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VSept'. 24,
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w. H. WIRKLER
2,408,120
RADIO DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM
Filed Sept. l2, 1938
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2,408,120
W. H. WIRKLER
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RADIO DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM
Filed sept. '12, 1939
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Patented Sept. 24, 1946
2,408,120
UN-rrsn stares Param caries
2,408,120
RADICI DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM
Walter H. Wirkler, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, assignor
to Collins Radio Company, Cedar Rapids, Iowa,
a corporation of Iowa
Application September 12, 1939, Serial No. 294,522
13 Claims.
(Cl. 250-11)
2
l
My invention relates broadly to radio direction
No. 274,039, supra, two similar loop antennas I
finding systems and more particularly to a direc
tion finder having commutated antennas and vis
ual indicating means.
This application is a continuation-in-part of
my co-pending application Serial Number 274,039,
and 2 are mounted at the ends of a horizontal
supporting arm of suitable length pivoted on a
vide means for supplying a sweep voltage for lthe
amplifier I4 and applied, through transformer
vertical axis at its center, as indicated in Fig.
l. A third loop antenna 3, tuned by a condenser,
is mounted midway between the antennas I and
2 and serves as the injector antenna. The three
ñled May 16, 1939, for Heterodyne radio direction
loop antennas are in parallel planes, as indicat
finding system.
ed, and are at right angles to the horizontal line
One of the objects of my invention is to provide
means for the elimination of bearing errors 10 of support. Each loop antenna is of the balanced
type and may be enclosed by electrostatic shield
caused by unequal audio frequency phase shifts in
ing means.
' ’
the two receivers of a phase-measuring radio di
The output of each of the receiving antennas
rection finding system.
I and 2 is connected alternately and individually
Another object of my invention is the provision
to separate receiving circuits 8 and 9 through
of visual indicating means for improving the per
commutator devices 4 and 5, which are synchro
formance of the direction finder, particularly as
nized with each other and operated in deter
regards operation on weak signals in the pres
mined relation with respect to a shunt switch 6,
ence of noise.
I
as hereinafter more fully described. Motor 'I is
A further object of my invention is to provide
balanced rectifier means operated by the differ 20 employed to drive the commutator devices lI and
5 and switch 6, in common.
^
Y
ence and by the sum of the outputs from both
The audio output of receiver 8 flows through
receivers of the direction finder for supplying a
resistor I0 and condenser I3, and produces a po
deflection voltage for an oscilloscope varying as
tential drop e1 across resistor I0, while that from
the phase difference of the audio signal voltages
v25 receiver 9 flows through resistor II and con
in the two receivers.
denser I3 and produces a potential drop ,e2
Still another object of my invention is to pro
across resistor II. A ground connection is pro
vide commutator means for alternately connect
vided at the condenser terminal common to both
ing the receiving loop antennas to the different
receivers. Transformer I2 is connected across
receivers for reversing the direction of deflection
in the oscilloscope, the extent of deflection being 30 resistors Il] and I I, and receives an audio volt- l
age En proportional lto the vector difference of
equal in each direction for a given phase differ
the two receiver outputs, e1--e2, as indicated in
ence in the received signals.
Fig. 2, which is amplified by an audio frequency
A still further object of- my invention» is to pro
oscilloscope controlled in relation to the reversal 35 I6, diiferentially to the plates of balanced recti~
fier I8. Condenser I3 is connected across the in
of direction of deflection in the oscilloscope, for
put of an audio frequency amplifier I5 and sup
producing an oscillograph indicating by differ
plies a voltage Eb thereto in accordance with the
ences in deflection in successive portions thereof
vector sum of the two receiver outputs, ei-I-ez
a difference in phase in the received signals.
Still another object of my invention is to pro 40 in Fig. 2. The actual vector sum eb is given a
vide visual indicating means for a radio direction
finder with sense indications afforded by virtue
of visual indications made in relatively opposite
directions.
\
phase shift of essentially 90 degrees by condenser
I3 to bring it substantially in phase with the volt
.tage En applied to transformer I2. The output
of amplifier I5 is applied through transformer I'I
Other and further objects reside in the system 45 to a center tap on the »secondary of transformer
of my invention as will be understood from the
I6, and a center connection between load re
sistors I9 and 20 connected with the cathodes of
balanced rectifier I8.
The currents supplied to rectifier I8 are there
Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a represent
tive form of my invention; Fig. 2 is a vector di 50 fore substantially in phase, but current from am
plifier I4 is wholly dependent upon the phase re
agram of voltage relations in a portion thereof;
lation of the signals supplied to receivers 8 and
and Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating
» 9, the vector difference Ea being Zero when out
various modifications, in details, 0f the arrange
following description made with reference to the
accompanying drawings, in which:
ment shown in Fig. 1. ,
l
puts e1 and ez are equal in value and of the same
As set forth in my copending application Serial 55 phase. Current supplied to rectifier I8 from am
2,408,120
3
4
Dlif'ler I5 is dependent in magnitude upon the
indication and receivers with more stages of radio
frequency amplification may therefore be used
ahead of the first detector, and also intermediate
relative phase of the voltages e1 and ez, and un
der conditions of like phase in these components
rectifier I8 receives current only from trans
former I7, but in balanced relation so that the
currents in resistors I9 and Zâ are equal and op
frequency amplifier stages with greater selectivity
may be used, without fear of errors caused by
posite. Unequal currents in resistors ¿I9 and 2i)
unequal phase shift in these circuits. Hence,
much better selectivity and a higher signal-to
result when voltages ei and e2 arev no-t of like
noise ratio are obtained.
Another feature of this arrangement is that
phase andcurrent is applied to rectiñer IS from
transformer I6, whereupon rectifier IS delivers 10 the oscilloscopic indicating means provides more
satisfactory operation in the presence of noise.
a control voltage proportional to the out of phase
In order to accomplish this object better in the
relation of the voltages e1 and e2.
heterodyne direction finder, use is made of the
The output of rectifier I8, taken from Vresistors
balanced rectifier £3", excited both by the differ
I9 and 23, is filtered by re'sistor2I andcondenser
ence voltage from ampliiier I4 and by the sum
22 and applied to the vertical deflection plates in
voltage from amplifier I5, which has a consider
a cathode ray oscilloscope 23. The result is that
ably higher signal-to-noise ratio, to take full ad
the direct current output of rectifier I8, and the '
vantage of the oscilloscopic method of visual indi
resulting vertical deflection of the beam of the
oscilloscope from a normal middle position, arc
cation in overcoming the effects of receiver noise.
proportional to the phase difference in the audio
The voltage applied to the rectifier I8 through
amplifier Ul and transformer I5 will not result
frequency outputs of the two receivers.
n
In the positions'in which commutator devices
d and 5 are shown, receiver 8 is connected with
antenna 2 and receiver 9 with antenna I. At one
vertical deflection plates of the oscilloscope 23
quarter revolution later, the commutator devices
transformer I'I a voltage of the same frequency
will be in position to connect receiver 8 with
antenna I and receiver 9 with antenna 2. With
the receivers thus changedly connected, the phase
difference in the signals at the outputs thereof
will cause a deflection in the oscilloscope opposite ,
in direction to that resulting from the preceding
position.
in a rectiñed voltage across condenser 22 and the
unless there is applied through amplifier I5 and
and essentially the same phase. Hence, the audio
voltage applied through transformer I'I, which is
relatively free of noise, operates selectively to
obtain rectification of audio voltage of the same
frequency from transformer I6, discriminating
againstI random noise voltage from transformer
Iii and avoiding the effect thereof on the indica
Sweep voltage for the'cathode ray oscilloscope
23 is provided by the charging and discharging
tion of the oscilloscope. Further, if these random
noises originate in the receivers themselves in
of a condenser 24 connected to the horizontal
stead of being picked up in the collector antenna,
system, their effect, if any, will not change with
deflection plates in the oscilloscope.
Condenser
24 is connected in circuit with a resistance 25
across a direct current source shown as battery
antenna commutation and, therefore, they will
not cause a break in the oscilloscope pattern as
does a signal received in the two collector loops
26, the sweep voltage increasing as the condenser
is charged through the resistance 25 from source 40 at slightly different phase angles.
28. Condenser 24 is discharged by the operation
Another feature of my invention is that it pro
of shunt switch Ii whereby the sweep voltage is
vides sense indication in that when the antenna
abruptly reduced to zero.
system is rotated clockwise from the position
At every second commutation of the loops,
giving a straight line on the screen of oscilloscope
switch 6 completes a shunt circuit to ground
23, the left side of the image, for example, will
across condenser 24, for discharging the con
be the higher than when the antenna system is
denser. During other parts of the cycle, includ
rotated counterclockwise. This is due to the fact
ing the intermediate commutation of the loops,
that the polarity of the rectified output of recti
condenser 24 is being charged from the source
fier I8 depends on the sense of the phase relation
26 through resistor 25, thus providing a hori 50 between the voltage applied to transformer I6
zontal sweep voltage for the oscilloscope in syn
and that applied to transformer I'I.
chronism with the commutation of the antennae
The injector loop antenna 3 is energized sub
and covering the period of operation of each re
stantially in the manner described in my'co
ceiver in connection with each antenna. The
pending application Serial No, 274,039, supra.
result is that if the audio phase difference of the 55 Receivers 8 and 9 are illustrated as being of the
receiver outputs changes when the loops are com
superheterodyne type with a local conversion
'mutated, a break in the horizontal line of the
oscillator at 2l common to both receivers. The
oscilloscope pattern will occur, as shown at 23a
receivers B and 9 and the oscillator?! are tuned
on the oscilloscope 23.
simultaneously through a common arrangement
An importantfeature of this arrangement is 60 represented at 30. Oscillator 29 supplies energy
that a phase difference in the receiver outputs
for the injector loop antenna 3 which is connected
caused by inequality of the two receivers will be
therewith through a mixer circuit 28 to which is
constant and will not cause a break in the line
also supplied a portion of the output of conversion
of the oscilloscope pattern. Any break in the
oscillator 21. Oscillator 29 operates at a fre
pattern, therefore, will be an indication of phase 65 quency differing from the intermediate frequency
Vdifference resulting from commutation of the
of amplification in the receivers 8 and 9 by a few
loops. Hence, the only source of instrument error
hundred cycles to provide the Vaudio frequency
in this direction finder lies in unequal tuning of
which characterizes the outputs of receivers 8
the loops, which has been shown in my copend- v
and 9, which outputs are supplied to amplifiers
ing application Serial No. 274,039, supra, to be 70 I4 and I5 as hereinbefore set forth. ’I'he fre
. small in effect as compared to the errors which
quency of the energy supplied to the injector loop
might be introduced in the intermediate fre
is maintained within a few hundred cycles of the
quency amplifier stages of the receivers. In the
received signal frequency by the operation of
system of my invention herein disclosed, the re
energy from oscillator 21 in the mixer circuits 28,
ceiving circuits produce no error in the ultimate 75 from which energy is supplied to the injector an
2,408,120
5
6
tenna at the proper frequency for heterodyning
with the received signals of selected frequency,
anced rectifier allows the use of a smaller filter
as set forth more fully in my copending applica
switch 52 in the same relation as ñlter condenser
tion, supra.
The circuit arrangement illustrated in Fig. 3
embodies various modifications in and additions
to the basic system as disclosed in Figs. 1 and 2.
Transformers 3| and 32 having split secondary
condenser. Condenser 22 is shown connected by
22 in Fig. 1, although, as noted, the condenser in
Fig. 3 may be of smaller capacity. Another ar
rangement is shown for use with switch 52 moved
to its alternate position in which condensers 43
and 44 are connected with the rectifier. This lat
ter circuit operates to reduce noise further by
windings are connected to the outputs of re
ceivers 8 and 9, respectively, and the split sec l0 allowing an increase in the capacity of the ñlter
condensers without causing distortion of the os
ondaries interconnected so as to supply the sum
cilloscope imagebecause of the increased charg
of the output voltages to amplifier I4 and the
ing and discharging time of the condensers, and
¿difference of the voltages to amplifier I5. The
is adapted especially for continuous carrier sig
phase shift required to bring the sum and dif
nals. An additional commutator element 45 is
ference voltages in phase is effected in the am
plifier input circuits. Coupling resistors 33 and
A34 are individually of a value for matching the
impedances of the respective output transformer
circuits.l Condenser 35 and resistor 3S connected
with coupling resistor 33 are identical with con
denser 31 and resistor 38, respectively, connected
employed driven by the common motor 1, with
contacts for alternately connecting the filter con
densers 43 and 44 to ground whereby neither con
denser is required to be charged and discharged
with each commutation and larger condensers
may be used without distortion of the oscilloscope
image. Hence, it is possible by this arrangement
with coupling resistor 34, but are so arranged that
to use the direction finder on comparatively weak
the output voltages are relatively displaced 90°
radio telephone signals. The operation is in
in phase, thus being transmitted in like phase to
'amplifiers I4 and I5. The vector analysis shown 25 accord with the principle that any wave analyzer
which selects a narrow band of frequencies to the
in Fig. 2 applies equally as well to this modifica
exclusion of all others must integrate over a large
tion as to the arrangement in Fig. 1.
Another modification made in Fig. 3 is an im
interval of time.
»
For radio telegraph signals a smaller capacity
provelment of the rectifier circuits, tube I8 being
replaced by a doubly balanced or "ring” type rec 30 of filter condenser is preferable for producing a
clear image, and this is readily provided at con
tiñer connected similarly as tube I8 with trans
denser 22. Another factor affecting clarity is
formers I6 and I‘I and the load resistors I9 and
synchronism between the keying rate and the rate
20. The doubly balanced rectifier comprises four
of commutation. Under these conditions the
rectiñer units 39, 4D, 4I and 42 connected in a
closed “ring”, circuit as shown, and is supplied
image on one side of the screen might be affected
with current from transformer I6 at opposite
points` in the circuit and from transformer I'I at
center tap connections on> the secondary of trans
former I6 and resistors I9 and 20. The output
is taken from the remaining opposite points of 40
by the signal while that on the other side remains
unaffected by the signal for several seconds,
making it impossible to compare the two halves
of the image. This factor may be adjusted by
controlling the speed of the commutator driving
the circuits, or from across resistors I9 and 20 in
motor so as to avoid synchronism with the rate
series.
'
'
`
of keying.
Y
Another solution which would minimizev the ef
fect of synchronism is to block out the image on
transformers I6 and I'I are balanced out in the
output, so that it is immaterial from the Standn 4. the oscilloscope automatically except in the pres
ence of a signal. In Fig. 3, the sum value of the
point of balancing audio voltages whether the
signals is partially diverted through transformer
sum or the difference voltage is applied to the
4'! from the output of amplifier I4 to a rectifier
upper channel I4; in the arrangement of Fig. 1,
48, the output of which is applied in series with
it is preferred that the greater'sum voltage be
a source of bias potential 5I between the cath
applied to transformer I'I, and thus in balanced
ode 49 and a control grid 50 in the oscilloscope 23.
relation to the rectifier I8, so as to reduce the
The bias voltage at source 5I is provided to sup
audio components in the rectiñer output, inas
, press the image on the oscilloscope in the absence
much as the circuit is not balanced for the input
of signal energy in the rectifier 48. The only
from transformer I6. The doubly balanced rec
effect of synchronism in the commutating and
tifier' 39-42 has in its output direct currents
keying frequencies in such an arrangement is the
and even-harmonic voltages, the latter being re
absence of any image from one side of the oscil
moved by a filter condenser which may be
loscope screen. However, if the synchronism is
smaller than the filter condenser required in the
not exact, or if dots and dashes are employed as
arrangement of Fig. 1.
' The operation of the doubly balanced rectiñer 60 in normal Morse code, there will be times when
there is an image on each side of the screen, and
is essentially the same as that of the rectifier
this intermittent full image is easier to interpret
I8. That is to say, if the receiver voltages are in
than the double image obtained without the key
phase but differ by a small amount in amplitude,
ing rectifier'48.
the difference voltage will be in phase with the
Arbitrarily, the antenna commutator elements
sum voltage at the receivers but 90 degrees out of
were designed with an overlap of five degrees,
phase at the rectifier input and no direct current
that is, all circuits are closed before any are
will result. Again, if the receiver` output volt~
opened in order to improve the operation of the »
ages are nearly equal in amplitude but differ
system, and avoid critical adjustments of the
slightly in phase, there will be an out of phase
component becoming an in phase component at “ commutator brushes. One effect of the five, de
gree overiap, however, was a separation of the
the rectifier input and resulting in a rectified
two halves of the oscilloscope image which some
voltage proportional to the initial out of phase
what impaired the clarity of the indication.V To
relation and adapted to produce a vertical de
eliminate this'factor, an additional commutator
flection in the oscilloscope.
'
Fundamental frequency voltages from both
.v 'As above mentioned, the use of the doubly bal
section 46 is provided drivenby motor 1,' with in
2,408,120.
7
8
sulation inserts 46a; to break' the charging` cur
rent; andthe sweepV circuit condenser 24 during
the five. degree overlap in theY commutation. The
electron> beam thus ceases to move horizontally
during- this interval and the two halves of the
image are maintained close together for maxi
phase relations; of-»two independent currents;v a
visual »indicating system; comprising rectiñ'er
means cooperatively energized'v by bothsaid c1111'
rents for producing a direct voltage proportional
to thephase difference in the currents, a- cathode
mum clarity in comparison.
»
In comnnitatorV section 4~5,~ connected with the
iilter condensers` 43 and 44, a'five degree overlap
on the insulation> portions is 'provided to prevent
short circuîting of the condensers 43 and 44'
through the commutator. In this instance, both
circuits are opened before either is closed.
ray oscilloscope having one set~ of deñectingïplates
energized by said voltage and a second set orî de
flecting plates. disposed normal to the'?irst sa-id
set, commutator means for interchanging said
>currents in respect to the operation of said rec
tiñer means for reversing the polarity oi said‘di'
rect voltage and the direction of deiìection; pro.
duced thereby in said oscilloscope, and means for
supplying a sweep voltage to said second set, of
While; I have described my invention in a prel- `
dei‘lecting plates intimed relation to the opera,
ferred embodiment, I intend no'limitations there.- .
tion of said commutator'means for producing at
by upon my invention and I desire it understood
Yleast two .reversals of direction of deñection in
that; modifications may be made `within the scope
said oscilloscope in a cycle of operation of said
of the appended claims.
What Iv claim as-new. and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is as follows:
1. In a radio direction ñndingsystem, a direc
tional >antenna system >including at least two re- .
ceiving antennae, two separate receiving circuits,
commutator means for alternately connecting
said receivingcircuits .individually to each or said>
receiving antennae, means cooperatively ener
" ygizedl by the outputs of both said' receivingcir
cuits> for producing. a voltage proportional to the
phase difference of the signals received at there
spective antennae, and visual indicating means
energized. byA said .voltageV with said commutator
sweep voltage.
'
» ,5. In a heterodyne radio direction finding sys
tem, a directional antenna systemv including at
least two signal receiving antennae and> a locally
energized >injector antenna coupled in like rela
tion to both said» receiving antennae, separate
receiving circuits` including detector means for
said» receiving antennae, commutator means for
alternately connecting said» receiving circuitsfin
dividualiy to each of said receiving antennae,
>said receiving circuits having heterodyne audio
frequency output currents derived in said detec
tor rneansA from received signal energy and en
means producing a reversal in the sense of the in
' , ergy from said injector antenna and varying in
dication of said voltageupon the alternate con
nection of. said receiving circuits with respectto
phase relationas the signals received at the re
spective receiving antennaarectiñer means coop
35 eratively energized by both said currents for pro
said
antennae.
~
'
‘2. In a radio direction finding system, a direcu
ducing a direct voltage proportional-to the phase
tional antenna .system including at least two
difference in thev currents, and visual indicating
means energize-:d> by said^ voltage> with said com»
receiving antennae., separate receiving ‘circuits,~
mutator means producing aV reversal in the po
commutator means for alternately connecting
>said receiving circuits individually to each of >said
larity of said direct voltage and in the sense of
the indication of said direct voltage uponv the
receiving antennae, means for producing a volt
age proportional to the vector difference of the
alternate connection of said receiving circuits
with respect to said antennae.
output voltages of said receiving circuits, means
for producing a voltage proportional to the vector
6. In a heterodyne radio directionl finding sys
sum of the output voltages of said receiving cir 45 tem, a directional antenna system including at
cuits and substantially in phase with the afore
least two-signal receiving antennae and a locally
said voltage, balanced re‘ctiñer means coopera
energized injector antenna coupled in like rela..
tively energized by both said voltages for pro
ducing a direct voltage proportional to the phase
tion to both said receiving antennae, separate
receiving circuits including detector means for
difference of the signals received at the respec 50 said receiving antennae, and commutator means
tive antennae, and visual indicating means ener
for alternately connecting said receiving circuits
gized by said direct voltage With said commutator
individually to each of said receiving'antennae,
means producing a reversal in the polarity of
said receiving circuits having heterodyne audio
said direct voltage and in the. sense of the indi
frequency output currents derived in said de
cation of said direct voltage upon the alternate 55 tector means from received signal energy and
connection of said receiving circuits with respect
energy from said injector antenna and- varying
in phase relation as the signals received at the
respective receiving antennae; means for pro
ducing a voltage proportional to the vector dif
phase relation of two independent currents, a 60 ference of said output currents, means for'pro
visual indicating system comprising means coop
ducing a voltage proportional to the vector sum
eratively energized by bothv said currents for pro
of said output currents, said sum and dilîerence
to said antennae.
3. In a radio direction iinding system wherein
directional indications are dependent upon the
ducing a direct voltage proportional to the phase
difference in the currents, visual indicating
vector voltages being in phase quadrature, and
phase> shifting means for placing said voltages- in
means' energized by said voltage, and means for 65 like phase; balanced rectiñer means energized by
interchanging said currents in respect to the op
the voltage proportional to the vector difference
eration of the first said means for reversing the
of@ said currents in differential' relation and; by
polarity of the direct voltage produced and the
the voltage proportional to the vector sum of said
sense of the indication Vof said voltage, whereby
currents in balanced relation, saidY rectifier» being
the presence of a phase diiïerence isv evident from 70 operative to produce a direct voltagev proportional
the reversal of said indication and the magnitude
to the phase diiîerence of the said output currents
of said phase difference from the amplitude of
by rectiñcation of the vector diiïerence voltage
said indication.
in a polarity determined by its relation to the
4. In a radio direction ñnding, system Where
vector sum voltage, and said‘ vector sum voltage
in. directional indicationsy are dependent upon the. 75 having a higher signal-to-noise ratio than said
2,408,120
means energized by said voltage, means for inter
changing said currents with respect to the opera
vector difference voltage and operating to obtain
selective rectification of the vector diiîerence
tion of said rectiner means for reversing the sense
voltage of like frequency and phase; and visual
of the indication of said signal voltage, filter
indicator means energized by said direct voltage
means including dual ñlter elements, and com
with said commutator means producing a re Ui mutator means for alternately connecting each
versal in the polarity of said direct voltage and in
of said lements with said rcctiñer means in syn
the sense of the indication of said direct voltage
chronis with the interchange of said currents,
upon the alternate connection of said receiving
said ñlter elements each being of a value substan
circuits with respect to said antennae.
‘ tially to exclude alternating currents and distor
7. In a radio direction finding system wherein
tion factors from said indicator means.
directional indications are dependent upon the
10. In a radio direction finding system, the
phase relation of two independent signal cur
combination set forth in claim l with said means
rents in separate receiving circuits, means for
for producing a voltage proportional to the phase
preventing error in said indications due to un
equal phase shift in said currents introduced by
said separate receiving circuits, comprising means
., dinerence of the received signals comprising a
for converting a phase diderence in the inde
pendent signal currents into a direct signal volt
age proportional to the phase difference, indica
tor means energized by said voltage, and means
for interchanging said currents for operation
alternately with respect to said separate receiving
circuits and for reversing the sense of the indiw
cation of said signal voltage, incidental phase
variations introduced by said separate receiving
circuits being constant in effect in said indicat
doubly balanced rectiñer circuit in the output of
which components of the fundamental frequency
of each signal are absent, whereby said visual
indicating means receives the said voltage pro
portional to the phase difference of the received
signals in substantially singular relation.
1l. In a radio direction finding system, appa~
ratus as set forth in claim 4 wherein a selected
degree of overlap is provided in said commutator
means, and including separate commutator means
synchronized with the said commutator means
and connected with said means for supplying a
sweep voltage for interrupting the operation of
cation of said signal voltage whereby the pres
the last mentioned means during the overlap
ence of a phase difference in the signal currents
period in the iirst said commutator means, where
is evident from the reversal of said indication 30 by a continuous signal indication is provided in
and the magnitude of said phase diiîerence from
dependent of the degree of overlap.
the amplitude of said indication.
12. In a radio direction ñnding system adapted
8. In a radio direction ñnding system wherein
for operation with telegraph signals, apparatus
directional indications are dependent upon the
as set forth in claim 4 with said cathode ray
phase relation of independent signal currents in 35 oscilloscope including a control grid electrode
ing means upon the reversal in sense of the indi
separate receiving circuits, means for reducing
normally biased for suppressing the vcathode ray
the effect of random noise in producing such in
in said oscilloscope, and means energized by said
dications, comprising means for producing a volt
currents for supplying a control potential and
age proportional to the vector diiîerence between
connected with said grid for producing the cath
the output currents from said receiving circuits, 40 ode ray under the control of said currents, said
means for producing a voltage proportional to
ray being subjected to deflection in accordance
the vector sum of said output currents and sub
with the potentials on said deñecting plates for
stantially in phase with the aforesaid voltage,
producing a `directional indication.
balanced rectifier means energized by the vector
13. In a heterodyne radio direction ñnding sys
diiîerence voltage in differential relation and by
tem, a directional antenna system including at
the vector sum voltage in balanced relation, said
least two signal receiving antennae and a locally
rectiñer being operative to produce a direct volt
energized injector antenna coupled in like rela
age proportional to the phase difference of the
tion to both said receiving antennae, separate
said currents by rectification of the vector dif 50 receiving circuits including detector means for
ference voltage in a polarity determined by its
said receiving antennae, commutator means for
relation to the vector sum voltage, said vector
alternately connecting said receiving circuits in
sum voltage having a higher signal-to-noise ratio
dividually to each of said receiving antennae, said
than said vector difference voltage and operating
receiving circuits having heterodyne audio fre
to obtain selective rectiiication of the vector dif
quency output currents derived in said detector
ference voltage of like frequency and phase to
means from received signal energy and energy
the exclusion of random noise in said vector dif
from said injector antenna and varying in phase
ference voltage, and visual indicator means en
relation as the signals received at the respective
ergized by said direct voltage for indicating said
receiving antennae, rectifier means cooperatively
phase difference with greater clarity in the ab
energized by both said currents for producing a
sence of random noise distortion.
direct voltage proportional to the phase differ
9. In a radio direction iinding system wherein
ence in the currents, and visual indicating means
directional indications are dependent upon the
energized by said voltage and adapted to indicate
phase relation of two independent signal currents
direction through both the polarity and magni»
in separate receiving circuits, rectiñer means co
tude of said direct voltage.
65
operatively energized by both said currents for
producing a signal voltage proportional to the
WALTER H. WIRKLER.
' phase difference
between said currents, indicator
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