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. Sept-'24, 1946- w. R. PETERSQN 2,403,225 VALVE BAG FILLING, WEIGHING AND DISCHARGING APPARATUS Filed July 22, 1942 7 Sheets-Sheet ~1' a1 ' FIE-15 3 44 g WWW/046 WILLIAM RQPBI'EHEUN Sept. 24, 1946. w. R. PETERSON WILLIAM HPETEREUN .Ws Sept. 24, 1946.‘ ' w_ R PETERSON 2,408,225 VALVE BAG FILLING, WEIGHING AND DISCHARGING APPARATUS Filed July .22, 1942 E45 '7 Sheets-Sheet 3 IEv Iii-4n J sebt- 24, 1946.v w. R. PETERSON Sept. 24, 1946. w_ R_ PETERSON’ 2,408,225 VALVE BAG FILLING, WEIGHING AND DISCHARGING APPARATUS‘ Filed July 22, 1942 '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 FIE-E1 - 81 82 15!! WILLIAM HPBTEHSBN. 3&3 6W 4 @4015“ MM! Sept; 24, 1946. w, R_ PETERSON 2,408,225 VALVE BAG’ FILLING, WEIGHING AND DISGH'ARGING APPARATUS Filed July 22, 1942 /1// 1 E!\ |!HMNQX __ . I|. : -|1| 8 . mmkg“!. “MW 7 Sheets-Sheet s _‘ mm.“ ‘ i: wuw _. \an QM“\W/I m»un‘. . 7.Wm.n3 \Q. 1l x|\)/I|I “ v “ku“ rH \1. 0W l.\l | Jamil/HIM 7 WILLIAM H W ‘i' PETERSEN. We,‘ awn/M475‘ Sept. 24, 1946. W. R. PETERSON VALVE BAG FILLING, WEIGHING AND DISQHARGING' A-PPAR ATUS Filed July 22, 1942 2,408,225 ' 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 J me/wtma WILLIAM HPBTBR-s UN. My Patented Sept. 24, 1946 2,408,225 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,408,225 VALVE BAG FILLING, WEIGHING, AND DIS CHARGING APPARATUS William R. _ Peterson, Oswego, N. Y., assignor to St. Rcgls Paper Company, New York, N. Y., a. corporation of New York Application July 22, 1942, Serial No. 451,883 5 Claims. (01. 249-60) This invention relates to apparatus for ?lling valve bags, simultaneously weighing the bags, grid automatically discharging the bags when led. An object of the invention is to provide appa ratus of the type described which will mechan ically open the shut-01f slide or gate, start the ?ow of material to the bag, when the bag has been placed in position and the apparatus tripped, and continue the ?lling and weighing op eration automatically until the ?lled and weighed bag has been discharged and the apparatus is geturned to position for receiving another empty ag. 2 . mechanism from a different angle than Figure 13. In my copending applications Serial No. 507, 521, ?led October 25, 1943, and Serial No. 667, 418, ?led May 4, 1946, there are disclosed and claimed other forms of machines having fea tures which are common to that herein disclosed. The apparatus embodying the invention is mounted upon suitable framework, some of which is shown as at 20 in Figure l and some of which is omitted in order to more clearly disclose the operating mechanism. The bag ?lling apparatus comprises a hopper 2| which may be connected with any suitable source of supply of cement or 15 other material to be packaged. At the bottom of the hopper, there is a propeller housing 22 in which there is a constantly rotating propeller 23. At the right of the housing, as shown in Figure 1, there is a discharge opening 24 nor 20 mally in alignment with a ?lling spout 25. The propeller is normally in continuous operation means for positively discharging the bag from ?lled position. during the use of the mechanism, but discharge of material is out 01f when desired by a suitable Minor objects and improvements will appear as the description proceeds. cut-01f slide or gate 26. The gate is operated In the accompanying drawings forming a part 25 by a rod 21 in a manner which will be described later. of this speci?cation-— A double armed scale beam 28 is fulcrumed at Figure 1 is a side elevation of one embodiment 29 and carries a suitable weight 30 ?xed to the of the invention, with parts in section and with parts removed for clarity of illustration; 30 scale beam, as shown at 3|, It will be seen that the weight is rigidly fastened to the scale beam Figure 2 is an isometric elevation of the ap paratus shown in Figure 1; and, therefore, gives the scale beam a pendulum action. The front end of the scale beam is pro Figure 3 is a partial front elevation of the 7 vided with pivots 32 for a load support, Fig. 2. apparatus shown in Figure 1; A rigid stop member 33 projects from the frame Figure 4 is a section on the line 4—4 of Fig ure 3; Figure 5 is a detail view of a trip handle; Figure 6 is a detail view of means for releas over the rear end of the scale beam and an ad justable stop screw 34 mounted in the scale beam arms limits the height to which the rear end of ing the bag clamp; the scale beam may rise and the frame member Figure 7 is a plan view of the control unit 40 20 as shown in Figure 1 limits the lowering of the rear end of the scale beam. viewed from the upper left hand side of the ap paratus as shown in Figure 1; The load support comprises a top cross-piece 35 which rests upon the scale beam pivots 32. Figure 8 is a side elevation of the control unit, with parts broken away; Depending from cross~piece 35, there are hollow Figure 9 is a section on the line 9~9 of Fig 45 supporting columns 36. The lower ends of the ure 8; columns have attached thereto a bracket 37 to Figure 10 is a which a U-shaped member 38 is pivoted at 39. section on the line IO-l? of Figure 9; Figure 11 is a section on the line H—|I of Figure 10; Figure 12 is an isometric view of certain of the operating rods and levers; Figure 13 is a detail view of part of the clutch mechanism; Figure 14 is another detail view of the clutch The U-shaped member 38 has attached thereto a bag shield 40 adapted to surround the sides and rear of a bag being ?lled upon the appa ratus. A spring 4| normally holds the shield in upright position, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. A discharge pusher rod 42 is supported at its front end upon a roller 43 and contacts shield 40, being operated to tilt the shield and discharge the bag in a manner which will be described later. 2,408,225 4 lever 94 pivoted at 55 and connected at 96 to a The bracket 31 has attached to the rear side ?attened portion 81 of the gate controlling rod thereof an arm M which is connected to a por tion of the frame by a check rod 45 which oper 21'. At the rear lower end of rod 21, there is a strong spring 98 which is compressed when cam ates parallel with the portion of the scale beam 91 forces lever 94 to the left as viewed in Figure between pivots 28 and 32 so as to keep the load ‘ill 18, for example. This forcing of the rod 21 supporting rods 36 in upright position. downward and to the left opens the gate and al Beneath cross-piece 35, there is an adjusting lows material to be discharged by the propeller cross-piece 58 which may be raised or lowered to the ?lling spout into a bag that has been pre by a screw 5i operable by a handle 52. The ends 10 viously placed thereon. of cross-piece 58 work in slots in hollow rods 36 In order to prevent entrance of dust into the and have attached thereto rods 53 which are housing of the control unit. a boot 99 of rubber within the hollow tubes 39. The lower ends of or the like is attached at one end to the housing rods 53 have attached thereto, through slots in and at the other end to rod 21. tubes 35, a bracket 54. A bottom support 55 for At the upper end of lever 94 there is provided the bag is pivoted to bracket '54 at 56 (see Figure a roller I88. When the lever is moved to the left 3). The rear of the bottom support 55 is pro as shown in Figure 10, a latch I8l drops down vided with a lug 51 which normally rests upon ward and a tooth I82 of the latch engages the the bracket 54 and maintains the bottom sup roller. The latch is pivoted at I83. Mounted port in the position in which it is shown in Fig upon the same pivot there is a trip arm I84 which ure 1. extends upward, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. A cross-piece 58 is secured at 59 to tubes 38. Attached to the weight carrier 38 there is a The ?lling tube 25 is secured to and supported downwardly extending arm I85 having at the by cross-piece 58. end thereof an adjustable screw I86 in position Extending forward from the cross-piece 58, to contact the end of trip arm I84 when the there is an arm 88. Bag clamp BI is pivoted at weight end of the scale is raised and swings to 62 to arm 68. The clamp is provided with a tail the left, as viewed in Figure 1. It will be seen piece 63 to which there is attached a spring 54 that when the weight moves about fulcrumv29, which normally presses the clamp down towards the movement of screw I86 will be more nearly the ?lling tube. horizontal than vertical and so will engage the Mounted on the front of the hopper, there is a end of trip arm I84 and raise latch I8I against bracket 65 (see Figure 1) to which there is piv the tension of spring I81. oted a clamp releasing lever I58 (see Figures 1, 3 In the normal operation of the machine, after and 6). On the end of lever 65, there is a roller the gate has once been opened and latched in 61 in position to engage the tail piece 63 of the the open position by the means just described, it bag clamp. An arm 88 extends from lever 88 remains open until the bag is ?lled sufficiently and is ‘operated by a rod 69, the movement of to cause movement of the scale beam, resulting in which is controlled in a manner to be described movement of arm I84 to release the latch. How hereafter. ever, in order to close the gate promptly in case Also mounted upon the same pivot in bracket of any emergency where the bag was not being 40 65 there is a trip handle 18 from which there ex properly ?lled, there is provided a manual means tends an arm 1I engaging a connecting rod 12, for releasing latch I8I at will. Beneath the right Fig. 5. The lower end of the connecting rod is end of the latch. as viewed in Figure 10, there is provided with a fork 13 which straddles a pin in an arm I88 on a rockshaft I89. Normally the a trip arm 14 on the control unit housing 15. A arm I88 is held in the position in which it is spring 15 normally pulls arm 14 to the right, as ‘ shown in Figure 10 by means of a spring II8. viewed in Figure 1, against an adjustable stop 11. Rockshaft I88 extends outside of the control unit Connecting rod 12 is provided with a bend 18 housing and .has mounted thereon outside the for a purpose which will be described later. The arm 14 is mounted upon a shaft 19 extending housing a stop arm III and an actuating arm IIZ, Fig. 8. A screw H3 is mounted in the bend SI) into the control unit housing and operable to trip 18 of rod 12. Normally trip handle 18 at the the control clutch, as will be described later. A suitable source of power 88 is provided to drive a belt or chain 8 I, which operates a sprocket 82 upon a shaft 83 mounted in the housing 15 (see Figures 1, "I and 9). Rigidly mounted on shaft 83 within the housing there is a toothed clutch wheel 84 (see Figure 13). Mounted loose upper end of rod 12 would remain in the position in which it is shown in Figure 1 due to its own weight, but there is provided also in bracket 95 a compression spring II8 which insures that nor mally the fork 13 will rest in the lowest position permitted by arm 14. However, as hereinafter described, when it is desired to close the gate or 1y upon shaft 83, there is a cam carrier or drum shut-off slide in an emergency, trip handle 18 85. A clutch pin 88 is mounted in the cam car— may be raised sufficiently to operate arm I I2 and 60 rier 85 and is oscillatable so that its ?attened rockshaft I89 so as to lift the end of latch I8I. end 81 may be engaged with or disengaged from In Figure 12, there is shown the relation of a the toothed wheel 84. The opposite end of pin number of the operating parts free from the ac 86 is provided with an arm 88 normally urged by tuating means so that their connections ‘may be a spring 89 into clutch-engaging position. On more easily understood. It will be seen from 65 the end of shaft 19, mentioned above, there is a examination of this ?gure that when arm I84 is stop member 98. When the parts are in the po moved in the direction indicated by arrow III by sition in which they are shown in Figures 1 and the operation of the scale beam, latch IN is 13, the stop member 98 engages arm 88 and os moved in the direction indicated by arrow I I5 and cillates pin 86 so as to disengage the clutch, It this allows lever 94 and gate controlling rod 21 18 is lowered, will be seen that when trip handle to be moved in gate~closing position by spring 99 the shaft 19 is oscillated sufficiently to release in the direction indicated by arrows IIS and I I1. arm 88 and allow the clutch to become engaged. When the clutch is allowed to close by move Cam carrier 85 is provided with a cam 9|, ment of trip handle 18 in the manner described which upon movement of the cam carrier, en above, the drum or cam carrier 85 will continue gages a roller 92 on an arm 93, attached to a 2,408,225 to move until arm 88 encounters a timing stop I20 on the end of a pin I21 which is mounted in an arm I22. On the other end of pin I.2I there 6 I66 into notch I62 when the drum reaches the second stop position. cam member I21 having therein a groove I28. It is believed that the operation of the appa ratus will be fairly obvious from the foregoing description, but for convenience the entire cycle may be brie?y reviewed. rI‘he apparatus being in the stop position, as indicated in Figure 13, the shut-on slide or gate A forked lever I29 is fulcrumed at I30 and has pins I3I entering the groove in cam I2'I. Lever threaded upon the ?lling spout 25. Thereupon, is an arm I23 carrying a cam roller I24. An other arm I25 on the end of pin I2I is connected to a spring I26 which urges the ‘pin in a direc tion to move roller I24 towards shaft 83. Slid able longitudinally of shaft 83 there is a conical 26 will be closed. The valve of a valve bag is the source of power 80 being effective, the oper ator moves trip handle ‘I9 downward to the dot ‘I29 also has an operating arm I32 carrying a roll er I33. An arm I34 is mounted on the sleeve I35 which carries lever 94. A cam I 36 on the end of arm I34 engages the roller I33 when the arm ted line position indicated in Figure 1 whereupon, through the connecting rod ‘I2 and arm ‘I4, the shaft 79., Figs. 1 and 13, is rocked so as to cause I 34‘ is moved in the direction of the arrow I3‘I on Figure 12, at the same time that lever 94 is moved in the direction of the arrow H6. A sleeve I38 is provided between shaft 83 and the conical cam I2? and arm I22 is mounted upon the inner end of this sleeve I38. The sleeve extends outside of the housing of the unit con trol and has attached thereto an arm I39 which is held in adjusted position by a pin I 49 which may enter any one of a plurality of holes I4I ar ranged in an arc on the outside of the housing. In this way the stop I20 may be adJusted through approximately 240° to stop the cam drum at the desired time after movement thereof has been resultant engagement of the clutch pin end 81 With the rotating clutch wheel 84. When the trip handle Til is moved down as described above, it is held only momentarily and, therefore, it im mediateiy returns to the full line position thereof shown in Fig. 1. This happens by reason of the fact that the spring 16, which biases trip arm 14 in a clockwise direction against the stop 11, is stronger than the spring II 8. If desired, a spring, not shown, may be provided to assist spring 16 in performing the function stated. initiated ‘by the rocking of shaft ‘I9. the stop 1‘! as last described, the stop 90 returns A pin I 45, Fig. 10., extending through the end of ' rod 69 connects that rod to a clamp-operating to its normal position where it is effective to dis continue operation of the unit after completion of one cycle of operation thereof. shaft I47. Another arm I48 on the rockshaft carries a roller I49 which is engaged at the proper time by a cam I59 on the cam carrier. The cam I5!) is so positioned upon the cam carrier that it movement of the carrier 85 in a clockwise direc Upon the engagement of the clutch, rotative tion, Fig. 13, is initiated with the result that cam I59 moves from beneath rolier I49, as will be apparent from Figure 13, this allowing the move ment of arm I49 in the direction indicated by arrow I51 in Figure 12, and the consequent low ering of rod 69 (which is connected to arm I46, Fig. 10) and arm 66, Fig. 1. As a result, the spring 94 becomes e?ective to cause the clamp E! to clamp the bag upon ?lling spout 25. Sub— stantially simultaneously cam 9| moves roller 92 pletion of a cycle of movement of the unit when arm 88 again engages stop 90. Arrow I5I on Fig ure 12 indicates the movement of the arm I46 and consequently movement of rod 69 when the roller I 4.9 is not in engagement with cam I50, which is the greater part of the time. When the arm I46 is in the position indicated by dotted lines in Figure 12, it will be readily seen that the and lever 94 so as to move the slide controlling clamp controlling member?? will be lowered suf rod 27 downward and compress spring 98 with ?ciently to allow spring 94 to close the clamp upon a bag positioned on the ?lling tube 25. At the rear end of push rod 42, there is a fork I52 connected to a rock arm I53 extending from rockshaft I54. Upon the other end of the rock shaft, there is an arm I55 carrying a cam roller I 56. This may be operated by a separate cam on the cam carrier if desired, but in the con struction shown, it is arranged to be operated by the same cam 9I which operates lever 94. It will be readily seen from a comparison of Figures 12 and 13 that after the clutch has made one com plete revolution and is in the stop position, cam 9I has operated upon roller I56 and is in position to move roller 92 immediately upon closing of the clutch. A spring I51 normally retracts pusher rod 42 and holds the rock arm I 53 against a stop I58 (see Figure 9). The cam drum is held in proper stop position While not engaged by the clutch by the follow ing means. A bell crank lever I69 carries on one arm a roller I6! adapted to enter a notch I 62 in the cam drum (see Figure 10) . The other end of the bell crank lever is connected to a spring I 63 which holds the roller against the drum with su?icient force to hold the drum against acci dental movement. On arm I22 there is a link I64 carrying a roller I65 which is pulled by a spring the result that the gate 25 is opened. When cam 94 actuates ‘lever 94 as last described, the latch I9I coacts wth the roller I90 thereof to retain said lever 94 in the position shown in Fig. 10 after movement of the cam 9| beyond roller 92. The material is then at once discharged into the bag by the constantly rotating propeller 23. While the material continues to be discharged into the bag, the cam drum continues movement the stop I29, Fig. 13, to disengage the clutch tooth end 8‘! from the clutch 84. As a result, the cam - carrier 95 is disconnected from the clutch wheel 94 and said cam carrier 95 becomes stationary. Normally, the material will be fed into the bag until it counterbalances the scale weight su?i ciently to swing screw I06 to the left, as viewed in Figure l, to operate trip arm I04 and thereby release the gate controllingr rod 21 for closing movement in response to the action of spring 98. This action occurs by reason of the fact that op— eration of the trip arm I94 raises the latch IOI, . Fig. 12, whereby the lever 94 swings clockwise, Fig. 12, with resultant movement of said rod 21 as described to close the gate ‘26. Member I34 moves when the lever 94 swings clockwise as de scribed immediately above, Figs. 10 and 12, and cam member I36 engages roller I33 to move the 2,408,225 ?lling tube while the bottom of the bag rests upon the horizontal bag support. After the bag moves far enough so that its center of gravity is in front of pivot 56, the bottom support tilts with the moves free of the arm 88 of the clutch pin 80 and bag and allows the bag to slide off. the clutch tooth end 0'! reengages the toothed The pendulum action of the scale results in an wheel 84. The cam carrier 85 now resumes ro even and controlled movement of the scale beam tation with the toothed wheel 84. During this as the predetermined weight of material is fed period, air escapes from the ?lled bag to avoid the into the bag, and the relatively great distance of puff of dust-laden air. 10 trip-adjusting screw I06 from fulcrum 29 makes Thereafter, the cam carrier 85 continues to possible a very ?ne adjustment of the trip so that move with the toothed wheel 84 until it is discon the feed may be shut off at exactly the chosen nected therefrom in the manner hereinafter de position of the scale beam. scribed and, preferably, the timing is such that The gate or cut-off slide may be of any usual an appreciable length of time elapses before such or desired type, but the disclosed construction is 15 disconnecting operation is effected. Eventually, preferred. It will be noted that the upper end of conical cam I21 from right to left, Fig. 11. The latter engages roller I24 whereby, through the de scribed mechanical connection, the stop I20 however, the cam I50 engages roller Hi9 and, the slideway is closed to the outer air, but is open through the described mechanical connection, the arm 66 is moved upwardly, Fig. 1, to thereby open the bag clamp BI against the action of spring 64'. Immediately thereafter, the cam 91 engages roll ‘er I56, Fig. 10, which effects the rocking of arm at I58 into the propeller housing. This prevents I53 in the direction indicated by arrow I01 on Figure 12 or clockwise, Fig. 10, whereby the rod 42, Fig. 1, is actuated to tilt the shield 40 and discharge the ?lled bag therefrom in the manner hereinafter described. After completion of the escape of dust from the slide way into the open air, but at the same time allows the edge of the gate to force any dust before it from the slideway back into the housing, so that movement of the slide is not blocked by material packed in the end of the slideway. The angle of opening I68 is such that the propeller does not pack material tightly in that opening. While one embodiment of the invention has foregoing, the arm 88 of clutch pin 86 moves into been described in considerable detail, it will be engagement with stop member 90 (which was re understood that various changes may be made turned to normal position in the manner de within the scope of the appended claims. For scribed above) to disengage the clutch pin 86 30 example, compressed air in the cylinder enclosing from the toothed Wheel 84. As a result, rotary spring 90 could be used instead of the spring to movement of the cam carrier 85 ceases and one close the gate, and other obvious changes might cycle of operation is completed. At any desired be made. Also, while the entire combination as time, the trip handle '10 may be moved momen . disclosed has been found to work together advan tarily upwardly, against the action of spring H0, CG LI tageously to constitute a desirable ?lling ma from the full line position thereof shown in Fig. chine, it will be understood that a number of the 1. When this is done, a portion of the bend 18 features might be incorporated separately in ?ll of rod 12 engages arm “2 to move shaft I09 and ing devices of the same general type and retain arm I08 in a clockwise direction, Fig. 10. As a some of their advantages. For example, the arrangement is advantageous result, latch |0I is raised, Fig. 12, with resultant closing of the gate 26 in the manner hereinbefore whereby trip handle ‘I0 is held normally in a mid described. The last described operation of trip dle position by spring ‘I5 holding it up as far as handle 10 may be effected upon occurrence of permitted by stop 11 and spring H8 preventing some abnormal operation, such as the tearing of a its unintentional movement upward from that position, since this enables the intentional down bag, etc. By swinging arm I39 to the desired position ward movement of the handle to start the ?lling and inserting pin I40 into the proper hole MI, the operation while the upward movement of the handle may be employed as an emergency stop. distance that the cam drum travels, after the While this obviously cooperates with other dis clutch is closed by movement of the scale beam, can be adjusted. Where a large amount of air is s closed features, the idea might be employed with fed into the bag along with the ?lling material, quite different operating mechanisms. Other a delay between the closing of the cut-off slide similar examples will be clear in view of the ap-' or gate and the discharge of the bag allows the pended claims. ' air to escape gradually before the bag is removed What I claim is: 1, In apparatus for ?lling and discharging re from the ?lling tube. This tends to avoid the i puff of dust-laden air that would otherwise be ceptacles, means for feeding material to a re discharged through the valve opening upon re ceptacle, a one-revolution clutch, manual means moval of the ?lling tube from the opening. The for closing the clutch, means responsive to the mechanism disclosed permits the interposition of operation of said clutch for initiating the feed su?icient delay, but also permits shortening the of material to the receptacle, adjustable means interval to what is necessary or desirable under for opening the clutch during the course of its the particular circumstances. The particular mounting of the bottom support for the bag allows of the accurate adjustment of the height of the support, without interrupting one revolution, weighing means, means respon sive to the action of said weighing means for stopping the feed of material to the receptacle and reclosing the clutch, and means actuated and the operation of the ?lling device, to give the de gree of support desired, both during ?lling and discharging. This positions the support at eXactly the right distance from the ?lling spout to give the necessary support to obviate tearing of the top of the bag where it is threaded onto the ?lling tube and at the same time avoid holding timed by the clutch for discharging the receptacle the bag bottom so high that there is any inter ference with proper ?lling. When shield 40 is closing the clutch, connections opening the gate near the completion of the one revolution of the clutch. 2. In valve bag ?lling apparatus comprising a ?lling tube adapted to enter the valve of a bag and a gate controlling the flow of material to the tube, a one—revolution clutch, manual means for by the initial movement of the closed clutch, ad moved by pusher 42, it shoves the bag off of the 75 9 2,408,225 J'ustable means for lected point in its revolution, urging the gate toward closed position, a latch for holding the gate open and means releasing the latch in response to weighing movement of said device, a one-revolution clutch, manual the gate dered operable by the clutch near the completion of its one revolution to discharge the bag. clutch, connections open- . 3. In valve bag ?lling ing the gate by the initial movement of the closed clutch, adjustable means opening the clutch at a selected point during its revolution, means ren dered operable by the closing of the gate for re closing the clutch, and means rendered operable by the clutch immediately before the conclusion of the one revolution of the clutch to discharge point during its revolution, means controlled by the Weighing 15 the bag from the tube. 5. In valve bag ?lling apparatus comprising a device for closing the gate, means controlled by the Weighing device for reclosing the clutch, and 20 comprising a ?lling tube valve of a bag, a Weighing device for Weighing a bag being ?lled through the ?lling tube, a gate for revolution, means reclose the clutch when the bag is ?lled, and to to the clutch re leasing the clamp connections immediately before the con clusion of the one revolution. shutting olT ?ow of material to the tube, a spring WILLIAM R. PETERSON.