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A. E=AEDDLEE5©N ET AL
COMMUTATOR CONSTRUCTI ON
Filed Feb. 27, 1945
Q51
é.
h 135
INVENTORS
WH'NESSES:
BY
ATTORNEY
2,408,210
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
COMMUT-ATOR CONSTRUCTIQN'
Fred‘A; Heddleson and Andrew‘ C. Weieri'ch, Lima,
Ohio; assignors t0 Westinghouse ElectricCor
poratiomEast Pittsburgh, Par, a.corpcration...of,f
Pennsylvania
Application February 27, 1945, Serial No. 579,972‘
61 Claims. (Cl. Elk-320')
2.
1.
The‘ present' invention relates to oommutators
and; more particularly, to~a double commutator
construction for multiecommutator dynamm
electric machines‘
There are certain types of dynamo-electric
Fig; Sis a' partial'longitudinal seetionalview-of
a dynamo~electric machine with'asightlymodi;
?ed‘formof'double‘commutator;
Fig: ‘i isa longitudinal sectional view show
ing a modi?ed embodiment-ofthe‘invention;
Fig; 5- is a- view similar‘to Fig.v 4: showing afur~
machines, such: as dynamotors; which have two
ther'modi?cation;
and
or more commutators, connected to different
Fig.- 6 is a fragmentary end viewof the com
windings‘ on the armature. In- the usual con
mutator of Fig-.- 5;
struction of'these machines, the individual com"
Fig. 1 shows a double commutator assembly,
mutators are’mounted on the shaft, and where 10
mounted on the shaft l- of’ a dynamo-electric
it is necessary to have two commutators on the
machine; The commutator is mounted on’ the
same side of the‘ armature; as in the case of
shaft l by means cf-asleeveor bushing 2-, which
machines with a total of three or more cornmu~
may be pressedcn the-shaft or securedto the shaft
tators; the‘ two commutators on one side of the
The-bushing 2 has a»
desired manner;
armature have been placed side by side on the ~ in
V"-groove' 3>formediin it at one end. The lower
shaft. With this arrangement, the problem of
or inner commutator consists'of» a’ plurality of'
carrying the leads from the armature winding
commutator bars 4 which are-assembledito form
to the outsidecommutatoris quite di?icult. The
a- commutator cylindere the bars 4 being: wedge~
most usual practiceis to'mount the inside com
shaped in cross section to form‘a cylindrical as
mutator onva spider which has axial‘ openings
sembly, and'being insulated from‘ each other by.
through it, and to threadthe leads for the outside
mica» or- other suitable insulation
the usual:
commutator through these openings; This is a
relatively difficult and time-consuming operation
and is, therefore, undesirable. Furthermore,
placing two commutators‘ side by side on the
shaft makes the machine undesirably‘ long for
many applications;
7
The principal object of the present invention
manner‘.
The bars 4 are shaped‘ at one. end to
engage in the ‘.l-groove 3-1 of thebushingZ, and
the bars haveV-grooves 5. at the other end. A
V-ring Eengages-in the-V-grooves 5 of the com
mutator- bars 4, and the vbars are insulated: from
the'bu-shing- 2 and ring 6 by means of EtLShSQt‘ of:
mica" 1', or other; suitable insulating. material.
is’to provide a construction in which two com“
mutators' are mounted together on the shaft of 30 The V-ring 6,;may. be, retained‘ in place by. rolling
or: peeningl over‘ azportionof ‘the end ofsthe bush
a dynamo-electric machine in such a manner that
ing 2, asindlcatedi at 8, or in any other suitable
the leads can readily’ be connected to both com
manner,. to clamp the. commutator bars 4 into
mutators.
position.
Another object of the invention is to, provide
a double commutator construction in which two
commutators are combined into a single assem
bly of smaller size and lighter Weight than two
separate commutators.
The commutator bars. 4‘ which make upthe
inner commutator have a straight edge 9‘ atone
side; to form a radial‘ brush-engaging surface‘ on
the assembled commutator cylinder, and the
bars haveextending end portions L0. at the other
A more speci?c object of‘ the‘invention is to
provide a double commutator construction in 40 end for connection of the leads from an armar
ture winding. As shownv in- Fig. l, the bars :i,
which one commutator is mounted on the shaft
also have a pair of opposing V-grooves i 5 formed
and a second commutator surrounds and is
in their upper surface for securing; the upperor
mounted on the first commutator so that the
outercommutator cylinder in place. ,
leads can be connected to both commutators with
equal facility and a simple and compact arrange 45 ‘The outer commutator cylinder consists of a
plurality of commutator bars; H! which are as
ment is provided.
sembled into a cylinder in the usual‘ mannerLthe
Other objects and advantages of the invention
bars being insulated from each other by. mica
insulation. The bars l2 have straight upper
edges which form a cylindrical brusheengaging»
panying drawing, in which:
a neck or
surface l3. Each of: the bars, !2
Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in longitu
riser 14 at one. end for connection of the leads,
dinal section, of a double commutator embody
from the armature Winding‘; The bars 12- have,
ing the invention;
V-grooves
I15 formed: in their lower portions and;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary end view- of the double
55 the bars. are retained in‘ assembled position; and
commutator of Fig. 1;
will be apparent from the following detailed de
scription, taken in connection With the accom
9,408,216
4
secured to the bars" 9 of the lower commutator
42 are insulated from the bushing 4| and retain
by means of a retaining ring member It. The
ing ring 43 by mica insulation 44. In this em
ring I6, which may be made of steel, is formed
bodiment of the invention, the commutator bars
with V-ring portions l1 and I8 at one side which
42 have a single V-groove 45 in their upper pe
are adapted to engage in the V-grooves l5 and 5 riphery. The bars 46 of the outer commutator
II, respectively. V~rings l9 and 20 are placed
may have the same shape as the bars I 2 pre
at the other end of the assembly engaging in the
viously described, and, the V-grooves at one end
V-grooves H and H5 at the other ends of the
of the ‘bars 46 engage in the V-grooves 45 of
commutator bars, and the rings l9 and 20 are
the lower commutator bars 42, as clearly shown
held in position to clamp the bars in place in
in Fig. 5, the bars being separated from each other
any suitable manner, as by rolling over or peen~
by mica insulation 41. The bars 46 are clamped
ing over portions 2| of the retaining ring H3. The
in position by means of a clamping ring 48 which
ring I6 is insulated from the commutator bars
fits in the V-grooves at the opposite end of the
by mica V-rings 22. Thus a simple and compact
bars 46 to clamp them into the grooves 45. The
double commutator assembly is provided with an
rings 48 are insulated from the lower bars 42 by
inner commutator mounted on the shaft and an
outer commutator surrounding and mounted on
mica insulation 49 and may be retained in posi
tion in any suitable manner. As shown in Figs.
4 and 5, one simple and convenient manner of
the inner commutator.
In the assembly shown in Fig. 1, there is one
clamping the rings 48 in place consists in initially
cylindrical brush-engaging surface and one radial 20 forming the bars 42 with a bifurcated end. The
brush-engaging surface. Thus, the brushes for
lower fork 50 extends out for connecting the ar
engagement with the outer commutator would be
mature leads to the commutator bar, while the
disposed radially while those which engage the
other fork 5| of the bifurcated end is rolled over
inner commutator should be disposed axially. ~ or peened over to engage the mica insulation 49
In most cases, however, space limitations would 25 and clamping ring 48 to clamp the ring in place.
make it impossible, or at least undesirable, to
After completion of this operation, a, saw may be
arrange the brushes for the inner commutator
passed radially between the rolled over portions
axially, and they would have to be disposed at
5| of the bars 42 to prevent short-circuits.
an angle to the shaft. This would give a larger
In this embodiment of the invention, the brush
area of contact for the brushes but might involve
engaging surface 52 of the lower commutator may
diiliculties in maintaining proper brush contact
be disposed at an angle to the shaft 40, as shown
pressure throughout the life of the brush, and in
in Fig. 5, for use with an angularly inclined brush
obtaining good commutation.
A modi?ed form of the invention which over
comes this difficulty is shown in Fig. 3 mounted
in position in a typical multi-commutator dy
namo-electric machine, such as a dynamotor.
The machine shown in Fig. 3 has a shaft 25 on
which is mounted a rotor or armature member
26 provided with suitable windings 21.
The sta
tor member includes a frame 28 on which are
mounted ?eld poles 29 with ?eld windings 30.
The end of the frame 28 is closed by an end
bracket 3| in which is mounted a bearing 32 for
the shaft 25. The double commutator is mounted
holder in a manner similar to the assembly of
Fig. 3, or, if desired, the bars 42 may have a rec
tangular shape and may be extended beyond the
upper commutator so as to provide a cylindrical
brush-engaging surface 53, as shown in Fig. 4,
the construction shown in Fig. 4 being otherwise
the same as that of Figs. 5 and 6.
It will be un
40 derstood, of course, that a cylindrical surface
might be provided in the same manner on the
lower commutator when a retaining ring is used
between the commutator cylinders as in Figs. 1
and 3.
It should now be apparent that a double com
on the shaft 25 within the end bracket 3| and is
mutator construction has been provided in which
shown as being identical with the commutator
the armature leads can be connected to both com
shown in Fig. 1 except that the bars 4 of the
mutators with equal facility, thus expediting and
inner commutator are extended beyond the outer
reducing the cost of assembling multi-commuta
commutator at the side opposite the armature, 50 tor machines. The new double commutator con
and are shaped to provide a brush-engaging sur
struction has the further advantage that it pro
face 33 at an angle to the shaft. Thus, brush
vides a single assembly to replace two separate
holders 35 for the brushes 35 which engage the
assemblies, with a consequent reduction in size
inner commutator can be mounted in the end
and cost. The double commutator, of course, is
bracket 3| at an angle to the shaft, and a con
much shorter than two commutators placed side
siderable saving in space is effected over what
by side, and thus makes possible a shorter ma- ‘
would be required if the brush holders 35 had
chine. The double commutator is also lighter
to be mounted axially. Radially disposed brush
than two separate commutators, so that by using
holders 31 for brushes 38 are mounted in the
this construction a smaller and lighter dynamotor
.end bracket 3| in position for the brushes 38 to 60 or other machine is made possible. This is an
engage the cylindrical surface of the outer com
important consideration in the case of aircraft
mutator. The end of the machine may be en
equipment, which is one of the important appli
closed by a cover 39.
cations for machines of this kind.
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show a further modi?cation
The modi?ed construction of Figs. 4, 5 and 6
of the invention which provides a double com
has the same advantages as the construction of
mutator of minimum size and great simplicity.
In this construction, as shown for example in
Figs. 5 and 6, the lower commutator is mounted
on a shaft 40 by means of a bushing or sleeve
4|.
The bushing 4| may be similar to the bush
ing 2 previously described, and the commutator
Figs. 1 to 3, with the additional advantage of
being smaller in diameter and of simpler con
struction. This‘ modi?cation, however, has less
mechanical strength and rigidity than the form
of the invention shown in Figs. 1 and 3, but is
very desirable in cases where the necessary
strength can be obtained with this construction.
Certain preferred embodiments of the inven
bars 42 of the lower commutator have V-grooves
engaged by a V-ring formed on the bushing-4|
and by a retaining ring 43 in the same manner
tion have been shown and described for the pur
as described in connection with Fig. 1. The bars 75 pOSe of illustration, but it will be apparent that
2,408,210
6
the invention is capable of various modi?cations
and other embodiments, and it is not restricted
to the particular details of construction shown.
It is to be understood, therefore, that the in
vention includes all equivalent modi?cations and
embodiments which come within the scope of the
appended claims.
We claim as our invention:
tator bars disposed in a ?rst commutator cylinder,
means for holding said bars in assembled rela~
tion and for mounting said commutator cylinder
on a shaft, said first commutator cylinder hav
ing opposed V-grooves in its peripheral surface
and having a brush-engaging surface at one side
of one of said V-grooves, a plurality of commu
tator bars disposed in a second commutator cyl
inder surrounding said ?rst commutator cylin
1. A double commutator assembly for mount~
ing on the shaft of a dynamo-electric machine, 10 der, and retaining means engaging said V-grooyes
and also engaging said second commutator cylin
said assembly comprising a plurality of cornmuta~
der to hold the bars thereof in assembled rela
tor bars disposed in a first commutator cylinder,
tion.
means for holding said bars in assembled relation
5. A double commutator assembly for mount
and for mounting said commutator cylinder on
a shaft, said ?rst commutator cylinder 1having a 15 ing on the shaft of a dynamo-electric machine,
said assembly comprising a plurality of com
V-groove in
peripheral surface, a plurality of
mutator bars disposed in a ?rst commutator cyl
commutator bars disposed in a second commu
inder, means for holding said bars in assembled
tator cylinder surrounding said ?rst commutator
relation and for mounting said commutator cyl
cylinder, said second commutator cylinder being
inder on a shaft, said ?rst commutator cylinder
secured to the ?rst commutator cylinder by
having a V-groove in its peripheral surface, a
means of said V-groove.
plurality of commutator bars disposed in a second
2. A double commutator assembly for mount“
commutator cylinder surrounding said ?rst com
ing on the shaft of a dynamo-electric machine,
mutator cylinder, the bars of said second com
said assembly comprising a plurality of commu
mutator cylinder having a V-groove therein
25
tator bars disposed in a ?rst commutator cylinder,
adapted to be engaged in the ‘.l-groove of the
means for holding said bars in assembled rela
first commutator cylinder, means for retaining
the second commutator cylinder in engaging re
on a shaft, said ?rst commutator cylinder having
lation with the V-groove of the ?rst commutator
a v-groo-ve in its peripheral surface and having
cylinder, and means for insulating the two com
a brush~engaging surface at one side of said V 30
mutator cylinders from each other.
groove, a plurality of commutator bars disposed
6. A double commutator assembly for mount
in a second commutator cylinder surrounding
ing on the shaft of a dynamo-electric machine,
said ?rst commutator cylinder, said second com
said assembly comprising a plurality of commu
mutator cylinder being secured to the ?rst com
tator bars disposed in a ?rst commutator cylin
mutator cylinder by means of said vegroove.
der, means for holding said bars in assembled
3. A double commutator assembly for mount
relation and for mounting said commutator cyl
ing on the shaft of a dynamo~electric machine,
inder on a shaft, said ?rst commutator cylinder
said assembly comprising a plurality of commu
having a V-groove in its peripheral surface, and
tator bars disposed in a ?rst commutator cylin
having a brush-engaging surface at one side of
der, means for holding said bars in assembled
said
V-groove, a plurality of commutator bars
relation and for mounting said commutator cyl
disposed in a second commutator cylinder sur
inder on a shaft, said ?rst commutator cylinder
rounding said ?rst commutator cylinder, the bars
having a V-groove in its peripheral surface, a
of said second commutator cylinder having a
plurality of commutator bars disposed in a second
commutator cylinder surrounding said ?rst com- ,@ V-gro-ove therein adapted to be engaged in the
V-groove of the ?rst commutator cylinder, means
mutator cylinder, and means engaging said sec
for retaining the second commutator cylinder in
ond commutator cylinder to hold the bars there
engaging relation with the V-groove of the ?rst
of in assembled relation, said means also engag
commutator cylinder, and means for insulating
ing the V-groove of the ?rst commutator cylinder
to secure the second commutator cylinder thereto. bi) the two commutator cylinders from each other.
4. A double commutator assembly for mount
’
FRED A. HEDDLESON.
ing on the shaft of a dynamo-electric machine,
ANDREW C. WEIERICH.
said assembly comprising a plurality of commu
tion and for mounting said commutator cylinder
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