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Патент USA US2408208

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Sept.» 24, 1946.
F.T.FEREDAY
2,408,206 ‘
'
APPARATUS FOR RAILWAY SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Filed Jan. 6, 1944
s Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
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Hi1’
ATTORNEY
_
Sept. 24, 1946.
F. T, FEREDAY
2,408,206
APPARATUS FOR RAILWAY' SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Filed Jan. 6, 1944
’
-
s Sheets-éheet 2
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INVENTOR
?pdepia ZVZweday
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' H11’
ATTORNEY
Sept. 24, 1946.
F. T. FEREDAY
'
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2,408,206
APPARATUS FOR RAILWAY SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Filed Jim. 6, 1944
s Sheets-Sheet 3
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AT-TORNEY
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2,408,206
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
APPARATUS FOR RAILWAY SIGNAL
SYSTEMS
'
Frederick T. Fereday, Louisville, Ky.,.assignor to
'
The Union Switch and Signal Company,.Swiss
vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application January 6, 1944, Serial No. 517,197
2 Claims. (01. 246-38,)
,
1
My invention relates to apparatus for railway
signal systems, and more particularly to appara
tus for such systems using coded track circuit
energy.
./
.
Railway signal systems using coded direct cur—
rent track circuits are not‘ dependent upon a
transmission line which is subject to broken line
wiresv caused by weather and other conditions.
Heretofore the arrangement for coded direct cur
2
is constructed to be mechanically tuned to havea '
predetermined frequency of oscillation, and thus
‘the track circuit current is periodically inter
rupted at a rate corresponding tothe oscillating
frequency predetermined for the code transmit
ter. Preferably, the code transmitter is. con
structed‘with a second armature which is- biased
so that this second armature is operated vonly
when the energizing current ?owing in the-wind
rent track circuits has been to use two sources 10 ing of the transmitter is-of a relatively high value.
of current, a relatively large 10 or 12 volt battery
for operating the code transmitters and a single
cell or low voltage battery for the track circuit.
Such two battery'arrangement adds‘ to thecost
Thissecond armature is adjusted to remain-at‘ its
biased ‘position with the respective track circuit
unoccupied and to be attractedlto a’ picked-up
interposed in the connection between the track
proach control. As an alternative, the second
armature of the'transmitter can‘be replaced by
position when a train enters the section to shunt
‘and maintenance. ‘Also there is a certain loss 15 the rails and the track circuit current is increased.
This second armature is‘ used to provide an ap
'of energy in the current limiting resistor usually
battery and the rails.
'
f
Accordingly, a feature of my invention is the
provision of railway signalsystems incorporating
‘novel and improved track circuit coding appa
a relay, the winding of which is connected. in
20 series with the code transmitter winding in the
track battery connection, and this relay is ad- ,
justed to be picked up only when the track circuit
current is increased due to a train occupying the
Another feature ‘of my invention is the provi-"
sion of apparatus for track circuits using coded
direct current wherewith only a single battery is 25 The approach control apparatus also includes
means governed by the code following track relay
required.
'
*
to supply feed-back current impulses to the track
Again, a feature of my invention is the provi
rails during each off code period of the track cir
sion of track, circuit apparatus of the type here
ratus.
section.
'
_
cuit current and an approach relay connected to
involved wherewith the code transmitter is con- >
nected in series with the track battery taking the 30 the rails through a contact carried on the ?rst
armature of the code transmitter. This last men
place of the usual current limiting‘resistor and
tioned contact is closed as the ?rst armature-is
the energy usually consumed in such resistor is
moved to its attracted position, and the ap
utilized for operation of the code transmitter.
proach relay is connected across the rails each oil
Still another feature of my invention is the
provision of railway signal apparatus incorporat 35 code period of the track circuit current to re
ceive the feed-back currentimpulse supplied to
ing novel approach control means to cooperate
the rails at the relay end of the track circuit. As
with coding track circuit apparatus to effect an
an alternative, this approach relay may be con
approach control for two sections in advance of
nected across the'rails through a, recti?er dis
a train.
,Other features, objects and advantages em 40 posed to pass the feed-back impulses, but block
the flow of current from the usual track battery.
bodyingmy invention will appear as the speci?ca
This approach control relay and the second ar
tion progresses.
‘
S
mature of the code transmitter provide two ap
The features, objects and advantages embody
proach control conditions, one of which becomes
ing my invention are accomplished by providing
effective when a train enters the section next in
a low voltage code transmitter that is operable
the rear of the associated section, and the sec
from the usual low voltage track battery, and ap—
ond of which condition becomes effective when
proach control apparatus of the “feed-back” code
the train enters the associated section. ,
principle arranged to cooperate with such trans
_ If more than two different control conditions
;mitter. This code transmitter is made to operate
of the coded track circuit current are required,
on the. energy usually consumed in the current
the traffic controlled circuits are arranged to
vlimiting resistor interposed between the track
Pole change the connection of the track battery,
battery and the track rails and it is connected in
the code transmitter‘ being operable with equal
series with the track battery through a contact
e?iciency by current of either polarity. In this
_;on;a ?rst armature ‘of the transmitter causing
_,such ?rst armature to oscillate. Thetransmitter 56 way the track circuit current is coded at a pre
2,408,206
4
3
termined by the weight and construction of the
parts. By way of illustration to aid in under
standing my invention, I shall assume that trans
selected code rate, and is of either positive or
negative polarity according to traffic conditions.
When the track circuit is polarized, a polarized
code following track relay is provided. Again,
mitter CT is constructed for armature 4 to have
Cl
more than two different control conditions may
an operation frequency of 15 times per minute,
it being in engagement with each contact 6 and ‘l
be provided by using code transmitters of differ
ent predetermined operation frequencies and ar
for substantially one-half of each operation cycle.
The second armature 5 is spring or otherwise
biased to a released position and is attracted
against the force of its bias to a picked-up posi
tion when the transmitter is energized at a rela
ranging the tra?ic controlled circuits to selec
tively connect these transmitters into the track
circuit according to di?erent traffic conditions.
I shall describe three forms of apparatus em
tively high preselected energy level. That is,
bodying my invention, and shall then point out
when code transmitter CT is supplied with cur
rent of a relatively low value but su?‘icient for
the novel features thereof in claims.
In the accompanying drawings, Figs. 1 and 2
are diagrammatic views showingia ?rst and a 15 proper operation of the ?rst armature 4, the
second armature 5 is retained at its released po
second form of apparatus, respectively, embody
ing my invention when used with polarized track
circuits. Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view showing
a form of apparatus embodying my invention for
track circuits using currents of different code 20
rates.
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g
‘
In each of the three views like reference char
acters are used to designate similar'parts.
Referring to Fig. 1, the reference characters
1a and lb designate the rails of a stretch of rail
way over which tra?ic normally moves in the
direction indicated by an arrow, and which rails
are formed by insulated rail joints with consecu
tive track sections of a signal system, and of
which sections only the one section D--E and the
adjoining ends of the two adjacent sections are
shown, because these are sufficient to illustrate
the principle of my invention.
Each track section is provided with coded track
circuit apparatus, control relays, wayside sig
nals and approach control apparatus.
sition by that when current of a relatively high
value ?ows in winding 8, armature 5 is picked
up to engage a front contact 9, the armature 4
being operated at its predetermined frequency
by such increased current.
_ Code transmitter CT is energized by track
battery BE, winding 8 and contact 4—-6 being
interposed in series in the connection of track
battery BE to the rails of the section D-E. To
be explicit, a circuit can be traced from positive
terminal B3 of battery BE, either through front
contact I!) of a relay ED to be referred to later,
or through front contact II of a relay EH, also
to be referred to later, and back contact l2 of
relay ED, wire l3, thence through winding 8 and
contact 4—6 of the transmitter, wire I4 to rail
lb, through the track relay of the associated
vtrack section, to be described hereinafter, or
35 through a train shunt if a train occupies the sec
tion, track rail la, and wire 15 to the center
The type of wayside signal to be used is im
material, and signals SD and SE for section D—E
terminal C of battery BE.
Again, a circuit can
immediately in the rear.
The supply means for the track circuit of sec
tion D—E includes a track battery BE and a
code transmitter CT. The battery BE is pref
is of a normal or relatively low value, and the
second armature 5 of the code transmitter re
mains at its released position. If a train occu
pies the section the track circuit current is in
creased and the second armature 5 is picked up to
close front contact 9.
The code following track relay means for the
track circuit of section D——E may be any one of
be traced from the negative terminal N3 of bat
tery BE through back contacts l6 and I2 of re
and the section next in advance of section D-—E
are of the color light type capable of displaying 4:0 lays EI-I and ED, respectively, wire I3 and thence
as previously traced to the center or mid termi
a red lamp R, a yellow lamp Y and a green lamp
nal C of the battery. Thus, when relay ED is
G, for stop, approach and clear signal indica
picked up to close front contact II], or relay EH
tions, respectively.
is picked up to close front contact H, and relay
The track circuit apparatus for each section
EDis released to close back contact l2, the track
includes supply means connected across the
battery BE is connected to the rails of the sec
rails at the exit end of the section and code
tion D~—E through the code transmitter and the
following relay means connected across the rails
track circuit is supplied with coded current of
at the entrance end of the section. Thus at the
what I shall'call positive polarity. When both
junction of adjacent sections, such as location
E, for example, there are placed the code 50 relays EH—-and ED are released, the track circuit
current is coded and it is of what I shall call
following relay means for the track circuit of
negative polarity. If the track section D-—E is
the section immediately in advance and the
unoccupied, the value of the track circuit current
supply means for the track circuit of the section
erably of the split battery type having a posi
tive terminal B3, a negative terminal N3 and a
mid terminal C. Thus this battery is capable of
supplying current of either polarity at the low
voltage used for track circuits.
The code transmitter CT may take different
forms, and preferably it is of the relay type.
Transmitter CT is provided with a ?rst armature
or contact member 4 and a second armature or
several different arrangements of the polarized
type. In Fig. 1, two code following neutral relays
DR! and DR2 are connected in multiple to the
rails through recti?ers I l and I8, respectively,
the arrangement being such that relays DRI
and D'RZ are operated by current of positive and
negative polarity, respectively. The connection
contact member 5. The ?rst armature A is
biased by weight, or otherwise, to a ?rst posi
of relay DRI can be traced from rail lb through
tion where it engages a contact 6 and is attracted
to a second position where it swings out of en 70 wire i9, recti?er IT in its forward direction,
winding of relay DRI, wire 20, back contact 2| of
gagement with contact 6 and into engagement
a relay DH to be referred‘ to shortly, and wires 22
with a contact 1 when a winding 8 of the trans
and 23 to rail la. The connection for relay DB2
mitter is energized. With winding 8 energized
through contact 4-6, the armature 4 oscillates
between its two positions at a frequency prede
extends from rail la through wire 23, recti?er [8
in its forward direction, winding of relay DR2,.
2,408,206
5
wire 24, back contact 25 of a relay DD_ to be re
inspection of the drawings taken in connection,
ferred toishortly, and wires 26 and I9 to rail lb.
It‘ follows that relay DRI' is code operated ‘when
coded track circuit current of positive polarity
with the description ofthe control of relays EH'
and
ED.
,
‘
.
, ‘The, approach control apparatus for section
is'supplied to the track circuit in the manner ex
D—E includes means at the entrance end of the
section to supply a feed-back current impulse,
and an approach'relay AR having two associated
repeater relays AP and APP and another ap
It is to be pointed out that code following track
relays ‘ERI and ERZ for the track circuit of the
proach relay FTP at the exit end of the section.
section next in advance of section D—E are con 10 The means for supplying a feed-back current'im
plained hereinbefore, and‘ relay DR2 is operated
by track circuit current of negative polarity.
nected to the rails in a manner similar to the
relays DRI and DB2 and relays ER! and EFR2
are operated in response to coded track circuit
current of positive and negative polarity, respec
tively, supplied to the track circuit of the section 15
next in advance.
-
Relays DD and DH at location D are control
relays governed by the code following track re
lays'DRl and DB2, and these controlrelays goV- _
em in turn the‘ signal SD and the track circuit
for the section next in the rear of section D—E.
_pulse includes a condenser 39 and a current
source. With either relay DRZ picked up to close
front contact 40, or relay DRI picked up to close
front contact 4|, condenser 39 is charged by a
circuit connected to a battery which may be track
battery BD at location D, or a separate battery.
This charging circuit extends from terminal B3
of the associated battery through either front
contact 40 or 4|, condenser 39 and to terminal
N3 ofthe same source of current, through a con
nection, not shown, but which circuit connection
Similarly, control relays ED and EH at location
E are governed by the track relays ERI and ERZ
would be similar to the connection of a condenser
42 at location E, and which latter condenser sup
and these control relays govern in turn the sig
plies the feed-back current impulse for the track
nal SE and the track circuit for section D—E, 25' circuit for the section next in advance of section
Looking at location E, relay EH is governed by ' D—E, and ‘which connection for condenser 42 in~
relay ER2 through a condenser 21, which func
cludes back contact 43 of ‘relay AP and either
tions as a secondary source of energy. ' When re
front contact 44 of relay FTP or front contact 45
lay ERZ is picked up, the condenser 21 is con
of relay APP. Condenser 39 is connected across
nected to a charging circuit which includes a bat 30 the rails of'the section D—E through alternative
tery the terminals of which are designated Bill‘
circuit, paths, one of which extends from one
and NH), ‘and which charging circuit. extends
terminal of the condenser through back contact
‘from terminal BIO through front contact 28 of
46 of relay DRZ, front contact 41 of relay DH
and‘, wires 26 and l9v to rail lb; and from the
relay ER2, condenser 21, wire 29, and to terminal
N l 0 through three alternative paths which in 35 other terminal of the condenser through front
clude front contacts 30, 3| and 32 of relays AP,
contact‘ 49 of relay DH'a-nd Wires22 and 23 to
FTP and APP, respectively, and which relays are
rail la. The other circuit path extends from one
a part of the approach control apparatus to be
terminal of condenser 39 through back contact
described hereinafter. Then, when relay ERZ is
59 of relay DRI, front contact 5| of relay DD and
released to close back contact 33, the condenser .40 wires 22 and 23 to rail la; and from the other
27 is connected across a winding of relay EH and
terminal of the condenser throughfront contact
relay EH is energized due to the discharge of the
-52 of relay DD and wires 26 and I9 to rail lb.
condenser. Consequently, when relay ER2 is op
Consequently, when track relay DRZ is operated
erated at a code rate, the control relay EH re
at code and the approach control relays for the
ceives an energizing‘ impulse each code cycle, and
section next in the rear are conditioned so as to
it is retained picked up from one code cycle to
complete the connection of the charging circuit
the next by virtue of a slow release period pro
for condenser 39 to'the terminal N3 of the asso
’vided for the relay due to a recti?er 34 connect;
ed across its winding. Such energization of re
lay'EH is effected, however,yonly if one of’ the ‘
ciated battery, the condenser 39 is charged each
on ‘code period, and is connected across the rails
to discharge and‘ provide a feed-back code im
approach relays AP, FTP or APP is picked up to
pulse each off code period. It is to be observed
close the respective front contact 30, 3| or 32.
that this feed-back current impulse is of a po
In a similarmanner, the track relay ER! con-v
larity reverse to that of the track circuit cur
trols relay ED.. Relay ER! when picked up com
rent that operates the track relay DRZ. In like
pletes a charging circuit for a condenser 36, such
manner, code operation of track relay DRI con
circuit extending from terminal ‘BIO through
nects condenseri39 to a charging circuit each
front contact‘35 of relay ERI, condenser 36, wire‘
on code period and connects the condenser across
the rails each o? code period to supply a feed
:29 and to terminal NIB by the three alternative
circuit paths explained in connection with the
back current impulse due to the discharge of the
charging’ circuit of condenser 21. When relay 60 condenser, the feed-back current impulse being
ERI is released, closing back contact 31, con
of a polarity reverse to the polarity of the track
denser 36 is connected to a winding of relay ED
circuit current that operates track relay DRI.
and relay ED is energized by the discharge of the
Approach relay AR‘ is connected‘ across the
condenser. Relay ED is made slow to release by
rails through second position contact 1 of arma
a recti?er 38 connected across its winding and
ture 4 of the code transmitter CT and thus relay
remains picked up from one code cycle to'the
'next. Control relays ED and EH govern the 7
connection of battery BE to the‘ track circuit for
section D—E as explained hereinbefore, and also
govern operating circuits for the associated sig 70
nal SE in a manner to be explained when they op
eration of the apparatus is described.
Control relays DH and DD at location D are a,
controlled by track relays DR! and DRZ through,
condensers 51 and 18 as will be apparent by an 75
AR is conditioned to receive the feed-back cur
rent impulse supplied to the rails throughcon
denser 39 in the manner explained above, R'e
peater relay AP is energized by an obvious cir
cuit including front contact 53 of relay AR and
is retained picked up during code operation of
relay AR due to the slow release characteristic
of relay AP effected through a condenser con
nected across its Winding,
Repeater relay APP isprovided with an obvious
2,408,206
7
pick-up circuit including front contact 54 of re-'
lay AP, and with a stick circuit which includes
its own front contact 55 and back contact 5'6 of
relay FTP. Relay FTP is energized through an
obvious circuit including contact 5——9 of code
transmitter CT.
8
off code period which causes in turn approach
relay AR at location E to be operated and the
associated repeater relays AP and APP to be
energized.
The closing of front contact 3!] of relay AP
completes the circuit by which condenser 21 is
charged, and consequently the control relay EH is
energized in response to code operation of track
relay ER2. Relay EH on picking up to close
substantially the same as that described for sec
10 front contact I I switches the connection of track
tion D—E.
battery BE and the track circuit of section D—E
In describing the operation of the apparatus
is supplied with coded current of positive polarity
of Fig. 1, I shall assume that section D—E, as
Each of the remaining track sections or the
signal system of Fig. 1 is provided with apparatus
causing track relay DRI to be operated in place
of track relay DRZ; With relay DR] operated,
tra?‘lc condition, code operation of either track 15 the associated control relay DD is energized be
cause condenser 18 is now changed each on code
relay ER! or ER2 is ineffective to bring about
period due to the contact corresponding to con
the energization of the respective control relays
tact 3| of relay FTP being closed at the cor
ED and EH because the charging circuits for the
responding relay for the section next in the rear.
associated condensers 35 and 21 are held open at
Relay DD on picking up to close front contacts
front contacts 39, 3! and 32 of the approach con
5! and 52 completes the connection for the feed
rol relays AP, APP and FTP of section D—E.
back impulse for section D—E. Also, the pick
With control relays EH and ED deenergized,
well as the section next in the rear and the sec
tion next in advance are unoccupied. Under this
track battery BE is connected to the rails of sec
ing up of relay DD to close front contact 60
ing circuit for condenser 42 is normally open
at front contacts 44 and 45 of the approach
rear of section D—E because the control circuits
of signal SE are held open at front contact 58
condenser 39 is open at the contacts of the ap
D-E at the time the ?rst assumed train is trae
versing the section next in the rear of section
D—E, the train in the section next in advance
shunts relays ERI and ERZ and both control
relays EH and ED are deenergized causing the
track circuit current for section D—E to be of
negative polarity so that track relay DRZ at
location D is operated and control relay DH is
energized in response to the charging and dis
completes a circuit by which green lamp G of
tion D--E for the track circuit to be supplied
with‘ coded current of negative polarity, and 25 signal SD is illuminated, this circuit being com'
pleted through contacts of the approach control
which coded current operates the track relay
relays for the section next in the rear in a man
DRZ at location D. Operation of relay DB2 at
ner similar to the control circuit for lamp G
this time is ineffective to govern‘ the associated
of signal SE at location E and which latter
control relay DI-l, because the charging circuit
for condenser 51 through which relay DH is con 30 circuit is completed at front contact 58 of relay
FTP and back contact 6| of relay AP when a
trolled is not completed at the associated ap
train has entered section D—E. Consequently
proach control relays in the same way the charg
signal SD is approach lighted to display'a clear
ing circuit of condenser 21 at location E is not
signal, and feed-back impulses are supplied to
completed through the contacts of the associated
'
35 section D—E.
approach control relays of section D—E,
It is to be noted that signal SE remains dark
No feed-back current impulse is provided for
while the train occupies the sectio'n'next in the
the section next in advance because the charg
control relays FTP and APP, respectively, Like 40 of relay FTP and at back contact 6| of relay AP.
It is to be observed that if another train oc
wise, no feed-back current impulse is supplied
cupies the section next in advance of the section
to section D—E because the charging circuit for
proach control relays for the section next in the
rear in the same manner that the connection of
condenser 42 at location E is normally open at the
approach control relays APP and FTP. Conse
quently, under normal conditions, all control re
lays and approach control relays are deenergized
and all wayside signals are dark.
It is to ‘be observed that in place of each track
circuit being normally supplied with coded cur
rent of negative polarity, as illustrated in Fig. 1,
the polarity of the track circuit current may be
reversed for alternate track sections to aid broken
down insulated rail joint protection.
I shall next assume that a train enters the sec
tion next in the rear of section D—E. The
shunting of the rails of the section next in the
rear increases the ?ow of track circuit current for
that section, and the second armature of the as
sociated code transmitter is picked up to close
its front contact, and which contact corresponds
to contact 9 of transmitter CT. This causes the
approach relay for the section next in the rear,
and which relay corresponds to approach relay
FTP, to be picked up through the second arma- ,
ture contact of the associated code transmitter,
and that relay on picking up closes contacts that
correspond to contacts 3!, 44 and 58 of relay
FTP. The closing of the front contact that cor
responds to front contact ‘44 of relay FTP com
pletes a connection by which the condenser 39
is charged each on code period, so that condenser
3-9 now supplies a feed-back current impulse each
charging of condenser 57. With‘ control relay
DH picked up the feed-back impulses are sup
plied as before, and with front contact 63 closed
and relay DD released‘to close back contact 62,
the yellow ‘lamp Y of signal SD is illuminated
for the signal to display an approach indication.
I shall next assume that the ?rst mentioned
train advances and enters section D—E, the sec
tion next in advance being considered as un
occupied.
The shunting of the rails of section
D—E shunts the track circuit current from the
relays DR! and DR? and also the feed-back
current impulse from relay AR.
The shunting of
both track relays DR! and DR2 causes both con
trol relays DD and DH to be deenergized with
the result the R lamp of signal SD is illuminated
through a circuit including back contacts 52 and
E05 of relays DD and DH. The shunting of ap
proach relay AR causes this relay to be released
and the repeater relay AP is deenergized and
released at the end of its slow release period.
The shunting of the rails of section D—E causes
an increase in the track circuit current so that
armature 5 of the code transmitter CT is picked
2,408,206
9.
I
upl to-ibrin'g about the" energizing ofrl‘approa'ch
’
10
relayfor‘ the section next in advance and which
approach‘ relay corresponds to 'relay AR ‘for
section fD'-E, track rail, :Ia wire :15‘, front
relay FrP; f'I-‘he 7pickin'gi'up ofi'relay FTP opens
ba'cljicontact 56 in the v‘stick circuit vfor relayv APP
vcontact 1-6 ‘of ‘relay EH,‘ Wires Tl andl'l?, back
contact. 43 of relay 'AP and either front contact
MS of relay'FTP or front contact 45 of relay APP
to'fterminal N3. "This feed-back current impulse
up to? close vfront contact 44, the charging. cir
thus supplied to the rails of'the section next in
euit'ror: condenser 42 is completed vand feed-back
advance‘ will operate the approach relay that cor
current~ impulses ‘are ‘no-WY supplied to the rails
ior 'thesection next in; advance to‘ govern the 10 responds-to-relay. AR and effect the approach
and? thatrelay' ' is deenergiz'ed ‘ subsequent ‘to. ‘the
Trele'aseofi relay AP.‘ Withlr‘elay AP "released
to fclosevbackicontact 43 and relay FTP. picked
approach‘ relay at -the;-eXit_'*end of-‘the section,
and which approach relaycorresponds to relay
control apparatus-for that section. ,If relayERl
lamp-Y of- signal SE according to which con
tr'ol relay ED or EH is‘ picked up in. response to
traffici-conditions in‘ advance of section D—E.
tra?ic conditions and a description of .the' opera
is'code operated the circuit for the ‘feed-back
impulse ‘is completed at front contacts ‘I04 and
Release .of relay 'APLto'close back contact
HIE-of relay ED} It is apparent that the appa
61$; and? the ‘picking up of relay FTP to close front
contact‘ 58 completes-the operating “ circuit to 15 ratus of Fig.1?“ will operate in a manner similar
illuminate either the green lamp'G or the yellow I \ to the apparatus of .Fig. 1 under the di?erent
tion of the apparatus of Fig. 2 need not befur
'ther described.
Ifa‘se'cond train occupie's‘the section in'advance
'
7’
~
"
» IniFig.-~3,~in- which a form‘ of apparatus em-
bodyingimy invention using different code rates
is’ disclosed, the stretch of railway is arranged
and‘ED, (closing back contacts 64 and '65,
with track sections and wayside signals the same
the 'red'lamp Rv of signal'SE ‘is illuminated as a
as in Fig. 1, and each section is provided with
stop signal indication. '
-In the'case the increase‘oftrack circuit current 25 tracklcircuit apparatus, signal control relays and
approach control relays, the same as in Fig. 1.
when .thetrain ?rstenterssection D—E is not
sufficient to pick up the second armature 5' of
The supply means forgthe track circuit of sec
tion D-I—E of Fig. 3 comprises a battery BEI and
code transmitter CT and the current'does not
reach» the value at which the second armature
two code ‘transmitters CT15- and CTIBU, The
iis'vpicked up until‘thetrain has advanced some :30 codetransmitters C'I‘J5 and CTIBII are similar
distance into v‘section D—E, the relay ‘APP is re
in construction tolcodetransmitter-CT of Fig. 1,
tained'picked up by its stick circuit and the oper
transmitter 'CT'I5 being constructed to have an
atin‘gwci-r'cuit‘ for signal SE is completedat front
operation frequency bf '75 times per minute, and
to bringv about the release of both‘ control relays
>
.
contact?? of relay APP. Also'the charging cir
transmitter-CT! 80 an operation frequency ‘of 180
cuitsirforcondensers 21 and 36 are completed at
lfrbntaconta'ct .32 of relay APP, and the charging
35 times per minute. It will be understood; of
‘circuit for the condenser 42 is completed atl'front
contact" 45 of relay APP'until' suchtime as ‘the
armature 5 of the code transmitter is-operated
to bring about the energization of relayvFTP.
selected forlthese- code transmitters.’ These'two
transmitters arei‘also adjusted for their respec-_
'tive second armatures 19 and 80to be picked up
course, that other operation frequenciesimay be
140
at the same preselected'relatively high value of
current that was provided for transmitter CT.
Battery BEI is-connected to the rails of the asso
relays ER! and ERZ, both control relays‘ ED ‘and
ciated section through one or the other of ‘the
EH are‘relea'sed so that the track circuit'fo'r sec
transmitters} a ?rst ‘connection including front
tion D—E is again supplied with current offnega
jtive polarity and the apparatus is restored to ‘its 45 contact 8 I‘ of control relay EH, winding-and con
tact 82 of transmitter CTI8U, track rail lb; track
'Tr'elay or train shunt and track rail Ia and wire
> . In Fig.2, the" apparatus is the same as thatf-in
Fig. 1, except vfor the means for s'up'plying'éthe ' ‘83 to‘ the other'terminal of battery BEL A' sec
When this train vacates ‘section 'D--—E shunting
normal
condition.
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‘
‘
-
'
~
~
‘
‘
1
ond connectionincludes back contact 84 of con
vfeed-back current impulse, ‘and thefapparatus "at
locationgE only is'shown because this issu?icie'nt 50 n01‘ relay"EH,' winding and contact $5 of trans
mitter'QT'IS and thence as previously traced for
the ?rst circuit connection. Thus when control
me my invention. In Fig.2 thefeed-back cur
relay EH is energized, the track circuit for‘track
;rent'impu‘lse is obtained from the track'battery
or'preferably a separate battery of equivalent
section D_—~E is supplied with coded current of
voltage, and a relay. Looking at location E of 55 the1180fcode rate, and when relay EH is released
Fig. 2, and assuming that track relay ERZ is being
the track circuit current is of the '75 code rate,
the polarity'of' the current‘ being the same for
operated- in response to coded track circuit cur
both conditions.'7
~
:
»
"(rent-for the section next in advance of section
_Track relay DB3 for the section D—‘E is a
'D-I-E, a circuit for energizing a relay EF is formed
‘each off code period, such circuit being traced 60 direct current code following relay connected
"across the rails through'a recti?er 86 which is
from terminal B3'of the respective source of cur
poledto passcurrent of the polarity supplied by
rent,‘ through back contacts 68 and .61 'ofrelays
battery 'BEI, and'to block the feed-back current
ER] and‘ERZ, winding of relay EF, a recti?er-6B,
‘impulse- used for ‘control of vthe‘approach con
:wire 10,‘back'co_ntact.43 of relay AP and either
trol apparatus to be described shortly. At loca:
front-contact; 44 of relay FTP or front contact 45
'tion E; track ‘relay EH3 associated with’ the track
Hot‘ relay APP to terminal N3Pof> the same- source
‘ ‘to fully illustrate this form of apparatus embody
concurrent. Relay'E'F is providedwith a slow
“section-next in? advance is‘ connected to the rails
*i'pick-up-period which ‘isv something " less" thanv the
in-a manner similar to that oftrack relay DB3.
Track relay DB3 governs control relays DH and
on code period of the track circuit current." Dur
ing this slow pick-up period of relay EF,-'- current 70 DD through a repeater relay TPD and a decod
knows‘ from terminal B3 through back contacts
in‘g unit’ IBUDU. ,Similarly, track relay ER3 gov
»68¢‘-and761,“back contact’ ‘H of relay‘EF, resistor "
erns associated control ‘relays EH and ED
;‘-'|-_2;ffronticontact13 of relay EH which is‘ picked
'l-I' ldueto code operationsoflrelay ‘EH2, wire 14 to
through a"v repeater‘ relayTPE and a decoding
funit ,FIBODU. "Looking at location E, track relay
Iran Iii-through theywinding-bf thelappr'o'ach 75 sER'3lwhen ‘picked up ‘to close front contact 88
'
2,408,206
11
12
completes an obvious circuit for energizing re
relay APD released to close back contact 91 a
charging circuit is completed for a condenser 95
through which feed-back current impulses are
supplied to the rails of section. D—E. This
charging circuit for condenser 95 extends irom
terminal B3 through front contact 96 of track
relayDR3, condenser 95, back contact 91 of relay
APD and front contact 98 of control relay DH to
peater relay TPE, and which circuit is completed
through front contact 30, 3| or 32 of the relays
AP, FTP or APP in the manner explained in
connection with Fig. 1. It follows that when re
lay ER3 is operated at code, the repeater relay
TPE is operated at a corresponding code pro
viding the approach control relays are properly
terminal N3. Condenser 95 is connected across
conditioned. With‘ relay TPE picked up to close
front contact 89, condenser 81 is charged through 10 the rails through back contact 99 of relay DB3
and is discharged to supply a feed-back current
a circuit completed at front contact 30, 3! or 32,
impulse. This feed-back current impulse is of a
and condenser 81 is discharged through the
polarity to energize approach relay AR at loca
winding of control relay EH when repeater re
tion E which‘ relay in Fig. 3 is connected across
lay TPE is released to close its back contact 90,
during each off code period. With relay EH thus 15 the rails through a recti?er I00 poled to block
the current supplied by track battery BEI. Ree
picked up in response to code operation of track
lay DB3 will not be energized by this feed-back
relay EH3, the closing of front contact 9| of
current impulse due to recti?er 86. With ap
relay EH completes a circuit for supplying cur
proach relay AR operated by the feed-back cur
rent impulses to the input side of the decoding
unit IBDDU through front and back contacts 92 20 rent impulses, its associated repeater relays AP
and APP are energized. With relay AP picked
and 93 of repeater relay TPE.‘ Decoding unit
up to close front contact 30, the energizing cir
I8IJDU may be of any one of the several well
cuit of repeater relay 'I‘PE and the charging
known arrangements, and is shown convention
circuit of condenser 81 are completed and con
ally for the sake of simplicity. It is su?icient to
point out that when current impulses supplied’ to 25 trol relay EH is energized‘ in response to code
operation of the track relay ER3. Control relay
the input side of the unit are of the 180 code
EH on picking up to close front contact 8'! con
rate the control relay ED connected to the out
nects battery BEI to the rails through code trans
put side of the unit is energized and picked up,
but that when the code impulses are of the 75
mitter CTI80, so that the trackrcircuit for sec
code rate, the control relay ED is deenergized 30 tion D~E is now supplied with‘ current of the
180 code rate, withthe result that control relay
and released. Control relays EH and ED, to
DD is energized and signal SD is controlled as
gether with the approach control relays for sec
requiredto display a clear signal indication.
tion D~—E govern the operating circuits for sig
nal SE the same as in Fig. 1. Control relays DH
‘ In the event a second train occupies the‘ sec
and DD at location D are controlled by repeater 35 tion next in advance of section D--E, the shunt
ing of track relay EH3’ causes oontrolrelay EH
relay TPD in a manner similar to that by which
relays EH and ED are controlled by relay TPE‘.
to be released so‘ that the track. circuit current
for section D--E is of. the 75 code rate, with the
The approach control apparatus of Fig. 3 is
resultcontrol relay DH is picked up but control
similar to that described for Fig. 1, and it is
believed that this approach control apparatus of 40 relay DD is released and signal SD is controlled
as required to display an approach signal indi
Fig. 3 can best be understood from a description
cation.
I
of the operation of the apparatus. It is to be
' When the train advances and enters section
understood, of course, that location D of Fig. 3,
and each similar location are provided with‘ ap
D—E, the shunting ‘of the rails causes an in
paratus similar to that for location E of Fig. 3.
crease in the track circuit current and the sec
ond armature of either codetransmitter C'I‘l5
Normally, that is, when section D—E and the
adjacent sections of Fig. 3 are unoccupied, track
or CTI80 is picked up with the result the ap
relay EH3 is code operated, but control relay EH
proach relay FTP is energized to close front con
and in turn control relay EDv remain deenergized
tact 3|. The feed-backrcurrent impulses for the
because the circuits for the repeater relay 'I'PE 50 section’ D—E are now shunted so that approach
and condenser 81 are not completed at contacts
relay AR and its repeater relay AP are deener
gized. Control relay EH remains energized be
39, 3| or 32 of the associated approach control
cause the connection for repeater relay TPE and
relays. With relay EH released, closing back
contact 84, the track circuit for section D—E
condenser 8‘! is now closed at front contact 31
is of the '75 code rate, and track relay DB3 is 55 of relay FTP. With relay'AP released and re
lay EH picked up, a charging circuit for a con
operated at a corresponding code rate. Thus, in
denser l03 is formed from terminal B3, front
Fig. 3, all control relays and approach‘control
contact [B8 of relay EH3, condenser I93, back
relays are normally deenergized and the signals
contact I9! of relay AP and front contact I02
are dark.
of relay EH to terminal N3. Condenser I 03‘ is I. shall next assume’ that a train enters the
then discharged through back contact 10‘! of
section next in the rear of section D—E. This
track relay ER3 for supplying a. feed-back cur
causes the track circuit current for the section
rent impulse to the rails of the section next in
next in the rear to be increased, and the respec
advance. With back contact 61 of relay AP and
tive second armature of the code transmitter is
picked up so that the relay corresponding to 65 front contact 58' of relay FTP closed, the operat
ing circuits for signal SE are completed and- the
relay FTP of section D--E isienergized. This
clear or approach lamp of the signal is illumi
closes a front contact corresponding tofront. con
nated according to the condition of control re
tact 3d of relay FTP with the result the repeater
lays EH and ED.
relay TPDv is operated to bring about the control
of relay DH, condenser 94 acting as a secondary
The apparatus here disclosed has the advan
tage that a single battery only is: required for
source of energy in the control of relay DH.
each track circuit supplied with coded direct cur
Approach relay ARD and its repeater relay APD
rent, different traf?c conditions being re?ected
at location D will be deenergized due to the
shunting of the feed-back impulses by'this train
by'the' polarity and coderate of the current. ' Also
entering the section’ next in the rear, and with '75 approach control apparatus cooperating with
2,408,206
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14
such track circuit is effective to provide approach
a ?rst and a second signaling means controlled
control for two sections in advance of a train.
Although I have herein shown and described
by'said track relay and said second transmitter
contact member respectively.
2. In combination with a railway track circuit
only three forms of apparatus for railway sig
nal systems embodying my invention, it is under
stood that various change-s and modi?cations may
including the rails of a track section and a track
relay connected across the rails at one end of
the section and a track battery connected across
the rails at the other end of the section, a code
transmitter having a ?rst contact member bi
scope of my invention.
//
Having thus described my invention, what I 10 ased to a ?rst position and operable to a second
. position when its Winding is energized, said con
claims is:
V
tact member at its ?rst position and said wind
1. In combination with a railway track circuit
be made therein within the scope of the append
' ed claims without departing from the spirit and
including the rails of a section and a track re- .
lay connected across the rails at one end of said
section, a source of direct current, a code trans
mitter having a ?rst contact memberbiased to
a ?rst position where it engages a ?xed contact
and operable to a second position where it is out
of engagement with said ?xed contact when a
winding of the transmitter is energized, circuit
ing in series interposed in the connection of said
track battery to code the track circuit current
for code operating said track relay when the sec
tion is unoccupied, a second contact member for
said code transmitter and which second contact
member is biased to a ?rst position and is oper
ated to a second position only when the trans
mitter is energized at a relatively high value of
current to close a front contact when a train
means including said ?xed contact and said con
occupies
said section to shunt the rails, supply
tact member to connect said current source
means controlled by said track relay when code
across the rails at the end of said section oppo
operated to supply to the rails an impulse of
site said one end through said winding to code
current each code period the track relay is de—
25
the current supplied to said track circuit for op
energized, a ?rst signaling means including said
erating said track relay at said code when the
?rst contact member at its second position ener
section is unoccupied, a second contact member
gized by said current impulses when the section
operable by said transmitter to engage a ?xed
is unoccupied, and a second signaling means in
contact only when said transmitter winding is
cluding said front contact and a current source
energized at a relatively high value of current 30 energized when a train occupies the section.
to close' the last mentioned contact only when a
train occupies the section to shunt the rails, andv
FREDERICK T. FEREDAY.
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