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Патент USA US2408217

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" Sept. 24, 1946..
c. R. KILGORE
2,493,215 '
BEAM'DEFLECTICN ELECTRON DISCHARGE ‘DEVICE
Filed‘ March 6‘. 1942
Y
,
INVENTOR.
George R1171 Igor-e.
ATTORNEY
'
Patented Sept. 24, 1946
‘ 2,408,216
UNITED‘ STATES‘ PATENT OFFICE
BEAM DEFLEGTION ELECTRON- DISCHARGE
“ VICE.
DE
George Ross. Kilgore‘, Verona, N‘. J.,. assignor to“
Radio Qorporatiom of America‘, a corporation
of Delaware
Application March 6,1942, Serial Na 433,580
12‘G1aims. (01. 250—27i5)‘£
1
My invention relates to electron discharge de
vices, particularly to' the‘ beam- de?ection type,
suitable for‘ use as‘ amplifiers‘ at ultra high fre
quencies:
Electron discharge devices utilizing beam de
?ection have not proved particularly satisfactory
as ampli?ers at high frequencies. One of‘ the
reasons for’ this seems to be that beam de?ection
devices as usually’ constructed have low trans~~
conductance and therefore require very high
output impedance to“ give‘ appreciable gain. Cone
venticnal output circuits used have been of rel‘ae
ti-vely low impedance and therefore‘ have allowed‘
little or no gain.
‘
It is", therefore; an object of my invention to
provide- an improved electron discharge- device of
the beam de?ection type suitable for use at high
frequencies:
A further object of’ my’ invention is to provide
member‘ l-l'8‘" a closed quarterwave concentric
line‘ resonant cavity tank system, the beam‘ of
electrons being deflected across’ the aperture H!’
to induce radio frequency voltages and currents‘
within ‘the resonant cavity‘ circuit‘ in passing
through the aperture l9’ across the gap H!" be
tween partition [9' and the inner tubular“ mem
ber l8: in amanner now‘ well understood} This
form of circuit has very high impedance.
The
secondary emission is suppressed by‘ receiving‘
electrons‘ within, the inner‘ tubular ‘member 18'.
Because electrons are collected along the length
of‘ the tubular member I‘8' a heavy current can be
absorbed‘, A radiator or coupling loop 20 ex
tends through aperture l3" in member [3 and
contacts the inner‘ member 18. The input sig
nal is applied by means of input transformer 22‘
connected between electrodes l6v and H, the po-'
tentials for the various electrodes being provided
such a device which is particularly suitable for 20 by means of‘ the potential. source 21.
use as an ampli?er;
In this arrangement the output and input elec
trodes are completely shielded from each other
The novel features which I believe to be char
and.‘ from, the input and output circuits.
acteristic of’ my invention are- set forth with par
For maximumimpedance the ratio of diameter
ticularity in the appended claims; but the inven
tion itself" will best be understood! by’ reference 25 of. the inner, and. outer conductors should be ap
to- the following description taken in connection
proximately 9. to 1. The impedance increases as
with the- acom-panyi-ng drawing in which Figure
the. diameterv of the outer conductor is increased
I is a longitudinal schematic- section of‘ one form’
until the diameter is a large fraction of the. wave
length. For very high impedance output I pro
of electron discharge device made according‘ to‘
my invention and its associated circuit", and- Fig~ 30 pose increasing, the inner and outer conductors
uresi 2, 3 andE 4 are schematic sections of modif
until the diameter of the outer conductor‘ is
roughly one-eighth of. a wavelength or one‘
?cations of an- electron discharge device‘ utiliz
eighth A. Thus by continuing the anode into the
ing'my invention and‘ their‘ associated circuits.
inner cylinder and utilizing this as the inner con
In accordance with my invention I" propose to
utilize a high impedance output‘ circuit which 35 ductor of. a quarteréwave concentric. line tank‘
circuit, I provide an ampli?erv tube which utilizes
renders» a beam deflection electron discharge de
beam deflection and which is particularly suitable
vice capable- of use as‘ an ampli?er: In one'form
of' my‘i‘nvention I’ provide a specific construction‘
for use. as. an. ampli?er.
In Figure‘2 Iishow an improved form of my in
of de?ecting electrodes’ which increases the
vention which is particularly suitable for use at
transconductance of the tube, and also- an output’
electrode system of high impedance, thereby ma
ultra high frequencies and which in addition has
terially‘ improving devices or this type and ren~~
high initial transconductance, thus further im
dering them suitable 'for use as ampli?ers at ultra
proving its use as an ampli?er.
In this arrangement the envelope 3%)‘ contains
high frequencies.
'
the indirectly heated‘ cathode 3|v of concave form
In Figure I is shown a tube made according‘ to
(heater not shown) for providing a converging‘
my invention and‘ having an envelope to in which
beam of electrons which is received by the col
is mounted a cathode I l‘ for supplying a beam of
lector electrode 32‘. Surrounding the cathode and
electrons and heated bythe heater f2; The cath
shielding a pair of,v de?ecting‘ electrodes is a cylin
ode is positioned to. register‘ with apertured elec~
trodes in the de?ecting electrode system mounted 50 drical' member 3'3 having transverse partitionsv
34 andv 35 provided‘ with aligned apertures 34’
within the tubular member ['3' supporting: the?
and 35’. The de?ecting electrodes‘ 36 and 31 con
partitions l4 and [5 having: aligned apertures W“
verge toward the aperture. 35’. I have found with
and‘
an aperture
1'5’. A third’
l9" and
partition
positioned
I9" isbetween
providedparti
this construction and by utilizing a curvature of
tions I15 and’ F9 are de?ecting'electrod‘es' l6: and 55 radius of the cathode of one-half the length of‘
the de?ecting electrodes that the transconduct
IT for‘ de?ecting‘ electrons across aperture W.’
ance of the device can be made very high. In the
An output system comprises‘ the inner tubular
arrangement shown the collector electrode sys
member t8’. and outer tubular member l3‘ closed‘
at one end by means of partition I€8”','so‘ that the
tubular members l8 and f3“ form with the‘ closure
tem includes the collector 32 supported by means
of‘ the leads 38 preferably arranged in a circle and
2,408,216
3
4
electrically connected to the inner tubular mem
which the path of said beam extends to said out
ber 39, forming with the outer tubular member 48
put electrode system.
and elements 1H and M’ a resonant cavity-tank
circuit of quarter-wavelength, thus providing
high impedance. The wall 4! and the transverse
_
__
‘
> 7
I
2. An electron‘dischargeldevice having a cath
ode for supplying a beam of electrons, an output
velectrode system in the path of said beam of
partition 35 are capacity coupled so that the end ,
electrons and including an inner tubular con
of the quarter-wave concentric line tank circuit
is closed for radio frequency voltages and cur
ducting member surrounded by an outer hollow
conducting member and forming therewith a
resonator, tubular shielding means positioned be
rents, except for aperture 35’. Thegap ‘between,
the lip 32' and the collector 32 permits the radio 10 tween the cathode and the output electrode sys
tem, and a pair of apertured transverse elements
frequency ?eld to be induced within the resonant
within said tubular shielding means and posi
cavity tank circuit in a manner now well known
tioned between the cathode and the output elec
when a modulated stream of electrons passes ‘a
The transmission line or. the
trode system, and a pair of de?ecting electrodes
next succeeding ampli?er is coupled to the reso
nant cavity by means of the coupling loop 42.
The input circuit may be provided by means of
the Lecher wire system 43. A potential source
44 is provided for the various electrodes.
ments and between which the path of said‘ beam
extends to said output electrode system, said inner
tubular member lying in the path of the beam to
gap of this kind.
- A still further form of my invention is shown 20
positioned between said apertured transverse ele
receive electrons passing through the apertured
element adjacent said output electrode system
in Figures 3 and 4. Here the combined envelope
within the interior of the inner tubular conduct
ing member.
3. An electron discharge device including a
indirectly heated by means of the cathode heater
cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, an out
5|, the converging beam of electrons being di 25 put electrode system in the path of said beam of
rected between the converging electrodes 52 and
electrons and including an inner conducting
53 through an aperture 51' in the outer tubular
member surrounded by an outer hollow conduct
member 51 toward the inner tubular member 58
ing member and forming together a resonator,
serving as the collector. End-closure members
said resonator having an element provided with
51" and 58' seal the ends of members 58 and 51, 30 an aperture through which the path of said beam
thus providing a concentric line resonant cavity
extends, and de?ecting electrodes positioned be
tank circuit, The inner member 58 is insulatingly
tween said cathode and the element provided with
supported from wall 58' by insulating busing 58"
said aperture and between which the path of said
to permit a difference of constant potential be
beam of electrons extends toward said aperture,
tween elements 51 and 53. In order to provide 35 said cathode having a concave emitting surface
a closed evacuated envelope and at the same time
and said de?ecting electrodes having surfaces
to permit diiferent voltages to be applied to the
converging toward each other in the direction of
tank and to the shielding cup 54, the two sections
travel of said electrons from the cathode to the
of the device may be joined by means of insulat
output electrode system,
ing collar 63 sealed to the cup 54 and to the ex
4. An electron discharge device including a
tension 59 on the outer tubulaur member 51. The
' cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, an
leads and supports 52' and 53’ of the de?ecting
output electrode system in the path of said beam
electrodes are sealed by means of beads 55 and
of electrons and including an inner conducting
56 in the cup-shaped member as are the leads to
member surrounded by an outer hollow conducting
cathode 50. The output may be taken off by
member and forming together a resonator, said
means of the conductor 6| sealed through the
resonator having an element provided with an
outer tubular member 51 by means of seal 6|’.
aperture through which the path of said beam
The input signal is supplied by means of input
extends, and de?ecting electrodes positioned be
transformer 62 and the necessary biasing volt
tween said cathode and the element provided with
ages by means of voltage source 63.
50 said aperture and between which the path of said
While I have indicated the preferred embodi
beam of electrons extends toward said aperture,
ments of my invention of which I am now aware
said cathode having a concave surface and said
and have also indicated only one speci?c appli
de?ecting electrodes having surfaces converging
cation for which my invention may be employed,
toward each other in the direction of travel from
it will be apparent that my invention is by no 55 the cathode to the output electrode system, the
means limited to the exact forms illustrated or
radius of curvature of said cathode surface being
equal to one-half the length of the de?ecting
the use indicated, but that many variations may
be made in the particular structure used and the
purpose for which it is employed without depart
5. An electron discharge device having an en
ing from the scope of my invention as set forth
velope containing a cathode for supplying a beam
in the appended claims.
'
of electrons and a collector electrode for receiving
What I claim as new is:
said beam of electrons, an apertured element po
1. An electron discharge device having a cath
sitioned between the cathode and the collector
ode for supplying a stream of electrons, an out~
electrode'and having an aperture aligned with
put electrode system in the path of said beam of 65 said collector electrode, and de?ecting electrodes
electrons and including an inner conducting mem
positioned between the cathode and the aper
ber surrounded by an outer hollow conducting
tured element and between which the path of said
member and forming therewith a resonator, tubu
beam of- electrons extends, a conductor outside
lar shielding means positioned between the oath
said.envelope'electrically connected to said col
ode and the output electrode system, and a pair 70 lector electrode and; a second conductor sur
and shielding cup 54 of more or less rectangular
cross section supports at one end the cathode 50
electrodes.
of apertured transverse’ elements within said
tubular shielding means and positioned between
the cathode and the output electrode system, and
a pair of de?ecting electrodes positioned between
’
l
-
Y
rounding said ?rst conductor, and forming there
with a quarter-wave resonator, and conducting
means extending inwardly from the second con
ductor and closely adjacent the wall, of the envel
said aperture transverse elements and between 75 ope adjacent the apertured element and vforming
2,408,216
5
therewith for high frequency voltages and cur
inner conductor for collecting the electrons and
rents a closed wall having an aperture.
6. An electron discharge device having an en
velope containing a cathode for supplying a beam
an outer tubular conductor coaxial with and
surrounding said inner conductor and forming
therewith a resonator, an aperture in the outer
of electrons and a collector electrode for receiv
wall of said resonator through which the path of
ing said beam of electrons and having a conduc
said beam of electrons extends and de?ecting
tor extending through the wall of said envelope,
electrodes between the cathode and the aperture
an apertured element positioned between the
for de?ecting said electron beam across said
cathode and the collector electrode closely adja
aperture, and means surrounding and supporting
cent the envelope wall and having an aperture 10 said cathode and said de?ecting electrodes and
aligned with said collector electrode, and de?ect
insulatingly secured to said outer tubular con
ing electrodes positioned between the cathode
ductor adjacent said aperture, said cathode and
and the apertured element between which the
de?ecting electrode supporting element compris
path of said beam of electrons extends, an elon
ing a substantially cup-shaped member, the open
gated conducting member outside said envelope 15 end of which extends toward said output elec
and connected to the conductor of said collector
trode system and extensions on the outer tubular
and a second elongated conducting member sur
conductor around said aperture extending toward
rounding said ?rst elongated conducting member
the cup-shaped member, and an insulating col
and forming therewith a quarter-wave resona
lar connecting the open end of said cup-shaped
tor, and a conducting plate extending inwardly 20 member and said extension together providing
from the second elongated conducting member
a closed envelope for the cathode and de?ecting
closely adjacent the wall of the envelope adja- ‘
electrodes.
'
cent the apertured element and forming there
with for radio frequency voltages and currents a
means for supplying a beam of electrons, an out
closed wall having an aperture, and means con
put electrode system in the path of said beam
necting and closing the ends of the elongated
conducting members remote from said envelope.
7. An electron discharge device having an en
velope containing a cathode for supplying a beam
of electrons, and a cup-shaped collector electrode
for receiving said electrons, a shielding system
for said cathode and extending toward said col
lector electrode and provided with a pair of
transverse apertured elements with the aper
tures in alignment, a pair of de?ecting electrodes
positioned between said apertured elements and
between which the path of the beam of electrons
extends, the apertured element adjacent said
10. An electron discharge device including
of electrons and including an inner tubular con
ducting member surrounded by an outer tubular
conducting member and forming a quarter-wave
resonator, said output electrode system having
an element provided with an aperture through
which the path of said beam extends toward said
inner tubular conducting member and de?ect
ing electrodes positioned between the beam sup
plying means and the element provided with said
aperture, the ratio of diameter of the outer tubu
lar member to the inner tubular member being
9 to 1.
11. An electron discharge device including a
cathode for supplying a beam of electrons, an
the wall of said envelope, an inner tubular con 40 output electrode system in the path of said beam
ducting member extending axially of said col
of electrons and including an inner conducting
lector electrode externally of said envelope and
member surrounded by an outer hollow conduct
electrically connected to said collector electrode,
ing member and forming together a quarter-wave
and an outer tubular member surrounding said
resonator, said resonator having an element pro
inner tubular member and forming therewith a
vided with an aperture through which the path
quarter-wave resonator, the end of said quarter
of said beam extends, and de?ecting electrodes
wave resonator being closed adjacent the envel
positioned between said cathode and the element
ope by means of a transverse member capacity
provided with said aperture and between which
coupled to the apertured element adjacent the
the path of said beam of electrons extendsv to
wall of said envelope to provide a closed wall for 50 ward said aperture, the ratio of the diameter of
radio frequency voltages and currents induced in
the outer conducting member to the inner con
collector electrode being placed closely adjacent
said concentric line tank circuit.
'
8. An electron discharge device including a
cathode for supplying a beam of electrons and
ducting member being 9 to 1.
12. An electron discharge device including
means for supplying a beam of electrons, an out
an output electrode system for receiving said an CA put electrode system in the path'of said beam
electrons, said output electrode system compris
‘of electrons and including an inner tubular con
ing an inner conductor for collecting the elec
ducting member surrounded by an outer tubular
trons and an outer conductor coaxial with and
conducting member and forming therewith a
surrounding said inner conductor and forming
quarter-wave concentric line resonator, said out
therewith a resonator, the outer wall of said 60 put electrode system having an element provided
resonator having an aperture through which the
with an aperture through which the path of said
path of said beam of electrons extends and de
beam extends toward said inner tubular conduct
?ecting electrodes between the cathode and the
ing member, and de?ecting electrodes positioned
aperture for de?ecting said electron beam across
between the beam supplying means and the ele
said aperture, and means surrounding and sup 65 ment provided with said aperture, the ratio of
porting said cathode and said de?ecting elec
diameter of the outer tubular member to the in
trodes and insulatingly secured to said outer tubu
ner tubular member being 9 to 1, the diameter
lar member adjacent said aperture.
of the outer tubular conducting member being
9. An electron discharge device including a
approximately one-eighth the wavelength of the
cathode for supplying a stream of electrons and 70 operating frequency.
an output electrode system for receiving said elec
trons, ‘said output electrode system comprising an
GEORGE ROSS KILGORE.
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