirely conventional. They may be of a
type employing automatic volume control, and 20 diodes V2 and V3, and the other primary voltages
are similarly applied in the respective circuits.
their audio gain controls so adjusted to produce
Diodes V2 and V3 serve as independent recti?ers
equal magnitude output voltages. My invention
feeding the output resistor R4, the center tap
is directed to the utilization of "the three audio
E2 of which is grounded at M. A coupling trans~
voltages to operate a directional indicating sys
former T1 is connected in the anode circuit of
tem shown generally at 6 and resides in an ar
tube V1 with its secondary connected between
rangement of injector antenna to produce a low
ground and the center tap It! on secondary wind
frequency beat note in the output of each of the
ing 1’. Recti?ers V2 and V3 are thus energized
three receivers where the phase relations of the
by the difference voltage, represented by vector
three low frequency voltages are identical to the
phase relations of the three high frequency volt so BB in Fig. 3, in push-pull relation, and by the
average voltage, represented by vector 0A in
ages induced in the separate antennas by the
VFig. 3, in balanced relation, being applied be
distant transmitter. l”’-—0, 2”--B and 3"-€! are
tween taps ii] and I2. The resulting voltage
the terminals of the radio receivers arranged
across output resistor R4, due to interaction of
Y connection. Reference‘ characters 7, 8 and 9
the diiference and average voltages, is applied to
designate transformer primaries arranged in del
winding W1 of the indicator device 6.
ta. The ?rst receiver voltage is designated
Referring again to Fig. 3, it was noted above
Ew-‘o, the voltage of the second receiver E2"-0
that the diiierence voltage, vector BB, and the
and the third receiver voltage E3"_o. These three
average voltage, vector BA, are in phase quadra
voltages are low frequency voltages of the same
magnitude and frequency but different phase. 401 ture at the terminals and center~tap of primary
winding ‘J. In order that these voltages may
The magnitude of the voltages may either be ad
coact properly in the circuits of recti?ers V2 and
justed manually or automatically, preferably the
V3, however, they must be substantially in phase.
latter. The voltage impressed across the primary
The purpose of the resistor R1, condenser 01 and
terminals of the transformer primary Tis the
tube V1, connected between the center taps To
di?erence between the voltages Ew-o and Ez'l-o.
and I ll on the primary ‘I and secondary ‘I’, re
This voltage will be designated
spectively, is to apply a phase shift of essentially
90° to the average voltage, represented in Fig. 3
by: vector 0A, to bring the average voltage into
Similarly, the voltage‘ across the primary wind
ing 8 is E1"_3"—V~=E1"_o—Es"-o; and the voltage 50 phase with the difference voltage. In Fig. 3,
the phase shift is indicated by the rotation of
across the primary Winding'B; is
vectors‘ 0A and BA’ to the positions BArand 0A1’
in‘ coincidence with the difference voltage vector
BB. Voltages represented by vectors 9B and 0A1
These voltage differences are impressed across
are; therefore, the voltages effective in the recti
the primaries‘ ‘I, 8" and 9 simultaneously.
?ers V2 and V3.
Terminal 1c is a center‘ tap on transformer
From Fig. 3, it will also be seen that if the
primary 1.‘ and the voltage between To and ground
relative phase of vectors 0-!" and 0‘—2" is
will be the average of the voltages Ei"_o and‘
reversed, the difference voltage vector BB will be
E2~_o; Similar center taps on the windings 8
and 9 shown at so and 90 which give the aver 60 reversed to position 3B1 while the average volt~
age vector 0A1 will remain as before. The result
ages of the: voltages E2”-—U and E3"—0; and E3"—o
in the output resistor R4 is a reversal in polarity
and El”-0. The center tap 10 on winding ‘1 is
of the direct voltage produced by the coaction of
connected to the grid of a vacuum tube V1‘
the difference and the average voltages in the
through a resistance R1. Placed effectively in
recti?ers, which eliminates 180°’ ambiguity in the
parallel with the grid'is- a condenser C1 which
indication. The knowledge that one of the re
has a small‘ reactance in comparison with the
sultant vectors does‘ not change phase with re
value of the resistance R1. Condenser C2 and
versal of the relative phase of the component
resistance R2 as well as C3 and R2 comprise con
vectors provides the factor by which the relative
ventional means of obtaining bias voltage for
phase is determined to avoid the 180° ambiguity.
tube V1 while source B represents the conven
t will be understood that either the difference
tional means for securing plate potential for
voltage or the average voltage may be subjected
to the phase shift to make the voltages in phase
Referring to the‘vector diagram, Fig. 3, the
preparatory to coaction' in the recti?ers V2 and
vector G—_l’“ represents the voltage. Eweofrom
receiver l?and vector IJ—2” the voltage Ea"-t _ V3‘. And, likewise,‘ it will be understood that the
tube‘vi.
'
’
2,408,118
5
difference voltage may be applied'in balanced
relation to the diodes V2 and V3, and the average
voltage in push-pull relation, if desired, instead
6
pie, north. The position of the indicator I6 is
then taken as north, and if a compass type dial
is used on the indicator, the equipment when
tuned to a signal the direction of-arrival of which
In the event the voltages represented at 0-4"
is unknown, will position the indicator l6’ and
and 0-2", Fig. 3, are in phase and equal in mag
show the direction of arrival of the incoming
nitude, the difference voltage represented by vec
wave. The windings W1, W2 and W3 of the ‘indie
tor 03 will be zero. In Fig. 1, then, no voltage
cator are so electrically oriented that they pro
will exist across transformer primary 1 but an
duce magnetic ?elds 120° apart, so that the indi
average voltage 0A, Fig. 3, will exist between tap 10 cation of the “permanent magnet rotor, I5 is in
1c and ground. This voltage will be shifted in
accord with the direction of any incoming signal
phase, ampli?ed by tube V1 and operate recti?ers
which may be received.
.
or diodes V2 and V3 identically. Equal and oppo
As heretofore explained, the system in its pre
site currents will therefore flow in the two halves
ferred arrangement employs three substantially
of resistor R4 and hence no voltage will exist 15 identical receivers and a heterodyne oscillator
across the terminals of R4. The currents pro
arranged for single dial control. The frequency
duced in R4, however, have a ?xed directional
of the heterodyne oscillator should preferably be
factor which is maintained regardless of the rel
kept within 50 to 150 cycles of the received signal
ative phase relations of the components El"~—0
frequency. This is readily accomplished by
of in the relation shown and described. '
and E2"—o, and thus these currents provide a 20 means of an acceptable automatic frequency con
reference sense in the control of the indicator
trol system. It is further desirable thatthe radio
6 through winding W1. If the voltages E’i"__o and
frequency output of- the heterodyne oscillator and
E2"-o are slightly displaced in phase with re
hence the injector antenna power input be read
spect to each other, as represented in Fig. 3, a
ily controllable.
.
' .
voltage will exist across transformer secondary
Fig. 2 shows one arrangement of anlautomatic
‘l’ which will increase the voltage delivered
output control for the heterodyne oscillator 5
through center tap ID on one diode and decrease
which connects to the injector antenna 4. A por
it on the other. Under these conditions the cur
tion of the output power of one of the receivers
rent in the two halves of R4 will be unequal and
I’, 2’ or 3' is recti?ed and suitably ?ltered for
the difference current which will flow through
use as a direct current control voltage. If the
the winding W1 of the indicating instrument 6
audio frequency output of the receiver is too low,
will be proportional to the magnitude of the dif
the magnitude of the current in the injector an
ference of the voltages El"—0 and E2"-o. It
tenna 4 must be reduced. 'This lack of D. C. con
should ‘be observed at this point that if the
trol voltage therefore is utilized to increase the
above discussion applies when.E1~_o leads E2"-o
bias voltage on the electron tube ampli?ers V7
in phase value, a current-will flow in the winding
and V8. The increased bias on these tubes will
W1 in a direction, for example, indicated by the
reduce the input to the injector antenna 4, allow
arrow. If the phase relations of Ew-n ' and
the automatic volume controls of thereceivers to
E2"-o are reversed so that the voltage E2"—0 leads
operate and increase the gain of the receivers and
El"—0 the current in the winding W1 of the indi
thus raise the audio frequency output of the re
cating instrument 6 will be reversed.
An exactly similar circuit arrangement, which
If on the other hand the audio frequency volt
I have indicated by ‘similar reference characters
age is too high, the direct current control voltage
with primed designations, is used to supply the
will also be high. This will reduce the bias on
winding W2 of'the indicating instrument 6 in
vacuum tubes V7 and Va'resulting in an increase
accordance with the voltage di?erence E1"—-0 and
in injector antenna input. This increase in in~
E3"—D. A third circuit arrangement represented
iector antenna input will operate the automaticv
by elements of identical nature designated by
volume controls of the receivers I’, 2' and 3', so
double primed characters supplies a winding We
as to reduce their gain and hence reduce ‘the
of the indicating instrument 6 in accordance
magnitude of the audio frequency output voltage.
with the voltage difference Es'l-o and Ezlf-o. In
Preferably the relative magnitude of the injector
each instance the secondary windings for the
voltage’ and the received signal voltage in- any
delta connected primary windings have been
receiving channel should be of the order of 10:1.
shown diagrammatically spaced from the coact
When the ratio is of‘ this magnitude or'greater,‘
ceivers.
'
'
ing primary windings, but it will be understood , the audio frequency output of each of the re'-'
that the windings are inductively coupled in each
ceivers will be substantially sinusoidal. ‘ I have
instance, that is to say, winding 1' couples with
shown the output of receiver I’ from terminals
winding 1; winding 8' couples with winding 8;
l"—0 leading to primary winding 1 of the delta
and winding 9' couples with winding 9, as indi
connected
transformer, but, with leads I8 ex
cated in Fig. 1.
60 tending therefrom to transformer 19, the output
The system of my invention develops three
of which connects to the full wave recti?er cir
independent currents. The magnitude of each
current is proportional to the vector di?erence
between the audio voltages from two of the three
receivers. The direction of the current ?owing
in any winding W1, W2 or W3 of the indicator
5 is determined by which of the two voltages in
volved in the subtraction is the leading voltage.
These currents act on the magnetic member l5v
for controlling the position of indicator I6 with
respect to av calibrated dia1 indicated generally at
I‘! for readily determining geographical loca
tions.
-
The system can readily be calibrated by receiv
ingla signal from a known, direction, for exam
cuit shown at 20 for developing a control voltage
across resistor 2|. The" resistor 2| connects
through resistances 22 and 23 with the control
grids of ampli?ers V7 ‘and ‘V8, respectively, for
controlling the operation of the'tubes as ampli
?ers and the magnitude of the current impressed
upon the injector antenna 4. I have shown am
pli?ers V7 and V3 connected in conventional man
ner through tuned circuits 24 and 25 to the in
jector antenna 4.
-
~
While I have described my invention in certain
of its preferred embodiments, I desire that it be
understood that modifications may be made and
that no limitations upon my invention arcin
2,408,118;
7
of‘theappendedclaims.v
.
.
i
~
rality of stationary‘geographically spaced receiv
'
ing antennae, an‘. injector antenna centrally dis
posed with respect vto said receiving antennae‘,
What I claim as new and desireto secure by
Letters. Patent of the United States is as fol
lows:
‘
8
‘ 5. Aidi'rection1?ndingjsystem;comprisinganplu
tended; other than may belimpcsedby, the: scope
means for electrically exciting-said: injector an
tenna, separate receiving circuits: individual" to
'
I. iAdirection?nding system comprising a- plu
said receiving antennae, a-polyphase‘circuitv have
ing the respective terminals, thereof connected
with the individual receiving circuits, an ‘electri
posed with respect to said receiving antennae,
means for electrically exciting said injector an 10 cal indicator, magnetic meansv disposed in'spaced
tennaifor impressing heterodyning energy upon ~ positions about‘ said electricalv indicator fOI‘I'COIl
trolling said indicator ‘in. accordance; with: the‘
said plurality of geographically spaced receiving
rality ofstationary geographically spaced receiv
ing antennae, an injector: antenna centrally dis
energy received by the respective’ receiving an~
antennae, independent receiving: circuits con
tennae,.
circuits coupling‘the last said means-with
nected with said‘ plurality of geographically
respective phases of said.‘ polyphase- circuit;
spaced; receiving antennae, a polyphase circuit 15 the
and meansinterconnecting the (rutput: of one- of
interconnected, with the: outputs of said: inde
said
receiving circuits’ with the; means for elec
pendent receiving circuits, an angularly shiftable
trically exciting said injector antenna .for'con
indicator, and means for'm'agnetically controlling
trolling the energy impressed by said. injector
said ‘indicator connected with said. polyphase. cir
cuit' whereby‘ said. indicator may be moved to a .20 antenna upon each ‘of’ said geographicallyspaced
receiving‘. antennae.
'
position corresponding to theposition of a- radio
6; A ‘direction ?ndingsystem’ comprising. av plu
transmitting‘ source with respect to said station
rality of stationary geographically spacedreceiv
ary‘ geographically spaced receiving antennae.
ing antennae, an‘ injector-antenna centrally dis
posed with‘ respect to said receiving. antennae,
25
means
for electrically exciting‘s‘ai‘d? injector. an
i'ngi antennae, an injector antenna centrally dis
tenna, separate receiving‘ circuits individual ‘to
posed" with respect'to said receiving antennae,
said receiving‘antennae, a polypha'se circuit hav
means. for electrically exciting said injector an
2. A direction ?nding system comprising a plu
rality‘ of stationary geographically spaced'receiv
tenna, independent‘ receiving circuits connected
with said spaced. receiving‘ antennae, a multi
ing‘ the respective terminals‘v thereof connected
30 with. the individual receiving" circuits, .anx electri
phase'circuit' interconnected with the outputs of
said receiving circuits, an angularly shiftable in
dicator; having magnetic. control means therefor,
and circuits coupling said-magnetic control means
with‘ said multiphase circuit wherebysaid angu 35
larly sliiftable indicator is moved to a position
indicating‘the'position of a radio signalling source
with respect to said’ plurality of stationary geo
graphically spaced receiving antennae. ‘
3. A direction ?nding system comprising a plu
rality of ?xed geographically spaced receiving
antennae, an injector antenna centrally disposed
with, respect to said receiving. antennae, means
for electrically exciting said injector antenna,
separate receiving circuits individual to. said re
cal’ indicator,‘ rneaz'isv for magnetically actuating
said electrical indicator; circuits couplingv the last
said means with theirespective phases of said
pclyphase circuit, and re'cti?enmeans. disposed
in each. of said coupling circuits for impressing
recti?ed energy'upon‘ the means for. magnetically
actuating saidv electrical indicator.‘
'
7.‘ A-direction ?nding‘ system comprising a plu
rality of stationary geographically spacedireceiv
ing antennaean injector‘ antenna centrally dis
' posed with respect'to said receiving. antennae,
means for? electricallyv exciting said 'in‘jector' an
tenna, separate receiving circuits individual to
said receiving antennae, a polyphase circuit hav
ing the respective: terminals thereof connected
with the individual.‘ receiving circuits, an electri
cal indicator; means for magnetically actuating
the
last said electrical indicator; circuits coupling
individual receiving circuits, an electrical indi- V
'said meansv with the respective phases of said
cator, means for magnetically actuating said
electrical indicator, andcircuits coupling the last 50 polyphase circuit, a full wave recti?er circuit dis
posed in each‘ of said‘ coupling circuits for im
said means with the respective phases of said
pressing
recti?ed energy of both half waves‘ in
polyphase circuit, the. means for magnetically ‘ac
opposite relation. upon the means for magneti
tuating said. indicator being disposed in syms
cally’ actuating said electrical indicator, and
metrically spaced relation in a manner propor
means connected between the respective phases
tional to the ?xed geographical separation of said
of said polypha'se'circuit and each of said recti?er
ceiving antennae, apolyphase circuit having the
respective terminals thereof connected with‘ the
receiving antennae.
'
. 4. A direction ?nding system comprising a plu
rality of fixed‘ geographically spaced receiving
antennae, an‘ injector antenna- centrally disposed
with respect to said receiving antennae, means
for" electrically‘ exciting said injector antenna,
separate receiving» circuits individual to said re
ceiving antennae, a polyphase circuit‘ having the
respective terminals thereof connected with the
individual. receiving circuits, an electrical indica
tor, means formagnetically' actuating said elec
trical indicator, said last mentioned means being
disposed in spaced relation about said electrical
circuits for counteracting‘ the recti?ed. current
of one half Wave in each of said coupling circuits.
'8. A direction ?nding system comprising a plu
rality of stationary geographically spaced'receiv
ing antennae, an injector antenna centrally dis
posed with respect to said receiving antennae,
means for electrically exciting said‘ injector an
tenna, separate receiving circuits individual to
said receiving antennae, a polyphase circuit hav
ing the respective terminals thereof connected
with the individual receiving circuits, an electri
cal indicator, and magnetic means corresponding
in‘ number to the number of said geographically
indicator‘in. positions proportionalto the relative
positions’ of said ?xed geographically‘ spaced re 70 spaced receiving antennae, one of said magnetic
means being individual to each of the‘ phases of
ceiving antennae, circuits coupling said last'meng
said polypha'se circuit, whereby the e?ects of
tioned‘mea'ns with the respective phases of said
each of said magnetic means may be integrated
polyphase circuit, and means for independently
with respect to said electrical indicator for shifts
controlling the'phase ofxthe currents inrea‘ch of
in'g said; electrical- indicator to a position which
said last'mentioned-circui'ts.
" ~' i
2,408,118
9
10
corresponds to the position of a radio signalling
source with respect to the plurality of geographi
cally spaced receiving antennae.
9. A direction ?nding system comprising a plu
rality of geographically spaced receiving an
tennae, an injector antenna centrally disposed
With respect to said receiving antennae, means
for electrically exciting said injector antenna,
said polyphase circuit whereby said magnetic de
vices conjointly control the angular movement
' of said electrical indicator in response to signal
ling energy incident upon said plurality of re
ceiving antennae from a signalling source for
indicating the position of the signalling source
with respect to said receiving antennae.
13. A direction ?nding system as set forth in
claim 3 and including independent circuits con
separate receiving circuits individual to said re
ceiving antennae, a polyphase circuit having the 10 nected in balanced relation between the phases
of said polyphase circuit and said coupling cir
respective terminals thereof connected with the
cuits for producing equal and opposite currents
individual receiving circuits, an electrical indi
in each of said coupling circuits in predetermined
cator, means individual to each of the phases of
relation to the operating characteristics of said
the polyphase circuit for electrically controlling
the movement of said electrical indicator, and 15 indicator, for establishing a phase reference in
each of said coupling circuits for the currents
means electrically connected with the output of
impressed on said indicator actuating means, said
one of said receiving circuits and with said means
impressed currents having a direction through
for electrically exciting said injector antenna for
said actuating means determined by whichever
controlling the amplitude of the energy impressed
by said injector antenna upon the plurality of 20 of the opposed currents is in phase therewith.
geographically spaced receiving antennae.
10. A direction ?nding system comprising a
plurality of geographically spaced receiving an
tennae, an injector antenna centrally disposed
with respect to said receiving antennae, means 25
for electrically exciting said injector antenna,
separate receiving circuits individual to said re
ceiving antennae, a polyphase circuit having the
respective terminals thereof connected with the
individual receiving circuits, an electrical indi
cator, means individual to each of the phases of
the polyphase circuit for electrically controlling
the movement of said electrical'indicator, and
14. A direction ?nding system as set forth in
claim 4, with said means for independently con
trolling the phase of the currents in each of the
coupling circuits including midtap connections
in the respective phases of said polyphase circuits
and in the coupling circuits related thereto, and
independent circuits including phase shifting
means connected between corresponding mid-tap
connections for producing equal and opposite
currents in each of said coupling circuits in phase
and in phase opposition with respect to the cur
rents impressed on said indicator actuating
means and in predetermined relation to the op
erating characteristics of said indicator, for
means including a recti?er circuit electrically
connected with the output of one of said receiv 35 establishing a phase reference in each of said
coupling circuits for the currents impressed on
ing circuits and with said means for electrically
exciting said injector antenna for controlling the
said indicator actuating means, said impressed
currents having a direction through said actuat
ing means determined .by whichever of the op
cally spaced receiving antennae.
40 posed currents is in phase therewith.
15. A direction ?nding system comprising a
11. A direction ?nding system comprising a
amplitude of the energy impressed by said in
jector antenna upon the plurality of geographi
plurality of geographically spaced receiving an
plurality of equally spaced receiving antennae,
an injector antenna centrally disposed with re
tennae, an injector antenna centrally disposed
spect to said receiving antennae, means for elec
with respect to said receiving antennae, means
for electrically exciting said injector antenna, 45 trically exciting said injector antenna with
heterodyning energy, separate receiving circuits
separate receiving circuits individual to said re
individually connected to said receiving antennae,
ceiving antennae, a polyphase circuit having the
a corresponding number of recti?er means,
respective terminals thereof connected with the
means for interconnecting said recti?er means
individual receiving circuits, an electrical indica
tor, means individual to each of the phases of 50 and said receiving circuits with each said recti?er
means energized in balanced and unbalanced re
the polyphase circuit for electrically controlling
lation by the vector sum and the vector di?er
the movement of said electrical indicator, and
ence of the heterodyne output voltages of two
means including a. full wave recti?er circuit elec
receiving circuits connected with adjacent an
trically connected with the output of one of said
receiving circuits and with said means for elec 55 tennae, phase shifting means for reconciling the
phases of the vector sum and difference voltages
trically exciting said injector antenna for con
for operation with respect to the recti?er means,
trolling the amplitude of the energy impressed
and an electromagnetic indicator having ?eld
by said injector antenna upon the plurality of
windings spaced in accordance with the spacing
geographically spaced receiving antennae.
12. A direction ?nding system comprising a 60 of said receiving antennae and individually ener
gized from said recti?er means.
'
trio of geographically spaced receiving antennae
16. A direction ?nding system as set forth in
arranged at the apexes of an equilateral triangle,
claim 15 wherein the vector sum voltages are
an injector antenna centrally disposed with re
shifted in phase by 90° and applied to the recti
spect to said receiving antennae, means for elec
trically exciting said injector antenna, a receiv 65 ?er means in balanced relation and the vector
difference voltages are applied to said recti?er
ing circuit individual to each of said receiving
means in unbalanced relation, the vector differ
antennae, a three-phase delta-connected circuit
ence voltage undergoing phase reversal and the
having the respective terminals thereof connected
direct output voltage of the recti?er means being
with the individual receiving circuits, an electri
cal indicator, a plurality of magnetic devices as 70 reversed in polarity with reversal of the relative
phase of the component heterodyne voltages in
sociated with said electrical indicator spaced sub
any instance, whereby 180° ambiguity in the in
stantially 120° about said electrical indicator,
dication is avoided.
and separate circuits interconnecting the said
magnetic devices with the respective phases of
WALTER H. WIRKLER.
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