Sept. 24, 194e. L. H. STEANS ETAL n FASTENING DEVICE Filea Ap'ril 14, 194s " /2 ‘ /ßrenforv 2,408,153 K 2,408,153 Patented Sept. 24, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,153 FASTENING DEVICE Lionel H. Steans and Earle R. Andrews, Los Angeles, Calif. Application April 14, 1943, Serial No. 482,950 4 Claims. (Cl. 151-14) 1 2 Another object of this invention is to provide This invention relates to securing or fastening devices and relates more particularly to a fas tener or nut forv use on studs, screws, bolts, a clip or nut of the character referred to in which a base portion of the nut acts as a washer. The loop or box-like structure of the nut em shafts, etc. A general object of this invention is to provide a practical, eñective and very de 5 bodies overlapping portions at its base. One of these overlapping portions has gripping parts pendable nut or clipthat may be quickly and which have binding or gripping engagement with easily applied or installed. Y the opposite sides of the bolt and the other over Another object of this invention is to provide lapping portion comes into engagement with the a securing clip or nutrthat may be merely slid , on the bolt to its final position or to its approx 10 face of th'e kwork and functions in a manner re imate position and then securely locked or en sembling a washer. y gaged on the bolt by Va few relative turns Abe Another object of this invention is to provide tween the bolt and nut. The nut of the inven a nut of the character mentioned which carries a thread for cooperating with the thread of the tion may be easily and quickly brought to its operative position by merely sliding it along the 15 bolt and a plurality of gripping parts for grip ping the thread of the bolt, thus embodying the bolt, and will remain in this position until de features and advantages of a conventional liberately removed. In most instances, it will be “threaded'nut and the further advantages of a desirable to tighten the nut against the Work and clip fastener or locking device. to lock or secure the nut onto the bolt when it , is brought against the work and this is easily 20 Another object of this invention is to provide a securing clip or nut of the character men done by giving the nut and/or the bolt a few turns with a wrench', or the like. tioned that is inexpensive to manufacture and l that is convenient to use. The various objects and features of our inven Another object of this invention is to pro l vide a clip or nut of the character referred to embodying one, two or more pairs of parts for 25 tion will be fully understood from the follow gripping and locking with the pin, shaft or bolt, the parts being so related and connected that they mutually contribute to the gripping of the bolt. The gripping parts of each pair of such parts are carried by the opposite side portions 30 ing detailed description of typical preferred forms and applications of the invention, through out which description reference. is made to the such that their individual gripping actionis aug erally, as a box-like structure or body I0' having Y accompanying drawing, in which: ` Fig. 1 is a longitudinal detailed sectional View of the nut on th'e bolt before being tightened of a continuous box-like loop or> stock and the down. Fig. 2 is an enlarged perspective view of Vparts are formed and disposed so that their en the nut of Fig. 1, and` Fig. 3 is a view similar to gagement with the bolt tends to spread the sides Fig. 1 illustrating another form of the invention. of the loop or box-like structure and thus causes the nut to securely lock onto thev bolt. The for 35 The form of the invention illustrated in Figs. l and 2 of the drawingV may be described, gen mation and disposition of the gripping parts are sets of.` gripping parts for cooperating with a mented by reason of the flexibility and resil stud, screw, bolt, pin shaft, rivet or the like, II. iency of the box-like loop which forms the body of 'the nut and the engagement of the several 40 In accordance with the invention the body III is a single, continuous length of sheet Istrap or parts with the bolt further causes the box-like plate stock shaped to form a box-like loop struc body to bind onto the bolt. ture. The material is shaped and bent to have Another object of this invention is to provide what I will `term a base portion I2, a side I3 ris a clip, nut or fastener of the character referred ing from the base portion I2, a top I4 extending to that has full and _extensive engagement with from the side I3, a side I5 extending downwardly the work. The base of the device is flat and from the top I4 and a second or inner base por broad to have ample cooperation with the face tion I6 extending inwardly from the lower end of the Work. ~ -V ' _. of the side I5. It is to be understood that the Another object of this invention is to provide several parts just mentioned are integrally joined a clip or nut of the character referred to in which one with the other and form portions of a con the tightening of the nut, as by rotation on the bolt, results in the positive inward projection of tinuous loop of generally >rectangular shape. one or more lock parts against' or into the thread The body I0 is proportioned so that it may be> readily engaged by a wrench or the like. The of the bolt, securely and dependably locking the nut on the bolt. p ' 55 edges I1 of the body IIJ are straightand parallel 2,408,1153* 3 4 so that they may be engaged by the wrench and active edges îûa of the parts 20 may be concave, the opposite sides i3 and I5 are flat and gen convex or waved. In the particular case illus trated the edges 25a are concave to have more erally parallel to be readily engaged by the wrench. In practice the body I5 may be sub extensive engagement with the thread T and are slightly pitched or waved to have better locking engagement with the thread. As best illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawing the gripping parts 25 are axially staggered or offset, the part 25 at vthe lefthand side or" Fig. 1 being in a plane slightly above the plane of the part stantially square in transverse cross section. The base portion I2 is flat and is adapted to engage against the work. The top I4 may be flat or may be convex as illustrated in the drawing. The inner base portion IS initially slopes up wardly and inwardly from its line of connection with the side l5, The base portions I2 and I5 are not directly connected or joined and are free for relative movement. It is to be observed that the body i5 just described is a simple, inexpensive one-piece element. It is a feature of the invention that the fastener Y or nut may be provided with as many gripping parts or lock parts as required. Thus the nut may have two, three, four, iive or more locking or gripping parts. The clamp, clip, nut or fastener of the invention may be used on pins, shafts, rivets, and the like that are unthreaded and may be used on screws, bolts, studs, and the like, that `are threaded, ribbed or corrugated. In 20 at the righthand side. As a result of this oíî setting of the parts 25 their engagement with .the thread T tends to twist or tilt the nut to Yprovide a better locking or gripping action. The v:gripping parts 253 may be flat and straight, as “shown in the drawing, or if desired may be bowed like `the above described parts iS. It is to be observed that the gripping parts 25 are carried by the side parts I3 and I5 whi h are free or unconnected at their lower ends so that the >cooperation of `the parts 2Q with the thread 'I‘ tends‘to spread the sides I3 and 25 and thus causes the base portions I2 and I5 te lock onto the bolt II. the'particular case illustrated the gripping parts The base portion I6 is preferably provided cooperate with the .thread T of -a bolt, o-r the like, it being understood that this is merely one typical `use of the invention, In the particular with a set or pair of lock parts or gripping parts 2| and 22. An opening 23 is formed in the base portion I6 to pass the bolt II. The axis of the case illustrated there are seven grip or lock parts opening 23 is pitched with respect to the plane in addition to the base portions I2 and iii which Si) also grip or lock with the thread T of the bolt i i. Thetop Irl may be provided with a pair of locking >or Vgripping parts I3. The‘top Iii has an opening for receivingr the bolt I i and the gripping parts is are arranged at opposite sides of the opening to cooperate with the bolt. The parts i8 may be formed by making two parallel cuts» in the top Ill and bending 0r striking up the metal between these cuts. The locking or gripping parts `Iii may be straight or bowed, as preferred, andthe inner or active edges I9 lof the parts iii may be straight or curved. In the particular` case illustrated the edges I9 are concave, it being understood that they may be straight, convex, or waved, as desired. The active edges I9 oi the parts i8 are not directly opposite but are offset axially of'thebolt, to have more effective binding or gripping cooperation with the helical thread T of the bolt. The active edges I9 oi the grip ping parts I8 may be beveled or pitched to have 50 a more effective locking engagement in the thread T andthe gauge of the metal of which the body IE! is formed may be such that the edges I9 read ily engage or lock in the thread T. of the portion I6 so that the walls of the opening may bite 'into the thread T. The lock or grip part 2l is formed by bending back the material at the inner extremity of the base portion I5. The part 2l is pitched upwardly and inwardly to `,have its'edge cooperate with 4the bolt thread T. Therpart 22 cooperates with the bolt II in a plane below the plane occupied by the active edge of the gripping part 2l to obtain a better locking orgrippíng action. The active edges of the gripping parts 2i and 22 maybe straight, pitched or waved, as desired. From'an inspec tion of Fig. 1 of the drawing it will be'seen -that the gripping parts Iï8, 20 and 22 at one side of the nut have their active edges below the active edges of the complementary gripping parts at the other side of the nut. This vaids in causing the nut to lock or bind on the bolt. In addition to the locking or gripping parts i8, 20, 2| and >22, one or more gripping parts may befprovided on the base -portion I2. An opening 24 is provided in the base por-tion I2 to receive the bolt II. In the construction illustrated a single gripping part 25 is provided on'the base portion I2 at gone side of the _opening 24. The The body sides i3 and l5 may carry as many 55 gripping part 25 'may be formed `by making a U-shaped cut inthe base vportion I2 and 'then locking or gripping parts as required. In the bending‘up the metal outlined Vby the cut. The particular construction illustrated in the draw gripping Vlpart 25 is located under the free >or ing there is a, pair of gripping parts 20 carried outer part of the base portion I5 and its upper by the sides of the nut, it being understood that this is merely illustrative. The gripping parts 60 corner or edge is engageable‘bythe base portion I6 as will be later described. In `practice the 2E! are in the nature of tongues or fingers pro gripping part 25 may be relatively short. The jecting inwardly from the sides i3 and I5 to en opening 24 Vmay >be formed so that hits wall is gage with the thread 'I'. The parts 25 may be pitched with respect to the plane of the base formed by making C, V or kU-shaped cutsjZêb in the sides I3 and I5 and bending the material 65 portion AI2 to have effective gripping engagement with the thread Tand the active edge of the grip from the sides. The lower edges of the parts 2t ping part 25 maybe shaped to have the most are integrally vjoined with the sides I3 and I5 effective gripping engagement with the thread. and `the parts slope upwardly and inwardly ,to It is to be observed `that all of the" gripping have their inner or active edges ‘25a in position parts I8, 2D, 2|,j22 and --25 vslope upwardly and for cooperation with the bolt E l. It may be pre toward the bolt I I sothat the nut may be readily ferred to make the upper walls of the U-shaped slid downwardly along the bolt. The several grip cuts 25" in the sides I3 and I5 pitched or angular ping parts-flex or spring outwardly and upwardly so that the active edge portions of the parts 2@ will be V-shaped to more effectively fit and lock asthey ratchet over the thread T. VFor example, in the thread `T of the bolt. Furthermore, the 75 if -there is an axial force tending to displace the 70 2,408, I153 , - 5 fastening device of yìthelinvention has many uses. It may be employed as a nut, clamp or clip, or as a bracket or elementlof a bracket assembly. tighter engagement with the thread` T. The same is true of the gripping parts I8, 2|, 22 and 25. The walls of the openings 23 and 24 engage with the thread T and are pitched to have dependable locking cooperation with the threadV to aidrin re taining the nut on the bolt. Any axial force which tends to displace ythe nut from the bolt ‘ l6 23' andv 24 cooperate withy the thread to aidir'i securing the'nutïonl-'thefbolt~ The fastener or nut from thebolt the gripping parts- 20 tend:v to swing downwardly and, therefore,v inwardly,y into It will ¿be apparent that the device may be modi fied in-size, shape, etc. to adaptïit ,for its different e vUSBS. " - Having described' only ‘typical preferred.` forms .tends to straighten the gripping parts 2|! and 10 and applications of our invention, we do not wish this causes an outward force to be applied to the sides I3 and I5. When the gripping parts 20 move toward a position normal with respect to to be limited or restricted to the specific details herein set forth, but wish to reserve to ourselves any‘variations or modifications that may appear .n to those skilled in the art or fall within the scope the axis of the bolt || the sides I3 and I5 tend ' to move away from the bolt and the walls of the 15 ' of the following claims. ' Having described ourr invention, we claim: openings 23 and 24 are brought into .tighter co 1. A fastening devicel for use on a threaded bolt operation with the thread T. From the above including a length of material bent into the form it will be seen that the securing clip or nut of ’of a substantially rectangular loop having a first the present invention has gripping or locking engagement with the bolt at a multiplicity lof 20 base portion, a side extending upwardly from the first base portion, a top extending from the side, spaced points and dependably resists displace a second side extending downwardly from the ment. ' top and a second base portion extending inward It is usually preferred to bend or shape the ly from the second side t0 be in overlying rela active edges of the parts I8, 2U, 2|, 22 and 25 -to have a helical pitch for cooperating with the 25 tion to the first base portion, said base portions and top having openings for receiving the bolt, thread T. This facilitates the threading of the inturned parts on the two sides sloping upwardly nut on the bolt if it is desired to finally tighten and inwardly to engage the thread of the bolt, an or lock the nut against the work. Assuming the upwardly and inwardly projecting part on the nut has been moved along the bolt to a position first base portion engageable with the thread of at the work a limited relative turning between the bolt, and at least one upwardly andinward Vthe nut and the bolt will bring the nut into tight ly projecting part on the second base portion for engagement with the work and will lock the nut engaging the thread of the bolt, the said base on the bolt. The threading of the nut assists in actuating the gripping parts I8, 20, 2| and 22 into tight engagement with the ,thread T and causes the base portion to be drawn down toward the base portion I2. When this occurs the base por-v portions being related for relative movement and the last named part being pressed against the thread of the bolt by'said relative movement. 2. A fastening device for use on a threaded bolt including a length of material bent into the form Vof a substantially rectangular loop having a first so that its active edge is positively gripped with the thread T. It is to be observed that the base 40 base portion, a side extending upwardly from the Ifirst base portion, a top extending from the side, ' portion I2 which engages the work serves as a a second sidel extendingy downwardly from the washer while the base portion I6 carries the tion I6 forces the grippingpart 25 downwardly gripping parts 2| and 22 to‘assist in locking the nut on the bolt. The nut applied to the bolt as top and a second base portion extending inwardly from the second side to be in overlying relation above described will effectively resist displace 45 to the first base portion, said base portions and top having openings for receiving the bolt, op ment and will not loosen when subjected to vibra posed integral parts struck from the sides to pro tion. However, if it is desired to remove the nut ject upwardly and inwardly therefrom so that relative rotation between the nut and the bolt in they engage with the thread of the bolt, and in the correct direction unthreads the nut from the 50 tegral parts struck from the top to project up bolt. Y wardly and inwardly therefrom so that they en In the embodiment of the invention illustrated gage with the thread -of the bolt, said .Darts at in Fig. 3 of the drawing the body IIJ and the one side of the bolt being higher than said parts gripping parts I8, 20 and 2| may be the same as at the other side of the bolt. „ described above. In this form of the invention 3. A fastening device for use on a threaded the gripping part 22 is not employed but the 55 bolt including a length of material bent into the gripping part 25 may be used if desired. A plate form of a substantially rectangular loop having 3D is provided on the inner or upper surface of ` a first base portion, a side extending upwardly the base portion I6. The plate 3û is welded to from the first base portion, a top extending from the base portion |6 as at 3| to be integrally joined with the base portion and body. The plate 30 60 the side, a second side extending downwardly kfrom the top and a second base portion extend has a central opening registering with the open ing inwardly from the second side to be in over ing 23 and provided with a thread 3|ß for mating lying relation to the first base portion, said base with the thread T of the bolt. portions and top having openings for receiving In employing> the nut of Fig. 3 the nut is threaded along the bolt II in the usual man 65 the bolt, opposed inturned parts on the two sides sloping upwardly and inwardly to engage the ner. When the base portion I2 engages the thread of the bolt, the walls of said openings in work its movement is stopped and upon con the base portions being pitched and said base tinued turning between the nut and bolt the nut portions being relatively movable so that the is locked on the bolt. It will beV seen that the thread 3|a cooperating with the thread T draws 70 .pitched walls of the openings may lock with the thread of the bolt. the base portion I6 down against the base por 4. A fastening device for use on a threaded` tion I2 to positively force the gripping part v25 bolt including a length of material bent into the inward against the threadrT. The gripping parts form of a substantially rectangular loop having I8, 2B and 2| function as above described to lock with the thread T and the walls of the openings 75 a first base portion, a side extending upwardly 2,408,153 _ 8 base. portion 'and having an opening for receiving the bolt, a thread on the Wall of the last named opening for mating with the thread vof the bolt, from the ñrst base portion, atop extending from the side, `a second side extending downwardly from the top and a second base .portion extending inwardly from the second side to be in overlying vrelation to the first base portion, v-said base por tions and top having openings for receiving lthe bolt, inturned parts on the two sides sloping up wardly and inwardly to engage the thread ofthe bolt, a plate integrally joined with said îsecond ~ anda look part on said ñrst base portion forced 5 against the thread of the ybolt by said second base portion. LIONEL H. STEANS. >EARLE R. ANDREWS.