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Патент USA US2408236

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Sel“- 24,-1945v
I
P. L. SPENCER
HIGH
EFFICIENCY MAGNETRON
Filfed Dee. 31, 1941
l* 2,408,235
v
-
2 Sheets-Sheet l
@fw-fw f
2,408,235
Patented Sept. 24,` 1946
,
2,408,235 ' "
,_ HIGH EFFICIENCYMAGNETRON
yPercy L. Spencer, West Newton, Mass., assigner
to Raytheon Manufacturing Company, Newton,
Mass., a corporation of Delaware '
'
« -Application December 31, 1941, Serial No. 425,071
1o claims. (C1. 25o-27.5)
2
l .
`..Á¿This` invention vrelates to a magnetron, and n
moreparticularly to one which has a plurality of
1
.Y
,
to r22, inclusive, the faces of which cooperate as
anode sections with the cathode 6.
‘possible oscillating modes, `each .determined pri
lInarily by the geometry of theinternal structure
`Whenfsuch a magnetron is“y placed’rbetween
suitable,magneticfpoles -23 „and 24 to create a
of'. the magnetron. A device of this kind is in
tended to oscillate in a predetermined principal
mode so as to generate a predetermined fre
» maybe led- out from the tube by means of a cou-A
»longitudinalmagneticfield and the device is en
ergized, oscillations _are set up. These oscillations
pling loop 2_,5'extending into one of the cylindrical
quency. Heretofore the existence of additional
modes of oscillation have introduced serious dif
?icul-ties.__ Such additional> modes Vhave caused
spurious oscillations to be generated, thus con
openings I4 and having oneend thereof fastened
10 to the inner wall of said opening. The other end
of the coupling lo-op- 25 is connected to a lead
wire426 which passes through a glass Aseal, 21
suming energy which reduced the eñiciency and
effectiveness of the device.
- mounted at theV outer end of a pipe 28 likewise
f
hermetically fastened through the wall of the en
Anv object of this invention is substantially> to
eliminate the undesired character of the addi
15 velope I. -An additional conducting pipe,v not
A further object is .to increase the eiiiciency and
face of each of the anode‘sections I 5--22.¿V Also
shown,v may be electrically connected ,to the pipe
tional or spurious modes offoscillation by utiliz
>28,- and forms with the wire 26 a concentric line
ing them toV reinforce the principal or normal os
through which the high frequency oscillations
`cillator mode of a magnetron.
generated by the magnetron may be conducted to
Another object is to provide means for tuning
v
A
one mode of oscillation independent of another 20 a suitable utilization circuit.
A capacity exists between .the cathode 6 and the
so as to bring both modes into synchronism.
capacitances'exist between the side walls of each
of the slots I3.' The inner walls of the. openings
type..
.
_The foregoing and other object‘s of _this inven 25 .I4 constitute inductances. The anode, therefore,
is so designed and spaced relative to the cathode
tion willrbe best understood from the following
`effectiveness of a magnetron of theforegoing
vdescription of an exemplii'lcation thereof, refer
ence being had to .the accompanying drawings,
>that the inductances and the ,capacitan-ces. de
scribed constitutey circuits which are tuned, and
thus are resonantat a vpredetermined frequency
Fig. 1 is a transverse section of a magnetron 30 .at which the device is to be operated._ The device
-is intended tooperate so 4that each b_ore I4 andv
embodying my invention, taken along line I_-I
wherein:
«
~
yof Fig. 3;
Fig. 2 is a transverse cross-section of the tube
showny in Fig.> 1, taken along line 2-2 of Fig. 3;
IFig. 3 is a longitudinal cross-section taken along
line 3-3 of Fig. 2; and
'
.
'
Fig. 4 is a. diagram of the anode arm inter
Yits adjacent arms form a circuit tuned to the
' frequency.l at which each of the'other bores I4
and itsadjacentarms oscillate.
,
'
v
.
_
yIt has been found that in magnetrons of >this
general type, there hasfbeen a tendency foros
cillations tofbe produced, not only in accordance
with the above> ~desired mode but also in various
connections existing in the tube of Figs. 1-3.v
One. particularly
yundesired spurious . modes.
_i
. The magnetron illustrated in the drawings
comprises an envelope Iwhich is preferably made 40 vtroublesome mode is that. in which alternate
anode arms form opposite ends of an oscillating
of_„a block of conductive material, such as copper.
' v4This block forms the anode of the magnetron.
circuit extendingaround the back of a pair of
thermionic type. The cathode is supported by a
pair of cathode lead-in conductors 1 and 8 sealed
through glass seals 9 and I0 mounted at the outer
ends of pipes II and I2 hermetically fastened
ner from that shown in my said copending ap
plication. , As shown in Fig..1, a conductorr 29,
slots I3 extend radially from the central bore 5,
vfor >example the upper'end of the magnetron
fand each of said slots terminates in a rcircular .
structure.
openings I4. ~As more fully described and claimed
iThe' block has hollow end sections which are. cov
in my copending application, Serial No. 421,145,
ered by caps 2 and 3, likewise of .conductive ma
terial such as copper. Between the hollow end 45 ñled- December l, 1941, this spurious oscillating
mode can be substantially eliminated by inter.
sections of the block I is located a central bridg~
conneoting the `outer ends of alternate >anode
ing portion 4. The portion 4 is provided with a
arms directly `by relatively low impedance paths.
central bore 5 within which is supported sub
In the arrangement as shown herein, such inter
stantially at the center thereof a Acathode 6 which
may be of the indirectly-heated oxide-coated 50 connection is made in somewhat different man
preferably of copper, is fastened to and inter
connects the anode arms 2| and I9. Also a simi
within .the walls of the block I'adjacent the up 55 .lar conductor 30 interconnects anode arms I6 and
i8. vThese two connections are made at one end,
per and lower hollow end sections. A plurality of
opening I4 rextending through the bridging por
tion 4. In this way the anode >structure is pro
vided wîth a plurality of wedge-shaped arms I5
At the other end of the structure a
conductor âlfpreferably of copper, is connected
to and interconnects ranode arms I5, I'I and I9,
while'a similar conductor 32 interconnects anode
2,408,235
3
4
arms 22, 20 and I8. The conductors 3l and 32
overlap, at >yone„.sicle of the structure, leavinga
gap at z‘the.: otherisidefof said ¿structure ‘along
which the conductor 8 may extend. Similarly
by an arrangement as illustrated herein. I have
,. found. that `a rconductingbody..heldiadiacent the
anode; arms I5-22 affects the :icapacity of the
circuit involved in the transverse oscillating
Varying the position of this conducting
body will vary this capacity While aiîecting the
at the other end of the structure conductors `2S ,
, mode.
and 3% leave a gap through which the conductor
‘I may extend. In this way theseíçinterconnect
.constants-ofthe longitudinal mode in a very much
ing conductors may extend beyond the end of >the
lesser degree.
For the purposes of this device,
bridging member 4 without ‘interfering’withiithe
„thegeffectj of ,this variation on the longitudinal
lead-in conductors 'l and`8, respectively, Í;Like-; - .modelmay'be considered as substantially zero.
wise a gap between the other ends of the conduc
In order to produce this type of tuning, a light
tors 29 and 30, as shown iniîFig. 1,.’formszafgap
permitting an arm 34, the purpose ofwhichwill
adjacent the anode arms I5-22 at one side of the
be described below, to extend along said gap with
structure. The ring 33_ is split adjacent the lead
out interference.
in conductor ‘i so as to> leave a gap permittingad
As will be seen most clearly
*frm-@Figs 4; the interconnections fdescrïibefd, above
jfjustrnent >o'fï'the #ring 33f 'in Aa Lvertical*direction
interconnect -al-ter-nate' v:anode yarms y“directly
'through ‘relatively vlow ‘ impedance -fcon'ductive
:withouty 'inter-ferenceL byg' said' conductor I'L V"The
ring-»33 may be- suppòytedsby aasupportingarm.“
\-'-paths, 'thus substantially-feliminating‘the spurious
which is bent' ’ßhf‘mg'h"S'u'bsiantial‘lyl might angie.
and extends toy an'd isfsupported‘bya‘nutßt'». *The
'oscillating-mode described above. "'Therefore'f the
anode'- 'structure' will#oscillate-Wv'ithj each .boref il 4
'and the adjacenty anode u*armsf'iîorming‘- a-> tuned
>nut T35 isVV carried‘at‘the ‘outer' end día pipe^^36
-likewise ‘ hermeticallyf sealed ‘ through Y ther Wall‘ of
‘ circuit'- as'` describedAl above. "'fThis ‘ Inode A'of' oscilla
the envelope l. The_pipe 36'- is‘“providedrwith'a
'tion'can :be termed' the""‘transverse” mo'de.
v1`Ons-referring- to‘Fig.y 4lit will be vseen that'a
path'A exists ifromf‘the `-uppe1'=»en"d óffano'de face v22
-to theïlowerf'erid; valong the‘conductor' 32 ‘to‘the
'loweren'd óf-anode face 2U,‘-‘a‘n'd thencei'fto'the
thinned section 31.
‘upper ieríd‘l thereof. `TThis ycircuit ‘contains i an» ap
v-preciable amount‘of -i-ndu’ctance‘and'some capaci- ~
` tance. ' I‘ `have î‘found " that ' undertproper- îcondi
'tionsjthe‘deviee ‘cani be made" to 'oscillate' ener
Afgetically‘a'longfsuch a path. Thus the pathtraced
can` be »made an. ‘oscillating’ mode‘fvvhich> 'may be
termed a “longitudinal” )mode ‘of -‘oscillation
Similar-"oscillating circuits «exist» respectivelyf‘ibe
'tween anode faces ’2 I and' I 9,1"2 0‘ and "I 8,’ ißian‘dï‘ vI l,
ïïlll‘- and 16; arid Il“ and’l`5. 'f It ‘will'î‘be -noted‘that
'all 'of' >i;he>‘2'1.‘bove 'longitudinali oscillating paths are
(3f-substantially; theL same‘llength' -and curing-ura
tion* so that thefrequencies' of ’oscillations in" this
mode* are 'substantially equal. î The@ frequency' of
these oscillations 'thus --produced ‘is’ determined
primarilyby the-length of: the 'ano'dei-faces‘f I 5422.
"When it‘is desired toÄ adjust' the‘positioniof 'the
ring 33' relatively tof the anodel armsfa to'ol 'may
' be applied toî the' nut’35 so as4 to twist’the thinned
section 31. This twistingfis' suñicientîtolgive `a
permanent- setto the'section" '31' to' Whatever 'po
sition ‘the nuty 35*v is‘ turned. "' Inf thistway" the" ring
‘33 can be' held in-'any-fdeñnite‘desired'position
relative to the anode'arms within the `tuning lim
its of the device, rThe‘frequency of 4‘the'trans
Verse oscillating `Inode can 'betuned'so'as to
“ bring it into exact _synchronismJ with-the 'fre
quency-of'the longitudinal oscillating’mode. Ã~I
have*- foundf for example, 'that in a' tube-'which is
adapted to generate‘oscillations"'having a'wave
length of the order of ten centimeters, the‘wave
length ~ of‘ ‘the oscillationsV producedz ‘byí the vtrans
verse~mode `maylbe varied'throu'ghf about one
half a - centimeter'lby ‘the arrangementz illustrated.
' When‘ they transverse and longitudinal Amodes
are brought into synchronism, as described
The frequency‘óf ‘these oscillations lin’l'fhe‘longi- - ‘ '_above,-,a"verysremarkable"increase in ,the eili
Ytudinal 'modeu can “be'varie'd 'by'4 the -dimension ‘lof
this: 'length`A wit-hout’ añecting
'anyf substantial
‘degree '-'the‘frequency' of ì"oscillations produced" by
the transverse mode. ',I’ have’foun'df‘that‘ if" the
\ thickness vòf "' the ’ central t bridging, portion 4" and
‘thus the " length Íof "the ranode S/faces' are `ac
‘corldinglyîchosen’ thefrequency of the longitudi
`nal :mode can-ice;À made?equal' to fthe' frequency of
thei'transverse- mode.
When this ' is done," both
ciency of the'device results. "I'-have"fc,und,_for
example, that the useful oscillatory powerîin> a
deviceof‘this-kindA can~ readilyl be Ymade Àof v"the
orderY of ,sixty per " cent.' of the'total'en'ergy' input
'to the tube. lThis is anv extraordinarily high eiii~
ciency as comparedwith'those.efñciences here
tofore 'obtainable in; devices ofìthiskind.
Qf ' courselt‘it' >is to4 be .understood that thislin
vention ',is not`l 'limited' to ` the'. particular .details
moldes: are'stronglyA energized and reinforceea'ch u `-asfdescribed above as'many. equivalents, will sug
Lother.- ’Intubes which'ïhave‘built in'accordance
gest themselves .to those 'skilled' inlthe art. L’For
~with‘this invention,„I have‘foun'd that the total
"example, other anode_conûgurations ,couldlbe
lengthof each' longitudinal mode of oscillation is
utilized inpvvhich a plurality. of oscillating modes
-approximately- equal toene-half of `a; VWave length
might Vbe„poss'ible. ln. each instance a tuning
‘óf‘the*desiredoscillationsigenerated by the mag
of .various oscillatingmodes into .synchronism
netr'on.
with eachother ,by any suitable tuning .means
"îIt is often'diiiîcult,topredetermine~ thev ‘dimen
sionsv of'the structure exactly so as to make the
longitudinal and oscillatingmodes of exactly the
same frequency. "" Therefore it isf desirable to pro- " '
vide’means "for bringing these two modes of oscil
lation 'into ‘ exactA` synchronism.
For example; a
tuning arrangement as described and„claimed 'in
my „copending application," Serial No. _420,558,
will result in relatively/„high efficiencyifsthe prin
ciples of myinventionA are followed.
YWhat is claimed is:
’ l. vAn electron'discharge ’device Vcomprising. an
,electrode structure including Aacathode andn an
anode, .said electrode... structurelhaving. a conñg
.uration constituting „capacitance and. inductance
elements forming. circuits .whichare adapted ,to
`filed November" 26; 1941, may be Iutilized ingorder 70 .have .osc'z’illationssetY uprr therein.. saidoscillations
'to’vary'theinductance of the `transverse oscillat
being .all of ' the_,.same__ frequency,V a, plurality „of
ing‘mo’defor tuningy 'that mode. "_ This tuning may
predetermined „points y_on 4.said velectrode,,struc
.be carriedV out without" substantially affecting the
ture atwhichin-phase voltageloops <_of saidos
" frequency of -the longitudinal -^ mode. " I prefer,
however. toy accomplish ' this; independent “ tuning
cillations -occur, andrelatiizely low .impedance
.means directly interconnectingsaid .pointsand
9,408,235
forming with portions of said electrode structure
an additional oscillating circuit, the `frequency
of said last-named oscillating circuit being sub
stantially equal to the frequency of said first
named oscillating circuits.
2. An electron discharge device comprising a
cathode and an anode, said anode having a plu
rality of electron-receiving portions adjacent
6
from said electron-receiving portions forming a
plurality of inductances which together with the
interelectrode capacitances constitute a plural
ity of tuned circuits adapted to oscillate in a
first oscillating mode, a lead-in conductor for
said cathode lying in a plane extending substan
tially between two adjacent electron-receiving
portions, yalternate electron-receiving portions`
>being directly interconnected by relatively low
said cathode, and a plurality of grooved portions
spaced from said electron-receiving portions 10 impedance means, said loW impedance means di
rectly connecting each of said electron-receiving
forming a plurality of inductances which to
portions to the two alternate electron-receiving
gether with the interelectrode capacitances con»
portions With the exception of the two pairs of
stitute a plurality of tuned circuits adapted to
electron-receiving portions lying on opposite
oscillate at a first frequency, relatively low im
pedance means directly interconnecting alter 15 sides of said plane, each of said latter electron
receiving portions being directly connected by said
nate electron-receiving portions, each pair of
low impedance means only to the alternate elec
electron-receiving portions ,thus interconnected
forming a tuned circuit adapted to oscillate at
tron-receiving portion lying on the same side of
said plane, whereby none of said 10W impedance
a second frequency, said second frequency being
20 means cross said plane.
substantially equal to said first frequency.
3. An electron discharge device comprising a
cathode and an anode, said anode having a plu
7. An electron discharge device comprising a
sealed envelope containing an elongated cath- i
ode, an anode structure having adjacent anode
rality of electron-receiving portions adjacent
elements defining a transverse cavity resonator,
said cathode, and a plurality of grooved portions
spaced from said electron-receiving portions 25 the free ends of said anode arms constituting
electron-receiving portions, an adjustable tun
forming a plurality of inductances which to
ing element Within said envelope, said tuning
gether with the interelectrode capacitances con
element comprising a conductive member sup
stitute a plurality of tuned circuits adapted to
ported adjacent said free ends of said anode
oscillate at a first frequency, relatively low im
pedance means directly interconnecting alter 30 arms, and means connected to said tuning ele
nate electron-receiving portions, each pair of . ment for adjusting the position of said element
toward and away ‘from said cavity resonator.
electron-receiving portions thus interconnected
8. A magnetron comprising a cathode sur
forming a tuned circuit adapted to oscillate at
rounded
by an anode block, said block having
a second frequency, the length of each of said
a central cathode space and interconnecting
last-named circuits being of the order .of about 35 spaces forming coupled cavity resonators, said
one-half of a wave length of the oscillations of
said first frequency,
4. A magnetron comprising an electrode struc
ture including a cathode and an anode, means
for producing a magnetic ñeld about said cath
ode, said electrode structure having a config
uration constituting capacitance and inductance
elements forming circuits which are adapted to
have oscillations set up therein, said oscillations
being all of the same frequency, a plurality of 45
predetermined points4 on said electrode struc
ture at which in-phase voltage loops of said os
cillations occur, and relatively low impedance
means directly interconnecting said points and
forming with portions of said electrode structure 50
an additional oscillating circuit, the frequency
of said last-named oscillating circuit being sub
stantially equal to the frequency of said first
named oscillating circuit.
5. A magnetron comprising acathode and an 55
anode, means for producing a magnetic field about
said cathode, said anode having a plurality of
electron-receiving portions adjacent said cath
block also having a pair of anode arms forming
opposite sides of each of said cavity resonators,
the free ends of said anode arms constituting
electron-receiving portions, an adjustable tuning
element within said envelope, said tuning element
comprising> a conductive member supported ad
jacent said free ends of said anode arms, and
means connected to said tuning element for ad
justing the position of said element toward and
away from said cavity resonator.
'
9. An electron discharge device comprising a
sealed envelope containing an elongated cathode,
an anode structure having adjacent anode ele
ments defining a transverse cavity resonator, the
free ends of said anode arms constituting elec
tron-receiving portions, an adjustable tuning e1
ement within said envelope, said tuning element
comprising a conductive member supported ad
jacent said free ends of said anode arms, and
means operable externally of said envelope and
connected to said tuning element for adjusting
the position of said element toward and away
from said cavity resonator.
ode, and a plurality of grooved portions spaced
10. A magnetron comprising a cathode sur- ,
from said electron-receiving portions forming a 60
rounded by an anode block, said block having a
plurality o-f inductances which together with the
central cathode space and interconnecting spaces
interelectrode capacitances constitute a plurality
forming coupled cavity resonators, said block also
of tuned circuits adapted to oscillate at a first
having a pair of anode arms forming opposite
frequency, relatively low impedance means di
sides of each of said cavity resonators, the free
65
rectly interconnecting alternate electron-receiv
ends of said anode arms constituting electron
ing portions, each pair o-f electron-receiving por
receiving portions, lan adjustable tuning element
tions thus interconnected forming a tuned circuit
adapted to oscillate at a second frequency, said
within said envelope, said tuning element com
prising a conductive member supported adjacent
second frequency being substantially equal to
70 said free ends of said anode arms, and means
said first frequency.
operable externally of said envelope and con
6. An electron discharge device kcomprising a
nected
to said tuning element for adjusting the
cathode and an anode, saidv anode having a plu
position of said element toward and away from
rality of electron-receiving portions adjacent said
said cavity resonator.
cathode and circularly disposed around said cath
PERCY L. SPENCER!
ode, and a. plurality of grooved portions spaced 75
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