Патент USA US2408217код для вставки
" Sept. 24, 1946.. c. R. KILGORE 2,493,215 ' BEAM'DEFLECTICN ELECTRON DISCHARGE ‘DEVICE Filed‘ March 6‘. 1942 Y , INVENTOR. George R1171 Igor-e. ATTORNEY ' Patented Sept. 24, 1946 ‘ 2,408,216 UNITED‘ STATES‘ PATENT OFFICE BEAM DEFLEGTION ELECTRON- DISCHARGE “ VICE. DE George Ross. Kilgore‘, Verona, N‘. J.,. assignor to“ Radio Qorporatiom of America‘, a corporation of Delaware Application March 6,1942, Serial Na 433,580 12‘G1aims. (01. 250—27i5)‘£ 1 My invention relates to electron discharge de vices, particularly to' the‘ beam- de?ection type, suitable for‘ use as‘ amplifiers‘ at ultra high fre quencies: Electron discharge devices utilizing beam de ?ection have not proved particularly satisfactory as ampli?ers at high frequencies. One of‘ the reasons for’ this seems to be that beam de?ection devices as usually’ constructed have low trans~~ conductance and therefore require very high output impedance to“ give‘ appreciable gain. Cone venticnal output circuits used have been of rel‘ae ti-vely low impedance and therefore‘ have allowed‘ little or no gain. ‘ It is", therefore; an object of my invention to provide- an improved electron discharge- device of the beam de?ection type suitable for use at high frequencies: A further object of’ my’ invention is to provide member‘ l-l'8‘" a closed quarterwave concentric line‘ resonant cavity tank system, the beam‘ of electrons being deflected across’ the aperture H!’ to induce radio frequency voltages and currents‘ within ‘the resonant cavity‘ circuit‘ in passing through the aperture l9’ across the gap H!" be tween partition [9' and the inner tubular“ mem ber l8: in amanner now‘ well understood} This form of circuit has very high impedance. The secondary emission is suppressed by‘ receiving‘ electrons‘ within, the inner‘ tubular ‘member 18'. Because electrons are collected along the length of‘ the tubular member I‘8' a heavy current can be absorbed‘, A radiator or coupling loop 20 ex tends through aperture l3" in member [3 and contacts the inner‘ member 18. The input sig nal is applied by means of input transformer 22‘ connected between electrodes l6v and H, the po-' tentials for the various electrodes being provided such a device which is particularly suitable for 20 by means of‘ the potential. source 21. use as an ampli?er; In this arrangement the output and input elec trodes are completely shielded from each other The novel features which I believe to be char and.‘ from, the input and output circuits. acteristic of’ my invention are- set forth with par For maximumimpedance the ratio of diameter ticularity in the appended claims; but the inven tion itself" will best be understood! by’ reference 25 of. the inner, and. outer conductors should be ap to- the following description taken in connection proximately 9. to 1. The impedance increases as with the- acom-panyi-ng drawing in which Figure the. diameterv of the outer conductor is increased I is a longitudinal schematic- section of‘ one form’ until the diameter is a large fraction of the. wave length. For very high impedance output I pro of electron discharge device made according‘ to‘ my invention and its associated circuit", and- Fig~ 30 pose increasing, the inner and outer conductors uresi 2, 3 andE 4 are schematic sections of modif until the diameter of the outer conductor‘ is roughly one-eighth of. a wavelength or one‘ ?cations of an- electron discharge device‘ utiliz eighth A. Thus by continuing the anode into the ing'my invention and‘ their‘ associated circuits. inner cylinder and utilizing this as the inner con In accordance with my invention I" propose to utilize a high impedance output‘ circuit which 35 ductor of. a quarteréwave concentric. line tank‘ circuit, I provide an ampli?erv tube which utilizes renders» a beam deflection electron discharge de beam deflection and which is particularly suitable vice capable- of use as‘ an ampli?er: In one'form of' my‘i‘nvention I’ provide a specific construction‘ for use. as. an. ampli?er. In Figure‘2 Iishow an improved form of my in of de?ecting electrodes’ which increases the vention which is particularly suitable for use at transconductance of the tube, and also- an output’ electrode system of high impedance, thereby ma ultra high frequencies and which in addition has terially‘ improving devices or this type and ren~~ high initial transconductance, thus further im dering them suitable 'for use as ampli?ers at ultra proving its use as an ampli?er. In this arrangement the envelope 3%)‘ contains high frequencies. ' the indirectly heated‘ cathode 3|v of concave form In Figure I is shown a tube made according‘ to (heater not shown) for providing a converging‘ my invention and‘ having an envelope to in which beam of electrons which is received by the col is mounted a cathode I l‘ for supplying a beam of lector electrode 32‘. Surrounding the cathode and electrons and heated bythe heater f2; The cath shielding a pair of,v de?ecting‘ electrodes is a cylin ode is positioned to. register‘ with apertured elec~ trodes in the de?ecting electrode system mounted 50 drical' member 3'3 having transverse partitionsv 34 andv 35 provided‘ with aligned apertures 34’ within the tubular member ['3' supporting: the? and 35’. The de?ecting electrodes‘ 36 and 31 con partitions l4 and [5 having: aligned apertures W“ verge toward the aperture. 35’. I have found with and‘ an aperture 1'5’. A third’ l9" and partition positioned I9" isbetween providedparti this construction and by utilizing a curvature of tions I15 and’ F9 are de?ecting'electrod‘es' l6: and 55 radius of the cathode of one-half the length of‘ the de?ecting electrodes that the transconduct IT for‘ de?ecting‘ electrons across aperture W.’ ance of the device can be made very high. In the An output system comprises‘ the inner tubular arrangement shown the collector electrode sys member t8’. and outer tubular member l3‘ closed‘ at one end by means of partition I€8”','so‘ that the tubular members l8 and f3“ form with the‘ closure tem includes the collector 32 supported by means of‘ the leads 38 preferably arranged in a circle and 2,408,216 3 4 electrically connected to the inner tubular mem which the path of said beam extends to said out ber 39, forming with the outer tubular member 48 put electrode system. and elements 1H and M’ a resonant cavity-tank circuit of quarter-wavelength, thus providing high impedance. The wall 4! and the transverse _ __ ‘ > 7 I 2. An electron‘dischargeldevice having a cath ode for supplying a beam of electrons, an output velectrode system in the path of said beam of partition 35 are capacity coupled so that the end , electrons and including an inner tubular con of the quarter-wave concentric line tank circuit is closed for radio frequency voltages and cur ducting member surrounded by an outer hollow conducting member and forming therewith a resonator, tubular shielding means positioned be rents, except for aperture 35’. Thegap ‘between, the lip 32' and the collector 32 permits the radio 10 tween the cathode and the output electrode sys tem, and a pair of apertured transverse elements frequency ?eld to be induced within the resonant within said tubular shielding means and posi cavity tank circuit in a manner now well known tioned between the cathode and the output elec when a modulated stream of electrons passes ‘a The transmission line or. the trode system, and a pair of de?ecting electrodes next succeeding ampli?er is coupled to the reso nant cavity by means of the coupling loop 42. The input circuit may be provided by means of the Lecher wire system 43. A potential source 44 is provided for the various electrodes. ments and between which the path of said‘ beam extends to said output electrode system, said inner tubular member lying in the path of the beam to gap of this kind. - A still further form of my invention is shown 20 positioned between said apertured transverse ele receive electrons passing through the apertured element adjacent said output electrode system in Figures 3 and 4. Here the combined envelope within the interior of the inner tubular conduct ing member. 3. An electron discharge device including a indirectly heated by means of the cathode heater cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, an out 5|, the converging beam of electrons being di 25 put electrode system in the path of said beam of rected between the converging electrodes 52 and electrons and including an inner conducting 53 through an aperture 51' in the outer tubular member surrounded by an outer hollow conduct member 51 toward the inner tubular member 58 ing member and forming together a resonator, serving as the collector. End-closure members said resonator having an element provided with 51" and 58' seal the ends of members 58 and 51, 30 an aperture through which the path of said beam thus providing a concentric line resonant cavity extends, and de?ecting electrodes positioned be tank circuit, The inner member 58 is insulatingly tween said cathode and the element provided with supported from wall 58' by insulating busing 58" said aperture and between which the path of said to permit a difference of constant potential be beam of electrons extends toward said aperture, tween elements 51 and 53. In order to provide 35 said cathode having a concave emitting surface a closed evacuated envelope and at the same time and said de?ecting electrodes having surfaces to permit diiferent voltages to be applied to the converging toward each other in the direction of tank and to the shielding cup 54, the two sections travel of said electrons from the cathode to the of the device may be joined by means of insulat output electrode system, ing collar 63 sealed to the cup 54 and to the ex 4. An electron discharge device including a tension 59 on the outer tubulaur member 51. The ' cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, an leads and supports 52' and 53’ of the de?ecting output electrode system in the path of said beam electrodes are sealed by means of beads 55 and of electrons and including an inner conducting 56 in the cup-shaped member as are the leads to member surrounded by an outer hollow conducting cathode 50. The output may be taken off by member and forming together a resonator, said means of the conductor 6| sealed through the resonator having an element provided with an outer tubular member 51 by means of seal 6|’. aperture through which the path of said beam The input signal is supplied by means of input extends, and de?ecting electrodes positioned be transformer 62 and the necessary biasing volt tween said cathode and the element provided with ages by means of voltage source 63. 50 said aperture and between which the path of said While I have indicated the preferred embodi beam of electrons extends toward said aperture, ments of my invention of which I am now aware said cathode having a concave surface and said and have also indicated only one speci?c appli de?ecting electrodes having surfaces converging cation for which my invention may be employed, toward each other in the direction of travel from it will be apparent that my invention is by no 55 the cathode to the output electrode system, the means limited to the exact forms illustrated or radius of curvature of said cathode surface being equal to one-half the length of the de?ecting the use indicated, but that many variations may be made in the particular structure used and the purpose for which it is employed without depart 5. An electron discharge device having an en ing from the scope of my invention as set forth velope containing a cathode for supplying a beam in the appended claims. ' of electrons and a collector electrode for receiving What I claim as new is: said beam of electrons, an apertured element po 1. An electron discharge device having a cath sitioned between the cathode and the collector ode for supplying a stream of electrons, an out~ electrode'and having an aperture aligned with put electrode system in the path of said beam of 65 said collector electrode, and de?ecting electrodes electrons and including an inner conducting mem positioned between the cathode and the aper ber surrounded by an outer hollow conducting tured element and between which the path of said member and forming therewith a resonator, tubu beam of- electrons extends, a conductor outside lar shielding means positioned between the oath said.envelope'electrically connected to said col ode and the output electrode system, and a pair 70 lector electrode and; a second conductor sur and shielding cup 54 of more or less rectangular cross section supports at one end the cathode 50 electrodes. of apertured transverse’ elements within said tubular shielding means and positioned between the cathode and the output electrode system, and a pair of de?ecting electrodes positioned between ’ l - Y rounding said ?rst conductor, and forming there with a quarter-wave resonator, and conducting means extending inwardly from the second con ductor and closely adjacent the wall, of the envel said aperture transverse elements and between 75 ope adjacent the apertured element and vforming 2,408,216 5 therewith for high frequency voltages and cur inner conductor for collecting the electrons and rents a closed wall having an aperture. 6. An electron discharge device having an en velope containing a cathode for supplying a beam an outer tubular conductor coaxial with and surrounding said inner conductor and forming therewith a resonator, an aperture in the outer of electrons and a collector electrode for receiv wall of said resonator through which the path of ing said beam of electrons and having a conduc said beam of electrons extends and de?ecting tor extending through the wall of said envelope, electrodes between the cathode and the aperture an apertured element positioned between the for de?ecting said electron beam across said cathode and the collector electrode closely adja aperture, and means surrounding and supporting cent the envelope wall and having an aperture 10 said cathode and said de?ecting electrodes and aligned with said collector electrode, and de?ect insulatingly secured to said outer tubular con ing electrodes positioned between the cathode ductor adjacent said aperture, said cathode and and the apertured element between which the de?ecting electrode supporting element compris path of said beam of electrons extends, an elon ing a substantially cup-shaped member, the open gated conducting member outside said envelope 15 end of which extends toward said output elec and connected to the conductor of said collector trode system and extensions on the outer tubular and a second elongated conducting member sur conductor around said aperture extending toward rounding said ?rst elongated conducting member the cup-shaped member, and an insulating col and forming therewith a quarter-wave resona lar connecting the open end of said cup-shaped tor, and a conducting plate extending inwardly 20 member and said extension together providing from the second elongated conducting member a closed envelope for the cathode and de?ecting closely adjacent the wall of the envelope adja- ‘ electrodes. ' cent the apertured element and forming there with for radio frequency voltages and currents a means for supplying a beam of electrons, an out closed wall having an aperture, and means con put electrode system in the path of said beam necting and closing the ends of the elongated conducting members remote from said envelope. 7. An electron discharge device having an en velope containing a cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, and a cup-shaped collector electrode for receiving said electrons, a shielding system for said cathode and extending toward said col lector electrode and provided with a pair of transverse apertured elements with the aper tures in alignment, a pair of de?ecting electrodes positioned between said apertured elements and between which the path of the beam of electrons extends, the apertured element adjacent said 10. An electron discharge device including of electrons and including an inner tubular con ducting member surrounded by an outer tubular conducting member and forming a quarter-wave resonator, said output electrode system having an element provided with an aperture through which the path of said beam extends toward said inner tubular conducting member and de?ect ing electrodes positioned between the beam sup plying means and the element provided with said aperture, the ratio of diameter of the outer tubu lar member to the inner tubular member being 9 to 1. 11. An electron discharge device including a cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, an the wall of said envelope, an inner tubular con 40 output electrode system in the path of said beam ducting member extending axially of said col of electrons and including an inner conducting lector electrode externally of said envelope and member surrounded by an outer hollow conduct electrically connected to said collector electrode, ing member and forming together a quarter-wave and an outer tubular member surrounding said resonator, said resonator having an element pro inner tubular member and forming therewith a vided with an aperture through which the path quarter-wave resonator, the end of said quarter of said beam extends, and de?ecting electrodes wave resonator being closed adjacent the envel positioned between said cathode and the element ope by means of a transverse member capacity provided with said aperture and between which coupled to the apertured element adjacent the the path of said beam of electrons extendsv to wall of said envelope to provide a closed wall for 50 ward said aperture, the ratio of the diameter of radio frequency voltages and currents induced in the outer conducting member to the inner con collector electrode being placed closely adjacent said concentric line tank circuit. ' 8. An electron discharge device including a cathode for supplying a beam of electrons and ducting member being 9 to 1. 12. An electron discharge device including means for supplying a beam of electrons, an out an output electrode system for receiving said an CA put electrode system in the path'of said beam electrons, said output electrode system compris ‘of electrons and including an inner tubular con ing an inner conductor for collecting the elec ducting member surrounded by an outer tubular trons and an outer conductor coaxial with and conducting member and forming therewith a surrounding said inner conductor and forming quarter-wave concentric line resonator, said out therewith a resonator, the outer wall of said 60 put electrode system having an element provided resonator having an aperture through which the with an aperture through which the path of said path of said beam of electrons extends and de beam extends toward said inner tubular conduct ?ecting electrodes between the cathode and the ing member, and de?ecting electrodes positioned aperture for de?ecting said electron beam across between the beam supplying means and the ele said aperture, and means surrounding and sup 65 ment provided with said aperture, the ratio of porting said cathode and said de?ecting elec diameter of the outer tubular member to the in trodes and insulatingly secured to said outer tubu ner tubular member being 9 to 1, the diameter lar member adjacent said aperture. of the outer tubular conducting member being 9. An electron discharge device including a approximately one-eighth the wavelength of the cathode for supplying a stream of electrons and 70 operating frequency. an output electrode system for receiving said elec trons, ‘said output electrode system comprising an GEORGE ROSS KILGORE.