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Патент USA US2408199

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Sept. 24, 1946.
'.1. w. coLTMAN
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2,408,198
ULTRA HIGH-FREQUENCY POWER MEASUR'ING DEVICE
v
vF11-ed Fei». 5, 1945
»
Jolm
001mm.
Patented Sept. 24,> 1946
-
2,408,198
y UNITEDSTATES PATENT OFFICE
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY POWER
MEASURING DEVICE
John W. Coltman, Forest Hills, Pa., assignor to
Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pitts
burgh, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
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‘
f
Application February 5, 1943, Serial No. 474,884 ,
18 Claims.
1
(Cl. 171-95)
.
end of theguiae, causing the buib 1.0 glow. The
brightness of the glow produced in the bulb is
_This invention and discovery relates to a
method and device for measuring ultra high
frequency power, and has particular relation to
an indication of the strength vof the ñeld produc
l ing the ionization of the neon-gas. However, the
' use of a neon lbulb Aenables only a very rough
apparatus for vmeasuring the ultra high-fre
quency power delivered from a wave guide.
In accordance with prior. art practices, ultra
estimate of the power to be made for the visual
impression Íof brightness is extremely diiîicultto
high-'frequency lpower is measured by absorbing
the energy in water and measuring the resulting
increase in temperature of the water. rll‘he power
output. of an ultra high-frequency generator is
oftenV measured in this way. The wave guide is
disconnected from the load adjacentfrtoV the gen
erator and» a cap is mounted over the open end
of the .wave guide.. The cap includes a quartz.
retain. *Moreover, the glow'in a neon bulb is
violently'affected by slight changes in the neigh
boring electric ñeld, such as might be introduced
. by reflection from nearby objects.
It is„therefore, an object of my invention to
provide a simple and inexpensive device for
measuring ultra high-frequency power.
'
plate extending directly across the waveguide 15 .'It -_is`another object of my invention to .pro
vide novel apparatus for measuring ultra high
opening and the remainder ofv the vcap cooperates
immediately above the plate. A water reservoir,
frequency power which enables a direct, instan
taneous and accurate .reading of the power to
pump. 'and :conduits are then arranged to pass a
-be made.
are such as to permit all ofthe energy incident
high-frequency power.
with the quartz plate to form a small chamber
.
constant’stream of water through the chamber. I.20 >AA further object of my invention is to provide
a new and improved method of measuring ultra
The position and form ofthe plate and chamber
'
n It is still another object of my invention to
to the plate to be absorbed in the water. Know
ing the rate of iiow of the waterV and the tem
provideY a novel methodA and apparatus for
perature of the y,water before'and after it,v passes 25 measuring the ultra. high-frequency power de
livered' from a wave guide.Y
~
throughthechamber, the average power may be
Another object 'of my invention’ is to provide
calculated.
.
.
.
‘
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a novel'device for measuring ultra high-frequency
.
‘The water» temperature- arrangement. for de
terminingthe power gives good results but also
has certainobjectionable features. The appa
peakîpower.
30
ratus is quite bulky and requires not only a water
supply but certain supplementary equipment, in
cluding pumps, conduits,Y valves, and .sensitive
galvanometers. Consequently, it is impractical
'
'
»
vIt is a further'object of my invention to pro
vide a simplified device for measuring ultra high
frequency power which is not affected by slight
changes in theY neighboring electric field. y
Y More specifically, it is an object of my inven
for use in the ñeld and inconvenient to handle 35 tion to provideY a compact, portable device for
in the laboratory.
In addition, the-,apparatus
cannot show an erratic supply from the source
because there is a time lag in the response of the.
water Átemperature as>A indicated on the rvgal
vanometers, to changes in the source. If tuning
operationsare carried out ’to vary the output of
the source, an appreciable time mustelapse, be
cause of the slow response in the indicated water
temperature, beforel the eiîect of the tuning op
erations on the output cans-be determined. More
over, the arrangement enables comparatively
easy calculation of the average powerbut the
Vduty cycle must be'lmown to calculate the peak
power. Other difliculties encountered in theïuse
of the water temperature arrangement involve
the control of the rate of .water iiow and the
positioning of (the cap on the end of vthe wave
guide.V
y
,
,
,
`
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`
,
measuring ultra high-frequency power which
does 'not Vrequire any supplementary apparatus
or supply sources.
'.My invention arises from the discovery that
upon introduction of an electric ñeld into an in
` sulated column of gas at a selected point thereon
with the column of> a capillary cross-sectional
area and the gas of the type which produces a
. visible'glow in the presence of an electric ñeld
above >a predetermined intensity, a portion of the
column extending from the selected point pro
duces a glow. There is a sharp line of demarca
tion between the glowing and the non-glowing
gas rand the length of the glowing column is a
measure of; the intensity of the electric ñeld '
' which isl introduced. into the column and of the
'\ power absorbed thereby.
' .
`
My discovery may be advantageously employed
Vin the'provision of. a' measuring device compris
delivered from a wave guide may be madeby. 55 ing an (elongated envelope of translucent in
placing an ordinary neon bulb over the output 1 sulating material having a capillary bore therein
f rA relatively quick estimate of the power being
3
4
ñlled with neon or other gas which produces a
glow in the presence of an electric neld of a
serted in the output end of the guide section and
adjusted to eliminate wave reflections so that all
the power is diverted into the capillary bore of
the envelope.
predetermined intensity. The device is adapted
to have the electric field to` be measured intro
duced at a selected point in the capillary bore.
.
6
It then becomes apparent that the same cali
If the intensity of the introduced field is suin
brated measuring apparatus may be employed in
ciently great, the gas is ionized at the `point of
different systems of the same frequency and wave
introduction and acts as a partial conductor along
length. It is compact, portable and inexpensive.
which the field travels.
In addition it may be conveniently employed in
As the field travels along the column of ionized lli the field and enables an instantaneous reading of
gas contained within the capillary bore, its energy
the peak'power.
is dissipated in ionizing the gas, losses in. the
The. features that I consider characteristic of
material of which the envelope is formed, and in
my invention are set forth with particularity in
radiation. When the neld intensity decreases.
the appended claims. The invention itself, how
below the critical value necessary to- ioni‘ze the - ever, both as toits organization and its method
gas, the glow ceases at that point. Thus a col
of operation together with additional objects and
umn of glowing gas extends along the» capillary
advantages thereof viu‘ll best be understood from
bore from the selected point for a distancev de
the following description of specific embodiments
pending upon the original intensity of the ñeld
when read in connection with the accompanying
introduced into the capillary bore and the dis
drawing, in which:
tance is a measure of the power absorbed by the
Figure 1 is a View of the preferred embodiment
device. l
>t has been discovered that> the glow
diminishes slightly in brightness along the capil
lary bore but that it comes to a termination very
suddenly. Moreover, it hasv been discovered that
slight changes in neighboring electric fields as
might be caused by wave reflections, do not affect
of the measuring device,
Fig, 2 illustrates an arrangement for measur
ing the power in a system using a wave guide,
and
Figs. 3, 4 and 5> illustrate various arrangements
for introducing the electric ñeld into the capil
the length of the glowing column. A calibrated
lary column of gas.
scale> may be placed along the capillary bore to
As shown in Fig. l, the preferred embodiment
give a direct reading of the intensity of the elec' 30 of the measuring device consists of an elongated
tric field introduced in the~ bore o_r the power ab
envelope 3 of glass or other translucent insulat
sorbed by the device.
ing material. The envelope 3 has therein a capil
The electric field- may be introduced into the
lary bore 5 extending from a reservoir 1 at one
capillary bore in various Ways. A satisfactory
end to a small exciting chamber 9 at the other
way-is to provi-de a small' exciting chamber at one
end. The chamber 9 is of slightly larger cross
end of the bore of larger diameter bul-I consider
sectional area than the capillary bore 5 but is
ably shorterin length than the bore, This cham
considerably shorter in length. The capillary
ber is also ñlled with gas and is adapted to be
bore 5, reservoir 'l and' chamber 9 are filled with
positioned to be exposed to the electric’ neld to
be’ measured; The field then, ionizes the gas in
neon or other gas of the type which produces a
glow in the presence of an electric ñeld of a pre
the chamber' which acts as a partial conductor to
determined intensity.
introduce the electric> neld into the’ bore. Other
arrangements for introducing the ñeld into the
bore may also be employed advantageously such
The envelope 3 is adapted to be positioned with
the chamber 9 exposed tothe electric field to be
measured. The` ñeld causes the gas in the cham
as- the use of' a conducting electrode or electrodes
" ber to be ionized forming a partial conductor for
y
exposed to the electricîìel‘d.> It has'alsoY been dis
the electric field to introduce it into the end of
covered that anV electric yñeld of high intensity
the capillary bore 5. The gas at the end of the
may be introduced into the capillary bore by
capillary bore is ionized by the electric ñeld which
merely placing a portion thereof directly in the
is> introduced therein and the ionized gas con
path of the energy. An'exciting chamber isv pref 50 ducts the neld along the capillary bore. As .the
erable, however, because the increased relation
field is conducted along the bore, it dissipates
between the volume of the gas and the area of
itsV energy and the intensity of the field decreases
the surface within which it is contained greatly
gradually as it is conducted along the capillary
facilitates the original'ionizati‘o’n of the gas.
bore until it falls below the critical value neces
Although the intensity of any ultra’hig’h-fre 55 sary to maintain ionization of the gas. The
quency electric field may be measuredv by this
length of the capillary bore is such that the ñeld‘
new method, apparatus is provided in accordancel
intensity drops below the critical value inter
with my invention for measuring power in. sys
mediate the ends of the bore. Thus the ñeld
tems in which the power is transmitted through
causes only a portion of the gas in the capillary
hollow wave guides. As the length of the column 60 bore to produce a glow, there being a sharp line
of glowing gas in the envelope` is a measure of
of demarcation between the ionized or glowing,
the p_ower absorbed thereby, it is apparent that if
gas andthe non-glowing gas. A calibrated scale
a known percentage of the power in a wave
l l` extends along. the capillary bore 5 to facilitater
guide is diverted into the capillary bore of the
measuring the length of the glowingy column and
65 to give a direct reading of the power absorbed
envelope, a power reading may be taken.
A simple way of diverting a known percentage
by the device.
of power from a wave guide into the capillary
The reservoir 1 is used to replace gas losses
bore of'anenvel'ope is to divert all of the power.
and insure anadeduatesupply of gas' in theV capil
The wave guide may be disconnected from the
lary bore andv thereby extend the life of the de
load anda small additional section of wave guide 70 vice. However, the reservoir isy not essential to
connected thereto. A ñtting is provided to mount
the operation of the device.
the envelope on the wave guide section with the
In Fig; 2, a wave guide I3 supplied from a source4
exciting chamber or electrode extending into the
of ultra high-frequency power is shown in cross
wave guidev so that it is` exposed to the electric>
section with an open-ing l9`_in'.a wall of the guide
field in the guide, A snorting stub is, then in
' which isA normal tdtheelectric field createdl in
_2,408,198
5
6
.
aware that many modifications thereof are pos
sible. My invention, therefore, is not to be re-~
the guide when power is supplied thereto, the di
rection of the yiield being indicated by an arrow
20.l The opening I9 is surroundedby an inter-f
nally threaded boss 2| mounted on the outside ofl
stricted except insofar as is necessitated by the
prior art and the spirit of the appended claims.
the guide.>` v The glass tube or envelope 3a with Ul
the capillary bore 5 is similar to envelope 3 in
I claim as my invention:
'
1. A device for measuring the intensity of an
ultra high-frequency electric field comprising an
elcngated'envelopeof translucent, insulating ma
member 23 cementedabout the end thereof ad
terial having a capillary bore therein ñlled with
jacent to the chamber 9. The member 23 is
threaded to screw into the boss 2|, and support 10' gas of the type Which produces a glow in the
presence of an electrici'ield of a predetermined
envelope 3a. with the chamber 9 within the wave
intensity, said envelope being adapted to have the
guide, as -shown, exposed to the electric field in
electric ñeld to be measured introduced into said
the guide. YA nut` 25 is then employed to hold the
bore
at a selected’place whereby said field travels
member 2_3 in thedesired position.~
alo-ng said bore from said place, said bore being
' A shorting vstub 23 is provided in the output
of such length that said ñeld decreases below said
end of the wave guide. lThis stub, may be of anypredetermined intensity intermediate the ends of
suitable shape, there being various designs in
the bore.
.
.
use at present, and serves to createl a short cir
2. A devi‘ce for measuring the intensityof an
cuit across the end of the guide. The_position
ultra, high-frequencyv electric ñeld comprising an
of the` stub is adjustable so that byproper ad
elongated envelope of translucent, insulating ma
justment of the- stub 26 andthe position of the
terial having a capillary ibore therein ñlled with
exciting chamber 9, wave reflections may be
gas of the type which produces a glow in the
eliminated so that substantially al1 of the power
presence of an electric iield of a predetermined
is diverted into the capillary bore. HI have dis
covered that the wave _reilections may be elimi 25 intensity, said envelope being adapted to have the
Fig. 1 but does not have a reservoir and has a
electric iield to be _measured introduced into said
bore at a selected place whereby said ñeld travels
along said bore from said place, said bore being
0f such length that said field decreases below said
nated more-readily if the exciting chamberof the
envelopeis inserted through a wall of the guide
whichis normal to the electricrñeld Ain the guide.
In Fig.v 3 is illustrated a device having the
chamber 9 of Fig. 2 replaced byra conducting 30 predetermined intensity intermediate the ends of
the bore, and a calibrated scale> extending along
electrode 27. The envelope 3b is mounted _on a
wave guide in the manner described in Fig. 2 with
said bore.
the guide.> The electrode 21 then serves to `intro
ducelthe electric ñeld into the end of the capil
lary bore 5.
,
,
terialhaving a capillary bore thereinñlled with
gas of the typeA which produces a glow in the
presence of an electric ñeld above-a predeter
-
40
i _
mined intensity„ and exciting means yassociated
with >said bore which is effective when exposed to
an electric ñeld ,to introduce that field into vsaid
bore at aY selected place whereby said field travels
along said :bore from said place, said bore being
of such length that said field; decreases below
said predetermined intensity intermediate the
ends of the bore.
4. A device for measuring the `intensity of an
ultra high-frequency electric ñeld comprising an
ployedto direct substantially all of the power
,Y
'
ultra high-«frequency electric i-leld comprising an
bore `5 is connected to the center conductor 3l
of the coaxial line. -AA shorting stub 33 is em
into the'capillary bore;
_
35 elongated envelope of translucent, insulating ma
In Fig. 4 is illustrated an arrangement for in
troducing the electric-field into the capillary bore
from a coaxial 4transmission line 2S. The len
velope 3b its mounted on the outer conductor of
the-coaxial line similarly to the mounting of the
envelope onthe wave guide in Fig. 3, but the con
ducting electrode 21 in the end ofthe capillary
'
3. A device `for measuring the intensity of an
the electro-de 2l extending from the bore 5 into
'
. ¿In measuring power above a predetermined
magnitude the use of an igniting chamber or elec
elongated envelope of translucent, insulatingma
trode ymay be avoided. In'such a situation, a
capillary tube 3c- sealed at both ends and ñlled
with gas will be effective if a portion of the tube
itself is placed across the wave guide as shown
invFig. 5. Of course, if the tube 3c extends on
terial having a capillary `bore therein filled with
extends on both sides. If desired, the tube 3c may'
field travels along said bore from said point, said
gas `of the type which produces a glow in Athe
presence of an electric field above a. predeter
mined intensity, means` associated with said bore
for introducing the electric ñeld to be measured
both sides of the guide, the glowingcolumn also 55 into said bore at a selected point whereby said
bore being'ofsuch length that said ñeld decreases
below said predetermined intensity intermediate
extend through the guide intermediate the ends
and a snorting stub employed.
the ends of the bore, and al calibrated scale ex
It is Yto be noted that a capillary bore must
`
Y
be employed to support the gas column. If a 60 tending along said bore.
5.
A
device
for
measuring
the
intensity
of an
large bore is used, the glow tends to follow the
ultra high-frequency electric ñeld comprising an
surface of the bore producing glowing fingers
elongated capillary tube of translucent, insulating
and the line between glowing and non-glowing
material, sealed at :both ends and ñlled with gas
gas is extremely irregular and quite shadowy.
In ultra high-frequency systems using a wave 65 of the type which produces a glow in the presence
of an electric field of a predetermined intensity.
length of 3 centimeters, I have found a bore of
6. A device for measuring the intensity of an
approximately 3 millimeters or less in diameter is
ultra
high-frequency electric field comprising an
satisfactory with a diameter of .5 millimeter pre
elongated capillary tube of translucent, insulating
ferred. Neon gas is also preferred at a pres
sure of approximately '7 millimeters. The device 70 material, sealed at both ends and filled with gas
may be calibrated in kilowatts with a peak power d
of 5 kilowatts giving a glowing column over ten
centimeters in length with a .5 millimeter bore.
Although I have shown and described a pre
ferred embodiment of my invention, I am fully
of the type which produces aglow in the presence
of an electric field of a predetermined intensity,
and a calibrated scale extending along said tube.
'7.V A device for measuring the intensity of an
75 ultra high-frequency electric field comprising an
7
elongated capillary tubelof translucent,v insulating
material, said tube` having a bore of a diameter
of the` order of .5- to 3 millimeters, sealed at both
ends andy filled with gas of the type. which pro
duces a glow in the presence of an electric íield
of a, predetermined intensity.
8.. A device for measuring the intensityA of an
ultralhi'gh-frequency electric ñeld comprising an
elongated- envelope of translucent, insulating ma
8
terial having» therein a- bore ofy a- diameter of the
order of .5 to 3.0i millimeters filled with gas ef
the type which produces a- glow in the presence
of an electric ñeld above a predetermined in
tensity, exciting means associated with sai-d- bore
for introducing the electric ñeld to be measured
intoV said bore at a selected point' whereby said
field travels along said borefrom said point, and
a scale extending along- said bore.
terialY having therein an exciting chamber at one l0
14. A device for measuring‘the intensity of an
endl andy a reservoir at'the other end and a capil
ultra high-frequency electric field comprising an
lary bore interconnecting said chamber and res
elongated envelope of translucent', insulating ma
ervoir, said chamber, reservoir and bore being
terial having therein a bore'- of a diameter' of the
filled with gas of the type which` produces a glow
order of .5 to 3.0 millimetersy ñlled with- gas of
inthe presencelof an electric field of a predeter
the .type which produces a glow in the presence
mined intensity.
of an electric ñ'eld above a predetermined in
9L A device- for measuring thev intensity of an
tensity, and exciting means associated with said
ultra high-frequency electric ñeld comprising an
elongated envelope of translucent, insulating ma
terial having therein an excitingl chamber atA one
end’ and a reservoir at the other end and a capil
lary bore of a diameter of the order of .5 to 3.0-
millimeters interconnecting said chamber and
reservoir, said chamber, reservoir and »bore being
filled with gas ot the type which produces a glow
in the presence of an- electric ñeld of a predeter
mined intensity.
10. A device for measuring the intensity of an
ultra high-frequency electric field comprising an
elongated envelope of translucent, insulating ma
terial having therein an exciting chamber at one
end and a reservoir at the other end and' a` capil
bore for introducing the electric' ñeldf to be
measuredV into >said bore> at a selected poi-rit1'5. A device for measuring the intensityV ofV an
ultra high-frequency'electric ñe'ld comprisingí an
elongated envelope of translucent', insulating ma
terial having thereinv an exciting'- chamberr and a
capillary bore opening i'nt'o said: chamber with
said bore .andi chamber being filled withA gas of
the> type which produces a glow in the presence
of an electric field of a- predetermined intensity.
16. A device for measuring the» intensity of ' an
ultrahigh-»frequency electric ñeld comprising an
elongated envelope of translucent, insulating ma
terial having therein an exciting chamber and a
capillary bore opening into> said chamber, said
lary bore- interconnecting said chamber and res
bore and chamber being ñlledï with gas- of the
ervoir, said» chamber, .reservoir and bore being
type which produces a glow-` in the presence of
filled with gasA of the type Whichproduces- a glow~ 35 an electric field of a predetermined intensity, and
in the presence ofV an electric ñeld 0f a predeter
a scale extending along said bore.
mined intensity, and- a calibrated scale extending
117'. A device for measuring the intensity of an
along said bore.
‘
lïlï. A device for measuring the intensity of an
ultra high-frequency electric field comprising an
elongated envelopeof translucent, insulating ma
ultra high-frequency electric field comprising an
elongated envelope oftranslucent, insulating ma
terial having therein anl exciting chamber andy a
bore of a diameterr of the order of .5 to 320 milli
terial having a capillary bore therein filled with
gas of the type which produces a glow inthe
meters opening into» said chamber, said bore and
chamberV being ñlled with gas- of the type which
presence of lan electric» ?leld` of a predetermined
intensity, and- conducting electrode means ex»
produces- a glow in' the» presence of' an electric'
field of a predetermined intensity.
19;; A> device for measuring-the intensity' of-r an
tending into said bore at a selected»k point.
12. A device for measuring »thein-tensity of yan
ultra high-frequency electric field comprising an
elongatedv envelope of' translucent, insulating‘ma
terial having a capillary bore therein of a diam- I
eter of the order ofl .5to 3> millimeters filled with
gas of the type which produ-ces a gloW in the
presencevof an electric- ñeld oi a predetermined
intensity, and conducting> electrode means ex
ten-ding into said bore at a` selected point.
1‘3. A device' for measuring the intensityof an
ultra high-frequency elec-tric ñeld comprising an
elongated envelope of "translucent, insulating ma
ul'tra high-frequency electric-lleid-1 comprising an
elongated> envelope of 'translucentà insulating m-a
terial having' a capillary bore'- therein filled with
gas oi the type which produces`V a glow inthe
presence ofì an electric ñ‘eld above- a predeter-Í
mined intensity; conducting electrode- rnea-ns' ex--
tending' into» saidY bo-refor introducing the elec--`
tric fieldï to be measured» intovsaid bore ata' se
v lected' point-whereby said field travels along said
bore from said-pointì and a scale extending along
said bore.
`
J@HNi W2 COLT-MAN.
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