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Sept 24, 1946.
R. K. GRAY ET'AL
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PADLOCK
Filed May 24, 1944
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2,408,137
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24,1946;
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' R. K. GRAY ETAL‘
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PADLOCK
Filed May 24, 1944'
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Patentecl Sept. 24, 1946
2,408,137
UNITEDV'STATES PATENT OFFICE
PADLOCK
Raymond K. Gray and Rollin Lester Gray, Chi
cago, IlL, assignors to The Illinois Lock _Com
pany, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois
Application May 24, 1944, Serial No. 537,114
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6 Claims.
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(01. 70-39
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This invention relates to a key-operated pad
lock of the typewhich utilizes a shackle slidable
vided with facing notches e at opposite points
inwardly and outwardly relative to the padlock
body, and is concerned primarily with a mounting
be engaged by the locking devices presently to
be described, and the long arm, below its notch
for the various working parts whereby to assure
a dependable and satisfactory operation thereof
over a long period of service, and a facile assem
bly of such parts upon the mounting preliminary
to insertion thereof as a unit into the lock body
for securement therein. In general, the padlock.
is of the dual locking type employing a' pair of
meshing gears movable concurrently into and out
and along its side which faces the other arm, is
formed with a flat 1‘. In its lower region the long
arm is provided with a tapered section l5 which
joins with an extension l6, of reduced diameter
whereon is built out an annular head I'l. Between
this head and the body shoulder l2 therebelow
is positioned a coiled compression spring [8 into
which the arm extension [6 is ?tted, a constant
of engagement with the shackle arms, an exam
thrust force being thereby maintained axially of
not far from the end of the short arm, each to
the long arm of the shackle such as to displace
ple whereof is set forth in the application of
Henry J. Dequick ?led February 8, 1943, under 15 the shackle outwardly of the padlock body, when
ever conditions will permit.
v
Serial No. 475,116, now Patent No. 2,374,669, dated
The working parts are carried by a mounting
May 1, 1945. The features of our invention, how:
ever, relate more particularly to details of im
M which, together therewith, are adapted to be
provement, particularly the mounting for the '
inserted as a unit into the body chamber for
working parts whereby to facilitate and speed 20 securement therein. When so ?tted and secured
in place, a closure is provided for the chamber
the assembly thereof, all as hereinafter setforth
and described.
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open end whereby the locking mechanism to the
interior thereof isv e?ectively protected. This
An exempli?cation of the present padlock in
mounting, as shown, is formed with an enlarged
vention vis illustrated in the accompanying draw
ings wherein Figure 1 is a view of the padlock 25 base 20 of a size to ?t within the chamber recess
01, the end of the base at one end being provided
with a flange 2| which underlies the body shoul
der l2. Rising from the base is a main column
or post 22 with walls 23 extending toward the
Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a perspective View of the mount
end whereon is the ?ange 2|, the walls, de?ning
between them an elongated half round surface g
ing per se, looking down upon the top and toward
whichis adapted to face a similarly rounded sur
one end thereof; Fig. 5 is a similar view of the
face h in the body Wall to provide therebetween
mounting, looking toward its opposite end; Fig. 6
a cylindrical chamber for accommodation of the
is a view in perspective of (a) the locking gears,
shackle long arm I0. Between the post walls 23
(b) the transmission and mounting therefor, and
(c) the cylinder plug, in axial alignment ready
at the bottom thereof is a ?oor 24 which is ?ush
with the shelf I2 to cooperate therewith in pro
for assembly into an operating unit; and Figs. '7,
viding for the shackle arm, chamber a bottom
8 and 9 are transverse sections all in the plane
in perspective, looking toward its bottom end;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view, taken through
a plane centrally of its longer dimension; Fig. 3
is a transverse section, taken on line 3-3 of
closure against which the compression spring l8
of line 8-.-8 of Fig. 2, showing, respectively, the
‘positions of the parts as when ,(a), assembly 40 may be rested at one end. A drain opening 2' may
thereof upon the mounting is about to take place,
be formed through the bottom closure, as shown.
(1)) assembly is completed and the parts are oper
The mounting column at its end opposite the
ated to their locking positions,‘ and (c) assembly
walls 23 is formed with an elongated arcuate
, is completed and the parts have been operated
channel 7' provided by a curving surface bounded
to their unlocking positions.
}
by vertical shoulders 30 and 30a beyond which
As shown, we utilize a hollow body A provided
is extended a pair of arcuate walls '3! and 32,
with a large chamber 0 open onlyat the bottom,
both concentric with the curving surface of the
and at the top by two openings a and I) through
arcuate channel 7', but of lesser radius, to de?ne
between them a partial cylindrical enclosure of
which may be extended the long and short arms
[0 and II, respectively, of a shackle S.‘ The
something more than 180°. ' The base end adja—
chamber is further recessed, at (1, adjacent its
cent these arcuate walls is curved concentrically
bottom except'at the end opposite the shackle
therewith as at 33, but with‘ aslightlygreater
long arm where we have provided a shoulder l2
radius, so as to provide a complete enclosing wall
for a circular opening 34 through the mounting
slightly spaced from the bottom end of the pad
lock body. The two arms ‘of the shackle are pro- 55 base 20. In the plane of offset, where the arcu
2,408,137
ate walls 3! and 32 join with the circular base
wall 33 of greater radius to enclose the opening
34, we provide an elongated arcuate notch k op
posite to and complementary with the arcuate
channel 7‘, and commencing with one end of this
notch the arcuate wall 3| is formed along its bot
tom with a recess which continues to a depend
ing lug 35. In addition, we provide upon the in
ner surface of both arcuate walls 3i and 32 at
opposite points intermediately of their ends, ar
cuate channels m each extended in a plane which
is transverse to the axis of the cylindrical en
closure therebetween. In the wall 32 there is
also provided on its inner surface and extend
ing down from the top, an arcuate recess 11
bordered by side and bottom shoulders 36 and
31, respectively (see Fig. 5). The top .of the col
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tended into the tumbler channel 1). In this posi
tion they may be reached by a slender tool (not
shown) which is inserted into the channel from
its inner end when exposed by displacement of
the shackle short arm I I; such a tool whose act
ing end is appropriately formed for the purpose
may then be manipulated to draw the hooked ex
tremities together thereby contracting the ring
to disengage its curved ends from the arcuate
channels m, whereupon the cylinder plug is freed
for axial removal from its mounting.‘
The plug which is adapted for limited oscilla
tory movements in response to operation of a
proper‘key, is releasably connected to a transmis
sion T whereby to move certain elements into and
out of locking position relative to the shackle S.
This transmission may comprise a cylindrical
umn 22 carries an upstanding cylindrical boss 33.
The mounting, as herein disclosed, may be cast
or otherwise formed in a single piece, and it
body 54 formed at one end with an axial socket
(not shown) for accommodation of the cylindri
cal boss 45 which projects axially from the plug
end wall 44, an arcuate wing 55, of perhaps 180°
serves to carry all the operating parts of'the lock
in length, being extended laterally from this body
save only the shackle and its spring. It may ac
adjacentiits end which is proximate to the plug.
cordingly be ?tted with most of the parts it is to
This wing which is disposed. within the same
carry preliminary to insertion into the body
chambenand when positioned and secured there 25 plane as the arcuate shoulder 46 upon the plug
end wall, cooperates therewith to limit relative
in an operative-relationship with the shackle is
rotary movement between the plug and trans
assured. When so positioned a complete closure
mission body to about ‘90°. Coiled around the
for the body chamber at its bottom may be pro
transmission body is a spring 56 having one end
vided permanently, as by interlocking the lower
edge of the body with the mounting base by the 30 5‘? turned to engage an end of the wing 55 and its
other end 58 outturnedto engage the shoulder Bil
well known process of knurling or crimping.
adjacent the channel 1' (see Fig. 2), thereby ex
Referring now to Figs. 6-9, the locking parts
erting its tension force to rotate the transmission
are shown as comprising a cylinder plug P hav~
to a position where a lug 59, which is extended
ing at one end a circular base 11! adapted to be
seated within the circular opening 34 to provide 35 laterally from a head 69 on the body 54 to lie
within the recess n, is urged toward the shoul
a complete closure therefor. Through the plug
der 36.
base is a central opening 0 for a key“ to operate
Extending axially beyond the body head 60 is
tumblers 43 which are adapted for opposite move
a boss 6| having a reduced end 62 formed with
ments inwardly and outwardly to enter and va
opposite ?at sides 63 for operative connection
catethe arcuate channel 7' and also a second ar
with a driving gear X wherein is a complemen
cuate channel p which is provided interiorly cf
tary axial opening 64. This gear is in mesh with
the body chamber in register with the arcuate
a comp-aniondriven gear Y wherein is an axial
notch k. The plug which providesa mounting
opening 65 for reception of the cylindrical boss
for these tumblers is formed with a circular head
38 which projects from the end of the mounting
end wall 44 from which is extended axially a'
insert M. It will be observed that the driving
cylindrical boss 45 to one side of which is an ar
gear X is adapted for rotation about an axis
cuate shoulder 46 approximately 90° in length.
which is common also to the transmission and
The plug base is cut away to provide upon its
cylinder plug, whereas the driven gear Y is free
upper or inner face an arcuate recess q extending
to rotate about the axis of the boss 38; also the
a distance of 90° or so between shoulders Ill’ and
operative connection between each gear and its
d8 which are adapted to alternately engage the
mounting is freely releasable in response to an
lug 35 when the plug is oscillated through its full
axial movement of one part relative to the other.
movement range.
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The two gears occupy planes the same as the
Means are provided to releasably lock the plug
notches e in the shackle arms, each gear being
in its operative position in the cylindrical space
formed with a heel 6B which is adapted to be
between the arcuate walls 3! and 32. For this
moved into and out of the notch in the proxi
purpose we may employ a split spring ring 50 (see
mate arm whereby to lock or free the shackle as
Figs. 3 and 6) whose extremities are outwardly
respects any movement toward or away from the
and reversely turned, away from each other, to
form a pair of spaced hooks 5|. The ring is of 60 padlock body.
general oval contour with its shorter diameter ex
In use, an operating key, inserted through the
slot 0 in the plugbase, is engaged with the tum
tending through the gap between its hooked ends,
and its size is such as to straddle the plug head 44
blers so that, when turned, the tumblers are
wherein is a peripheral groove 1' for normal re
pulled in to clear the channels :i and p, the plug
ception of certain portions of the ring, via, its two 65 then rotating with the key. Initially, before this
movement starts, the shackle is locked by en
extremities adjacent the hooks and its straight
gagement of the two gear heels 66 within the
or gently curved side opposite thereto. This
notches e of its two arms (see Fig. 8); at the
groove r lies opposite the arcuate channels m in
the walls 3| and 32, permitting opposite curved
conclusion of the plug turning movement, the
ends of the ring, viz. those portions of minimum
radius, to enter thereinto in response to the ten
sion force normally exerted by the ring. When
so disposed, the plug is locked against axial move
ment while remaining free for rotation, the two
hooked extremitiesof thespring being then ex 75
gear heels will have cleared these notches (see
Fig. 9) so that the shackle is then free to be
pushed outwardly by tension of the spring I 8
to the point where the head I‘! on its long arm
[0 ‘comes to rest against the underside of the
driven gear’Y. In this position, the short arm
2,408,137
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l l7 is’clear of the padlock body, permitting the
position the arcuate shoulder 46 is'required to
move circularly ‘to a position between the two
ends of l the transmission wing 55. Shortly be
the axis of its long arm. vWhen ‘the shackle‘ ‘is
swung, back again, to the position in which its - fore'reaching this position it is possible, by as
two arms are aligned with the body'lopeningslal 5' turning movement of the plug, to engage one end
of its shoulder 46 with an end of the wing 55
' and b, it may be pushed inwardly for automatic
shackle to execute a swingingmovement ‘about
locking. At the start of this return inw'ard’move
ment, the shackle long arm'tapered section [5. ‘
lies just above the heel v65 of the driven ' gear
Y so that, when inward movement takesplace,
whereby to rotate the transmission slightly, the
plug also being moved to a position where its
two shoulders“ 41 and 4B lie opposite the depend
’ ing lug 35 for alternate engagement therewith.
The movement range of the plug, now operatively
this section of the shackle arm will camithe gear
connected with the transmission, starts at a point
around to whatever extent is necessary to remove
where the transmission lug 59 remains spaced
interference to continued advance of the shackle
from the shoulder 36 and ends when this lug
against the tension of the compression spring l8.
When this inward movement has continued to the 15 advances up against the shoulder 30. The split
ring 50, which initially was compressed into the
point that the two shackle notches e‘are opposite
groove r to permit insertion of the plug through
the gears, the overhanging upper shoulder formed
its full movement, is free to expand into engage
byythe notch’ e in the long armrl? will engage
merit with the arcuate channels m when the plug
the upper face of the driven gear Y, thereby
acting as a limit stop, In this position, the two 20 is in \?nal axial position, whereupon the plug is
locked against withdrawal except with the aid of
gearsare free to rotate rbackqinto simultaneous
a special tool as already set forth. In succeed
engagement with the two notches 'e of theshackle
ing operations of the lock the movement range
which is therefore locked securely against further
of the transmission will be determined by and
coincident with that of the plug so that the gears
Between the plug and transmission there ‘is
will occupy either of the two positions indicated
provision for a slip movement of 90° or so. ‘The
in Figs. 8 and 9,»but none other.
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range of plug oscillatory movement is determined
It should be noted that the spring 56 exerts
by two stops, viz., the-shoulders 41 and 48 which
its force to return the transmission and plug
are adapted to alternately engage opposite ends
movement.
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of the depending lug 35. The spring 55 acting 30 to the initial position in which the gears are
engaged with the shackle; that in the opposite
or unlocking position the shackle is freed to
in the rotative position wherein its, tumblers are
spring outwardly a‘limited distance only; that
projected into the channels a’. and p, the shoulder
in this latter position the heel 650i the driven
1H3v then bearing against‘the lug 35. When, 170-,
tated from this position by the operating key, the I gear is held with pressure laterally against the
shackle long arm I?! whereby to‘impose a mod
transmission turns with the plug to move the
through the transmission normally holds the plug
gears simultaneously to unlocking positions in
erate} restraint'against free or wild swinging '
which the shackle is freed for outward movement
movements of the shackle; that the driven gear,
in cooperation With'the head I’! on the shackle
in response to tension of the spring I8. " When
this takes place, the spring 56acts to prevent the
gears from returning to, locking positions ; (see.
Fig. 9). The plug, however, is free to return to
its initial position for withdrawal of the key. In
long arm, provides a limit stop whereby separa
tion of the shackle from the padlock body is pre
vented; and that special provision is made for
holding the two gears in an abnormal position,
thus returning to its initial ‘position, the'plug I. for purposes of assembly, whereby to afford su?i
moves independently of the transmission which ex ;UK cient clearance past the driven gear for insertion
of the long shackle arm return movement of
under tension of the spring 567rem'ains insits
which is then prevented upon operative assembly
advanced position. When the shackle is again
of the cylinder plug in place. . '
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pushed in, as per the description already given,
Another feature of advantage is the large sin
the spring, acting through the transmission, will
operate to restore the gears to locking position, 50 gle chamber, which is provided in this body.
This chamber is extended in length the full cen
the transmission being concurrently rotated back
ter to center distance between the shackle arms,
and opposite walls of the chamber are parallel
from the large Opening at the bottom clear to
insert from its upper end, the lug 59 being lo 55 the chamber top wall through which are formed
'two relatively small spaced openings for exten
cated somewhere in the arcuate recess in posi-'‘
‘' sion therethrough of the shackle arms. Such
tion to engage,'if need be, with‘ its bottom shoul
to its initial position.
a
When the padlock parts are to be'assembled,
the transmission is ?rst ?tted into the mounting
The spring ends 51 and 58 are then '
a chamber which is easy to produce greatly re-‘
der 37.
duces the metal, and consequently the weight, of
engaged respectively, with the wing 55gand shoul
der 30, thereby tending to rotate the transmission '60 the padlock body. In addition, according to our
invention, no openings intothe chamber need be
to the point where its lug 59 normally rests
against the shoulder 36. The two gears are next
mounted on the bosses 38 and 6| in the abnormal
provided other than the large one at the bottom
and the two small ones at the top. The insert
may. be formed,‘ as by casting, from a suitable
meshed positions shown in Fig. 7. The mount
ing insert is now ready to be placed in the padlock 65 inexpensive material, of light weight if desired,
and due to its parallel vertical walls it is adapted
body into which thehshackle should also be ?tted.
to ?t closely and cooperatively adjacent the in
With the gears shifted around to the abnormal
terior walls of the‘chamber. The insert, being
position already referred to, there is su?icient
itself chambered with an opening through’ its
clearance for the head I‘! on the shackle long
arm It) to advance past the driven gear Y. At 70 base wall, may be assembled together with the
gears and transmission, and locked in the en
this point (or optionally later) the insert may
closing body all in advance of application of. the
be permanently secured within the padlock body
cylinder plug in place. This is desirable because
as by crimping or knurling of the latter.
in mass production all parts, except the particu
The cylinder plug is last introduced in place
through the opening 34.
To reach its ?nal axial ‘‘75 lar assembly of plug tumblers, are interchange
$2,408,137,
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able. With assembly completed up to this, point,
latter to movements within a ?xed range wherein
cylinder plugs -m'ade to embody prescribed key
changes, master keys, etc., may then'be ?tted
into place as a concluding step. When this is
thelocking means remains always within the con
?nestofthe shackle long arm, and stop means for
the transmission affording thereto an increased
movement range only when the plug is discon
nected therefrom, the increased movement range
permitting the locking means to be shifted be
yond the con?nes of the shackle long arm.
4. In a padlock, a shackle formed with long
done, the padlock is substantially complete,
ready for use.
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We claim:
1. ,In a padlock, a chambered body substan
tially fully open at one end and having in its 0D
posite end two relative small openings, a shackle 10 and short arms having opposed notches, locking
having two armsone movable through each small
means engageable with both shackle arm notches,
tension means urging the locking means to a posi
opening into the chamber within the body,>an
insert movable through the jfull opening into the
tion beyond the con?nes of the shackle long arm,
body chamber and provided with a base adapted
a rotatable ‘key-operated ‘cylinder plug, stop
to provide a closure therefor, dual locking de 15 means ‘whereby .to confine the ‘operating move
ments'of the plug withinr?xed limits, and means
vices-‘mounted on the insert'for movement with
formingan operative connection betwen the plug
in the con?nes thereof and in one position be
ing engageable with both arms of the shackle
and operating means whereby to transmit motion
to restrain movement thereof, a, transmission also
from the former to the latter and to con?ne
mounted on the insert inoperative connection 20 movements ‘of the latter within limits ?xed by
with the dual locking devices, spaced stop means
those of "the plug; the locking means being there
con?ning the rotary movements of the trans
by held always within the con?nes of the shackle
mission to a relatively wide range, tension means
long arm.
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normally urging the transmission to a position
5. In a padlock, a shackle formed with long
of engagement with one stop means in which 25 and short arms having opposed'notches, locking
position the dual locking devices are engaged
means engageable with both shackle arm notches,
with both shackle arms, the dual locking devices
tension meansurging the locking means to a
being removed wholly from the con?nes of the
position beyond the con?nes of the shackle long
shackle arms when the transmission is operated
arm, a rotatable key-‘operated cylinder plug, stop
to the extreme opposite position in its movement 30 means engageable with the plug only When the
range whereby to permit the shackle arms to be
latter is advanced axially to substantially its ?nal
advanced freely past the dual locking devices,
position and acting to con?ne operating move
key-controlled rotatable means axially movable
ments of the plug within?xed limits, and means
toward the transmission to establish operative
forming an operative connection ‘between the
connection therewith, and spaced stop means 35 plug andlocking means when the former has
con?ning the rotary movements of the key-con
advanced to a point short of engagement with its
trolled means, and thereby the transmission, to
stop means, said operative connection serving to
a different and relatively narrow range in which
transmit motion from the plug to the locking
the dual locking devices act always to restrain
means and also to con?ne movements of the
advance of one shackle arm outwardly from the 40 locking means within limits ?xed by those of
padlock body.
the plug, the locking means being held thereby
2. In apadlock a shackle formed with long and
always Within thecon?nes of the shackle long
short arms having opposed notches, a pair of
arm.
interconnected locking devices one engageable
'6. In a'padlock, a ‘shackle formed with a short
with a notch of each shackle arm, a rotatable 45 arm and a long arm having a notch, locking
cylinder plug operable by a key for movement
means engageable with the shackle long arm
within ?xed limits, a rotatable transmission in
notch, tension means urging the locking means
operative connection with both‘ the locking de
to a position beyond the con?nes of the shackle
vices and the plug and con?ned by the latter to
long arm‘, a rotatable key-operated cylinder plug,.
movements within a ?xed range wherein one 60 stop means engageable with the plug only when
locking device remains always within the con
the latteris advanced axially to‘ substantially its
?nes of the shackle long arm, and stop means
?nal position and acting to con?ne operating
for the transmission affording thereto an in
movements of the plug within ‘?xed limits, and
creased movement range only When the plug is
meansfo'rming an operative connection between
disconnected therefrom, the increased movement 55 the plug and'locking means when the former has
range permitting the said locking device to be
advanced to ‘a'point short of engagement with its
shifted beyond the con?nes of the shackle long
stop‘means, said operative connection serving to
transmit motion from the plug to the locking
3. In a padlock, a shackle formed with long and
means and also to con?ne movements of the lock
arm.
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short arms having opposed notches, locking
60
means engageable with both shackle arm notches, ‘
a rotatable cylinder plug operable by ‘a key for
movement within ?xed limits, a rotatable trans
mission in operative connection with the locking
means and with the plug and confined by the -65
ing-means within limits‘?xed by those of the plug,
the locking means being thereby held always
within‘th'e con?nes of‘the ?xed shackle.
RAYMOND K. GRAY.
ROLLIN LESTER GRAY.
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